Skip to main content

Full text of "The North Carolina historical review"

See other formats


North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Issued Quarterly 

Volume XXXVI Numbers 1-4 


Published By 


Corner of Salisbury and Edenton Streets 

Raleigh, N. C. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History 
Raleigh, N. C, 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
David Leroy Corbitt, Managing Editor 


Frontis Withers Johnston Hugh Talmage Lefler 

George Myers Stephens 



McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins Ralph Philip Hanes 

Gertrude Sprague Carraway Josh L. Horne 

Fletcher M. Green Daniel J. Whitener 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 

This review was established in January, 192U, as a medium of publication 
and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institutions 
by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The regular 
price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary and His- 
torical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, receive this 
publication without further payment. Back numbers may be procured at 
the regular price of $3.00 per volume, or $.75 per number. 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 





Norman C. Delaney 



W. B. Yearns 



Edward W. Phifer 



W. Harrison Daniel 


Mary C. Wiley 


Crabtree's North Carolina Governors, 1585-1958: Brief 
Sketches — By Robert H. Woody; Haag's The Archeo- 
logy of Coastal North Carolina — By Harry T. Davis; 
Morgan's and Blythe's Gift from the Hills — By A. P. 
Hudson; Golden's Only in America — By Richard N. 
Current ; Easterby's and Green's The Colonial Records 
of South Carolina. Series I, Journal of the Commons 
House of Assembly, September 10, 1746-June 13, 17k7 


iv Contents 

— By Daniel M. McFarland ; Townsend's An American 
Soldier: The Life of John Laurens — By Lawrence F. 
Brewster; White's Messages of the Governors of Ten- 
nessee, Volume IV, 1845-1857 — By Weymouth T. Jor- 
dan; Hastings' Conrade Webb of Hampstead — By 
Richard L. Morton ; Striker's The Life of John Smith, 
English Soldier — By Wesley Frank Craven; Mc- 
Donald's We the People: The Economic Origins of the 
Constitution — By Dillard S. Gardner; Coulter's The 
Journal of William Stephens, 17U1-17U3 — By William 
D. Hoyt, Jr.; Duffy's The Rudolph Matas History of 
Medicine in Louisiana — By Loren C. MacKinney; 
Floan's The South in Northern Eyes, 1831-1861 — By 
Fletcher M. Green; Harwell's Cities and Camps of the 
Confederate States — By George K. Gelbach; Barck's 
and Lefler's Colonial America — By R. N. Hamilton ; and 
Adams' Political Ideas of the American Revolution — 
By Robert L. Ganyard. 


NUMBER 2, APRIL, 1959 


EDUCATION, 1831-1834 . 141 

William Gordon Kornegay 



Christopher Crittenden 




Hugh Dortch 

Contents v 


Julian Scheer 

1957-1958 173 

James S. Purcell 


NON-FICTION, 1957-1958 179 

Roy Parker, Jr. 


D. J. Whitener 



Harry S. Truman 


Edited by Wilfred W. Black 


William S. Powell 


Stick's The Outer Banks of North Carolina — By Daniel 
Miles McFarland ; Thornton's A Bibliography of North 
Carolina, 1589-1956 — By H. G. Jones; Acomb's The 
Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig von Closen, 
1780-1783— By Robert F. Durden; Boykin's The Negro 
in North Carolina Prior to 1861 — By John Hope Frank- 
lin; Tucker's High Tide at Gettysburg — By John G. 
Barrett; McCorkle's Regiment Band of the Twenty- 
Sixth North Carolina — By Ava L. Honeycutt, Jr.; 
King's Ebb Tide as Seen Through the Diary of Jose- 
phine Clay Habersham, 1863 — By Horace W. Raper; 
Gammage's The Camp, the Bivouac, and the Battle 
Field — By Marshall W. Fishwick; Brownlee's Gray 
Ghosts of the Confederacy: Guerrilla Warfare in the 
West, 1861-1865— By N. C. Hughes, Jr. ; Daniels' Prince 
of Carpetbaggers — By Dewey W. Grantham, Jr. ; Wool- 
folk's The Cotton Regency: The Northern Merchants 
and Reconstruction, 1865-1880 — By Henry T. Shanks; 
Hobbs' North Carolina: An Economic and Social Pro- 

vi Contents 

file — By Carl F. Cannon, Jr. ; Carter's State Regulation 
of Commercial Motor Carriers in North Carolina — By 
Henry S. Stroupe ; de Graff enried's The de Graff enried 
Family Scrap Book: 1191-1956, Seven Hundred and 
Sixty-Five Years—By Gertrude S. Carraway; and 
Parker's Aldermans in America — By James W. Patton. 


NUMBER 3, JULY, 1959 



Wesley H. Wallace 


1906-1923 307 




Charles H. V. Ebert 


Fannie Memory Blackwelder 


NORTH CAROLINA, 1777 and 1778 358 

Edited by Hugh Buckner Johnston 


Walser's Short Stories from the Old North State — By 
Mildred E. Hartsock; Walser's Nag's Head and Bertie. 
Two Novels — By Francis B. Dedmond; Riley's Carolina 
Power and Light Company, 1908-1958 — By Burton F. 
Beers; Fundaburk's Southeastern Indians, Life Por- 
traits, A Catalogue of Pictures, 1564-1860 — By Stanley 
South ; McDowell's Colonial Records of South Carolina. 
[Series 2] . Documents Relating to Indian Affairs, May 
21, 17 50- August 7, 1754— By William S. Powell; Cole- 
man's The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763-1789 

Contents vii 

— By Don Higginbotham ; Carter's The Territorial Pa- 
pers of the United States, Volume XXIII ; The Territory 
of Florida, 1824-1828— By Rembert W. Patrick; Cra- 
ven's Civil War in the Making, 1815-1860 — By Rembert 
W. Patrick; Fay's and Wiley's This Infernal War: The 
Confederate Letters of Sgt. Edwin H. Fay — By Carolyn 
Andrews Wallace; Hay's Cleburne and his Command. 
By Capt. Irving A. Buck. Pat Cleburne, Stonewall 
Jackson of the West — By Richard E. Yates ; Hesseltine's 
and McNeil's In Support of Clio: Essays in Memory of 
Herbert A. Kellar — By Philip C. Brooks; Degler's Out 
of Our Past: The Forces that Shaped Modern America — 
By Weldon A. Brown; Brigham's Fifty Years of Col- 
lecting Americana for the Library of The American 
Antiquarian Society, 1908-1958 — By Benjamin E. Pow- 
ell; and Craven's and Cate's The Army Air Forces in 
World War II, Volume VII, Services Around the 
World— By Col. R. S. Milner. 




1931 429 

Donald J. Rulfs 


SOUTH" 442 

Vincent P. De Santis 


Francis B. Dedmond 


Charles W. Dunn 



Edited by Haskell Monroe 

viii Contents 


Haywood's Governor William Tryon, and His Adminis- 
tration in the Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771 — 
By Hugh T. Lefler; Brown's Vegetation of the Outer 
Banks of North Carolina — By F. H. Claridge; Hoff- 
mann's Andrew Jackson and North Carolina Politics — 
By Henry T. Shanks; Rothrock's The Natural and Ab- 
original History of Tennessee up to the First Settle- 
ments therein by the White People in the Year 1768 
[By John Haywood] — By James W. Patton; Abbot's 
The Royal Governors of Georgia, 1754-1775 — By Sarah 
McCulloh Lemmon; Doherty's The Whigs of Florida, 
18U5-1S5U— By William S. Hoffmann; Green's The Con- 
federacy: A Symphonic Outdoor Drama Based on the 
Life of General Robert E. Lee — By Mary Lynch John- 
son; Silver's A Life for the Confederacy as Recorded 
in the Pocket Diaries of Pvt. Robert A. Moore, Co. G., 
17th Mississippi Regiment, Confederate Guards , Holly 
Springs, Mississippi — By Nathaniel C. Hughes, Jr.; 
Cunningham's General Stand Watie's Confederate In- 
dians — By Glenn Tucker; Trefousse's Ben Butler: The 
South Called Him Beast — By Edwin Adams Davis; 
and Smith's Seventeenth-Century America: Essays in 
Colonial History — By William S. Powell. 



Volume XXXVI 


Number 1 

Published Quarterly By 

State Department of Archives and History 

Corner of Edenton and Salisbury Streets 

Raleigh, N. C. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
David Leroy Corbitt, Managing Editor 


Frontis Withers Johnston Hugh Talmage Lefler 

George Myers Stephens 


McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins Josh L. Horne 

Gertrude Sprague Carraway William Thomas Laprade 

Fletcher M. Green Herschell V. Rose 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 

This review was established in January, 192U, as a medium of publica- 
tion and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other 
institutions by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The 
regular price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary and 
Historical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, receive 
this publication without further payment. Back numbers may be procured 
at the regular price of $3.00 per volume, or $.75 per number. 

COVER — For an article on the Outer Banks during the Revolu- 
tionary War see pages 1-16. This is a picture of the remains of 
a shipwreck in this area showing the present-day appearance 
of the Banks. The date of the wreck is unknown. It does, how- 
ever, antedate steel hulls. The photograph is used by the courtesy 
of the Advertising Division, State Department of Conservation 
and Development. 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI January, 1959 Number 1 




Norman C. Delaney 



W. B. Yearns 



Edward W. Phifer 



W. Harrison Daniel 



Mary C. Wiley 


Crabtree's North Carolina Governors, 1585-1958: Brief 
Sketches — By Robert H. Woody ; Haag's The Archeology 
of Coastal North Carolina — By Harry T. Davis; 
Morgan's and Blythe's Gift from the Hills — By A. P. 
Hudson; Golden's Only in America — By Richard N. 
Current; Easterby's and Green's The Colonial Records 
of South Carolina. Series I, Journal of the Commons 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


House of Assembly, September 10, 1746-June 13, 1? '47 — 
By Daniel M. McFarland; Townsend's An American 
Soldier: The Life of John Laurens — By Lawrence F. 
Brewster; White's Messages of the Governors of Ten- 
nessee, Volume IV, 1845-1857— By Weymouth T. 
Jordan; Hastings' Conrade Webb of Hampstead — 
By Richard L. Morton; Striker's The Life of John 
Smith, English Soldier — By Wesley Frank Craven; 
McDonald's We the People: The Economic Origins of 
the Constitution — By Dillard S. Gardner ; Coulter's The 
Journal of William Stephens, 1741-1743 — By William 
D. Hoyt, Jr.; Duffy's The Rudolph Matas History of 
Medicine in Louisiana — By Loren C. MacKinney; 
Floan's The South in Northern Eyes, 1831-1861 — By 
Fletcher M. Green; Harwell's Cities and Camps of the 
Confederate States — By George K. Gelbach; Barck's 
and Lefler's Colonial America — By R. N. Hamilton; 
and Adams' Political Ideas of the American Revolu- 
tion — By Robert L. Ganyard. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI January, 1959 Number 1 


By Norman C. Delaney * 

A description of late eighteenth-century Ocracoke was 
written by Jonathan Price in 1795. He referred to "Occa- 
cock" * as a "healthy spot," 2 and, geographically, as 

... a heap of sand having gradually filled up the space which 
divided it from the bank. ... Its length is three miles, and its 
breadth two and one half. Small live oak and cedar grow abun- 
dantly over it, and it contains several swamps and rich marshes, 
which might be cultivated to great advantage; but its inhabi- 
tants, depending on another element for their support, surfer 
the earth to remain in its natural state. They are all pilots ; and 
their number of head of families is about thirty. 

The coast from Occacock to Cape Hatteras is sandy and bar- 
ren, tho' near the Cape, are marshes and swamps ... its breadth 
is from one quarter of a mile to two miles, and the distance to 
the Cape, thirty miles. 

Cape Hatteras and the land from it towards Occacock, to the 
distance of about thirteen miles, are covered with large ever- 
green trees, such as live oak, pine and cedar. Here are three 

* Mr. Norman C. Delaney is a doctoral candidate at Duke University, 
and has served two summers (1957, 1958) as a ranger-historian with the 
National Park Service, stationed at Buxton Ranger Station. His present 
address is Lynn, Massachusetts. 

1 There have been numerous corruptions of the word Ocracoke from the 
original Indian name Woccocon or Woccocock. 

2 Jonathan Price, A Description of Occacock Inlet; . . . (New Bern, Fran- 
cois X. Martin, 1795), a pamphlet which was reprinted in The North Caro- 
lina Historical Review, III (October, 1926), 625, hereinafter cited as Price, 
A Description of Occacock Inlet. A copy of the original pamphlet is 
in the State Department of Archives and History, Raleigh. 


2 The North Carolina Historical Review 

large and remarkable sand hills, called Stowe's Hills. The coast 
afterwards is a bald beach, intersperced with a few low sand 
hills; about eleven miles farther is a group of trees . . . from 
there the coast is quite barren and sandy. . . . 3 

An early description of the natives of Ocracoke is that 
given by Francisco de Miranda, who visited North Carolina 
as an exile in 1783. He marveled on their well-built boats 
and skill as pilots. Of the well-built natives, he wrote: 

All the people who came aboard our ship seemed very robust 
and fat to me. The same I noted to be true in the case of the 
women and children whom I later saw. The people of that coun- 
try attribute their fleshiness to their food which consists en- 
tirely of fish, oysters, and some few vegetables which they culti- 
vate not far from their house. 4 

Ocracoke Inlet in 1775 was the only channel to the ocean 
(except for very small vessels) from the entire region of 
Albemarle, Currituck, and Pamlico Sounds and their tribu- 
taries. The deepest of the North Carolina inlets, it had a 
low-water depth of thirteen or fourteen feet. 5 Passage of the 
inlet involved great dangers, as Price observed in his in- 
structions on how to get through. 6 Even after an incoming 
vessel had passed safely over Ocracoke Bar, it still had to 
navigate shallow water before reaching a port. 

When war broke out, no other subject of naval interest 
was as important to North Carolina as the defense of Ocra- 

8 Price, A Description of Occacock Inlet, 625, 626. English habitation on 
the Banks began about 1700 and originated chiefly from Maryland and 
Virginia. Most of these people brought livestock which thrived on the vege- 
tation and seaweed on the islands. The Islanders, in turn, thrived on the 
livestock, plus waterfowl, fish, oysters, and whatever crops could be 
cultivated in their small gardens. The geographical location of the islands 
influenced the development of the Bankers into a hardy breed of seafarers 
and pilots. Their isolation, however, brought hostility and suspicion from 
mainlanders who accused them of luring ships ashore for plundering. The 
"wrecker" epithet was directed towards Bankers as late as the Civil War. 
It is true that the Islanders were often able to salvage cargoes washed 
ashore from frequent wrecks for which the coast is famous. This, too, 
aroused scorn towards them as scavengers. 

* J. Fred Rippy, "A View of the Carolinas in 1783," The North Carolina 
Historical Review, VI (October, 1929), 362. 

5 Charles C. Crittenden, The Commerce of North Carolina, 1763-1789 
(New Haven, 1936), 4, hereinafter cited as Crittenden, The Commerce of 
North Carolina. 

6 Price, A Description of Occacock Inlet, 624-635. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 3 

coke Inlet. 7 It was considered the most important inlet of 
the Revolution, not only to North Carolina and Virginia, but 
also to the Continental Congress as well. 8 Along with the 
foreign trade of New Bern and Edenton, Ocracoke Inlet also 
handled that of southern Virginia during the first years of 
the war. Goods entering the Inlet passed on through Pamlico 
and Albemarle Sounds into Chowan River; thence to South 
Quay in Virginia. By this route, Colonial trade could escape 
the dangers of the British blockade of Delaware and Chesa- 
peake Bays. 9 From South Quay, goods were carried by 
wagons to Suffolk, then by boat up the Nansemond into the 
James. North Carolina salt pork and beef, plus other supplies, 
passed along the route northward to the Continental Army. 
In 1778 and 1779 South Quay and Suffolk were important 
entrepots for Continental goods. 10 

The dangerous North Carolina coast, considered a handi- 
cap to trade in peace-time, became a valuable asset during 
the Revolution. The British navy found it difficult to check 
all commerce carried on by numerous small vessels that 
maneuvered through the shallow inlets and shifting chan- 
nels. 11 Even when British warships made occasional raids 
over Ocracoke Bar, small vessels could usually escape up a 
river or creek. The British were unable to blockade Ocracoke 
Inlet successfully at any time during the war. The approach 
of a storm endangered any ship lying either inside or out- 
side the Bar. Cape Hatteras took its toll of ships during the 
Revolution just as it always had. The seaman's fear of Hat- 
teras is noted in the old ditty, "If Bermuda let you pass, 
Beware Hatteras." Also, with no base of supplies within easy 
sailing distance, war vessels could not be adequately pro- 
visioned for blockade duty. At times the British were com- 
pelled to conduct raids upon the Banks for livestock, to the 
chagrin of the Bankers/ 


'Charles 0. Paullin, The Navy of the American Revolution (Cleveland, 
1906), 454, hereinafter cited as Paullin, The Navy of the Revolution. 

8 Paullin, The Navy of the Revolution, 455. 

9 Paullin, The Navy of the Revolution, 455. 

10 Paullin, The Navy of the Revolution, 455, 456. 

11 Crittenden, The Commerce of North Carolina, 122. 

13 Crittenden, The Commerce of North Carolina, 122, 123. 

4 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Early in the war, the royal governor of North Carolina, 
Josiah Martin, advised the British of the necessity of securing 
Ocracoke Inlet. Martin instructed Captain Parry to waylay 
any vessel carrying military stores, which he expected would 
enter by the Inlet. Parry immediately detached an officer 
and party of "well armed men, in a little schooner, to secure 
that point." 13 

In the spring of 1776, the North Carolina Provincial 
Congress appointed a committee to investigate the condition 
of the Carolina coast. The investigators reported that "all 
the sea banks are covered with cattle, sheep, and hogs, and 
the few inhabitants living on the banks are chiefly persons 
whose estates consist in live stock, and exposed to the ravages 
of the small armed vessels and tenders." The committee 

. . . that if the armed vessels and tenders are prevented from 
getting supplies of fresh provisions from the sea coast, it will 
be impossible for the war to be of long continuance in this 
Province, as the seamen and soldiers will be afflicted with the 
scurvy and other diseases, arising from the constant use of salt 
provisions, and therefore be under the necessity of quitting the 
coast, and by that means save to the back inhabitants of this 
Province the very great trouble and heavy expense of frequently 
coming down to the assistance of their brethren on the sea 
board. 14 

It was therefore recommended that six companies be sta- 
tioned along the seacoast between the Virginia and South 
Carolina boundaries. 15 Five independent companies were 
authorized for immediate use, to be subject to the command 
of the Provincial Congress. The soldiers were to receive the 
same pay and rations as regular Continentals. The distribu- 
tion of the companies was as follows: one between Currituck 
and Roanoke Inlet, one at Ocracoke Inlet, one between 
Ocracoke and White Oak Inlet, one between Bogue Inlet 

13 William Saunders (ed.), The Colonial Records of North Carolina (Ra- 
leigh: The State of North Carolina, 10 volumes, 1886-1890), X, 44, here- 
inafter cited as Saunders, Colonial Records. 

14 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 527. 
M Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 527. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 5 

and New River Inlet, and the last to be stationed between 
New River and Deep Inlet. 16 These companies were not 
especially active, and references to them appear only oc- 
casionally. More is known of the Ocracoke Company than 
the others because of the importance of that place. Its of- 
ficers were designated as: James Anderson, Captain; Ben- 
jamin Bonner, First Lieutenant; James Wahob, Second Lieu- 
tenant; John Brag, Ensign; John Cooper, Commissary. 1T The 
companies were encouraged to capture armed vessels of the 
British since these would be considered as prizes for the 
captors. 18 

Shortly before Congress had authorized the independent 
companies, the "Lilly," a British tender, had sailed over Ocra- 
coke Bar. Its purpose was to seize all vessels as prisoners of 
war. The "Lilly" had been outfitted by Lord Dunmore. The 
American schooner "Polly" was captured on April 14, but re- 
taken on April 17 by armed inhabitants of Ocracoke. These 
men rowed out to the ship in five whaleboats and managed to 
surprise and capture the crew, afterwards that of the "Lilly" 
as well. After sailing both the "Polly" and "Lilly" to New 
Bern, the "sundry pilots and other inhabitants of Occacock" 
petitioned that the "Lilly" and her cargo be put up for sale. 
The proceeds from the sale were divided amongst these men 
who had been responsible for the capture. 19 

On May 9, 1776, Allen and Thomas Jones were appointed 
by Congress to attend the Provincial Congress of Virginia 
"for the purpose of recommending to them the expediency of 
fitting out two armed vessels at the expense of that Colony, 
to act in conjunction with the armed vessels already fitted out 
by this Colony, for the protection of the trade of Occa- 
cock...." 20 

Since Ocracoke Inlet was important to the trade of both 
North Carolina and Virginia, the two States agreed to jointly 
undertake its defense. Virginia agreed to construct two gal- 

18 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 546. 

17 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 546. 

18 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 546. 

19 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 542, 549, 550, 601, 602, 

20 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 572. 

6 The North Carolina Historical Review 

leys 21 at South Quay which were later named the "Caswell" 
and "Washington"; North Carolina voted £2,000 towards 
equipment for the ships, and commissioners were appointed 
to invest the money in guns, anchors, rigging and canvas. 22 

In July, the Council of Safety received a report from Cap- 
tain James Anderson that he had succeeded in organizing a 
company at Ocracoke. Anderson expressed the hope of being 
able to guard the Inlet "against all Enemies who may offer 
to oppose us here." 23 He had spent £295 for clothing and 
supplies for the new company. 24 The Council ordered Ander- 
son to have three pieces of iron ordnance removed from Cape 
Hatteras Banks to Pamlico Sound. From there they were to 
be brought to South Quay and delivered to the Virginia com- 
missioners in charge of building the galleys. 25 

In the meantime, the brigantines "General Washington," 
"Pennsylvania Farmer," and "King Tammany" had been fit- 
ted out by the Cape Fear, New Bern, and Edenton boards. 
The Council of Safety ordered these vessels to proceed to 
Ocracoke Bar, in order to protect American trade and raid 
British "Jamaicamen" homeward bound from the West In- 
dies. 26 Any captured prizes were to be sent to Ocracoke. 27 

The commissaries of the independent companies were find- 
ing it difficult to perform their obligations. Samuel Jarvis and 
John Cooper both resigned their appointments in November 
and December, 1776. 28 Captain Anderson went into disfavor 
with the natives of Ocracoke, probably over his restrictions 
on piloting, their livelihood. The pilots submitted a complaint 
against Anderson to the Congress. A committee was then ap- 
pointed by that body to inquire into the officer's conduct and 
also to determine the number of pilots necessary at each 
port. 29 

21 Galleys were small craft propelled by both sails and oars, and capable 
of moving much faster than the average sailboat. 

22 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 981. 

23 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 662. 

24 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 662. 

25 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 687. 

26 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 875-877. 

27 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 875-877. 

28 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 936, 978, 989. 

29 Saunders, Colonial Records, X, 971. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 7 

Throughout early 1777, while Virginia was constructing its 
two row galleys, North Carolinians speculated whether Vir- 
ginia had altered its plan and was making them into regular 
ships. Governor Caswell was warned by Joseph Hewes: 

I have not the least doubt but that our Enemies will send some 
of our small Cruisers to our Bar, in the course of the summer 
when our Trade will be entirely stopped, unless we have a proper 
force at Ocracoke Bar. . . . I . . . sincerely wish that the vessels 
which stop at the Bar occasionally may be carried away by small 
armed cutters and Boats. . . . 30 

Hewes suggested that North Carolina purchase one of Vir- 
ginia's vessels for the defense of the Bar. He claimed that one 
was excellent for the purpose since it drew little water and 
could be rowed through the shoals during an emergency. If 
Virginia would not sell, he suggested that that state be made 
to return the guns, anchors, canvas, etc., and that North Caro- 
lina build a galley of its own. 31 The fear of losing the Virginia 
galleys caused the Commons to demand an investigation of 
the defenses of Ocracoke, Beaufort, and Roanoke, and to 
determine the benefits to be derived from the row galleys. 
The Senate, however, did not concur with the appointment 
of a committee for that purpose. They expressed the belief 
that the galleys were being built for Virginia's trade inter- 
ests as well as those of North Carolina. 32 

On Ocracoke, Captain Anderson lost his second commis- 
sary by resignation, and John Williams obtained the position. 
Henry Toomer was also appointed commissary to the Inde- 
pendent Company at Ocracoke and Beaufort. 33 The only ac- 
tion in which the Ocracoke Company was involved by 
August, 1777, seems to be the capture of an escaped Tory. 
William Brimage, the Tory, was on parole but escaped to 

80 Walter Clark (ed.), The State Records of North Carolina (Winston, 
Goldsboro, Raleigh, and Charlotte: The State of North Carolina, 16 volumes 
and 4-volume index [compiled by Stephen B. Weeks for both The Colonial 
Records and The State Records'], 1895-1914), XI, 442, 443, hereinafter 
cited as Clark, State Records. A bill was drawn up to regulate the pilotage 
of the Cape Fear and Ocracoke bars, and the rivers leading from these to 
Brunswick, New Bern, Wilmington, Bath, and Edenton. Clark, State 
Records, XII, 191; XIII, 356. 

31 Clark, State Records, XI, 442. 

82 Clark, State Records, XII, 39. 

88 Clark, State Records, XII, 99. 

8 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Roanoke and eventually reached Ocracoke. There he was 
taken into custody by Anderson, who had been informed of 
his escape. 34 Brimage later wrote from his Bertie gaol to 
Governor Caswell that Anderson be made to return the 
"Portmanteau" taken from his lodgings. 35 

The Council of State found that it was impossible to vic- 
tual the Ocracoke Company. On September 2, 1777, the 
Council made a decision: 

It appearing to the Board that by means of difficulty in pro- 
curing provisions for the indepndent [sic~\ company stationed at 
Ocracoke Inlet (the Commissary appointed refusing to supply 
them, and no person inclinable to furnish the company for the 
price stipulated) , the men can not be kept on duty. 36 

Governor Caswell was notified that the Company should 
be disbanded, and that action was soon taken. 37 The Com- 
pany at Beaufort Inlet was also disbanded. It was decided to 
have John Eason of Carteret County keep their guns and 
ammunition until otherwise directed. Eason was directed to 
sell all the public boats of the companies and "account for 
the same with the public." 38 

By September, 1777, the "Caswell," one of the two galleys 
built at South Quay, of which Willis Wilson had been cap- 
tain since October 26, 1776, was almost completed. The 
"Washington" galley, to be captained by Goodrich Boush, 
which was being built under the direction of Captain Chris- 
topher Calvert, was probably also nearly ready for service. 39 

The British had now become more aggressive off Ocra- 
coke, and at least one Colonial schooner barely escaped being 
captured by them. Two British brigs crossed the Bar on Sep- 
tember 16, 1777. During an earlier attempt, one of the brigs 
had struck the Bar and then gone back out. These two ships, 
accompanied by a sloop, had been active along Cape Hat- 

34 Clark, State Records, XI, 555, 604. 

35 Clark, State Records, XI, 651. 

88 Clark, State Records, XXII, 927. 

37 Clark, State Records, XXII, 927. 

38 Clark, State Records, XII, 177, 359. 

39 Robert A. Steward, The History of Virginia's Navy of the Revolution 
(Richmond, 1934), 20, hereinafter cited as Steward, The History of Vir- 
ginia's Navy. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 9 

teras and Cape Lookout for quite a while. Joseph Leech 
wrote from New Bern to Governor Caswell that he was thank- 
ful that the "Farmer" and "Sturdy Beggar" were there, other- 
wise the brigs were likely to attack that town. Leech thought 
that immediate action was needed "for the protection of 
Trade, & the securing the stock on the Banks, which they may 
have an intention of getting to carry off." 40 A group of wor- 
ried Beaufort citizens informed the Governor that they daily 
expected a visit from the enemy, ". . .as they have already 
done considerable damage at Ocracock, by taking away a 
Brig, and running ashore a Sloop, loaded with salt." 41 Cas- 
well promptly ordered Captain John Nelson and the Craven 
Militia to march in the ". . . most Secret Manner to Core 
Banks, there to repel, or do your best endeavour to repel, the 
enemy at or near that place, and by all means to remove the 
Stocks of Cattle & Sheep so as at every event to prevent their 
falling into the enemies hands." 42 Nelson was to observe the 
enemy's movements, if unable to "Ambuscade, Harrass, Dis- 
tress & Destroy" them. 43 On September 26, Lt. Governor Page 
of Virginia informed Caswell that the coast of his state was 
relieved from further fear for this campaign. Page believed 
that one or both of the row galleys might be able to reopen 
Ocracoke Inlet, ". . . to the great advantage of these States, 
and possibly to the disgrace and destruction of that part of 
the Enemy's Fleet." 44 The Virginia executive ordered one of 
his navy commissioners to look into the condition of the gal- 
leys so as to enable a vigorous co-operation between the two 
States. When Governor Caswell was informed that the "Cas- 
well" was properly manned and fitted, he requested that the 
galley proceed to Ocracoke Bar to await further orders. 

Ocracoke is mentioned in late November, 1777, when the 
Legislature received a petition from Captain John Sheppard 
of the scow "Diamond," lately stranded on the Bar. Sheppard 
accused "sundry persons" from Ocracoke of having stolen 
the greater part of his cargo. He demanded that the perpe- 

40 Clark, State Records, XI, 623-624. 
a Clark, State Records, XI, 633. 
42 Clark, State Records, XI, 775. 
48 Clark, State Records, XI, 775. 
** Clark, State Records, XI, 635-636. 

10 The North Carolina Historical Review 

trators be punished. The Legislature offered a reward of £50 
to any white freeman who would reveal the names and dwell- 
ings of the culprits. 45 

Until 1778 the trade through Ocracoke had remained rela- 
tively free from annoyance. On January 23 of that year, for- 
mer Governor Martin wrote from New York to Lord George 

The contemptible Port of Ocracock . . . has become a great 
Channel of supply to the Rebels while the more considerable 
Ports of the Continent have been watched by the King's Ships. 
They have received through it . . . considerable importations of 
the necessaries they most wanted for the purpose of carrying 
on their Warfare from the Ports of France and the French West 
India Islands. . . , 46 

In April, a British privateer captured a French brig and 
another vessel at the Inlet. The privateer had been guided 
over the Bar by Ocracoke pilots who came aboard unaware 
of the vessel's identity. They were threatened with death un- 
less they did so. The North Carolina Gazette expressed exas- 
peration that a small sloop with only four guns and thirty 
men had ". . . robbed this State of two fine vessels with more 
than 100 hogshead of tobacco and a considerable quantity of 
salt. This surely shows the necessity of keeping some force 
on Ocracock Island, otherwise our trade will be annihilat- 
ed." 47 Caswell advised the Legislature that immediate meas- 
ures were necessary to protect the Inlet. 48 On April 20, the 
North Carolina Legislature voted to purchase the "Caswell" 
galley at its original cost and thereafter pay and victual its 
officers and men. The Legislative report stated that Virginia 
had not complied with the original agreement, and the galleys 
had instead been sold or otherwise employed. 49 In spite of 
this seemingly apparent move to purchase the "Caswell" at 
this time, later records indicate that the transaction did not 

45 Clark, State Records, XII, 140, 146, 262-263, 447-448. 

46 Clark, State Records, XIII, 367-368. 

47 Clark, State Records, XIII, 397-398. 

48 Clark, State Records, XII, 559-560. 

49 Clark, State Records, XII, 574-575. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 11 

Captain Willis Wilson of the "Caswell" reported, on May 
20, 1778, that a French brig was outside the Bar waiting for 
a favorable wind before entering. Wilson noted that "This 
place is not at all infested at present with British Cruisers, 
shall exert myself to keep it so." 50 He attempted to procure 
a pilot to guide the French brig over the Bar, but was unable 
to obtain one. Expressing bitterness at the "rascality of those 
men," Wilson claimed that every merchant ship coming to 
Ocracoke received the same treatment. ". . . its clearly evident 
to me that they wish every vessel cast away, as they may 
plunder them. Should be glad your Excellency [Gov. Cas- 
well] would make the line of my conduct among them. . . ." 51 
The Governor was later advised that the Ocracoke pilots had 
entered into an association determined not to pilot any ship 
over the Bar: 

. . . the reasons they give me for this extraordinary step is, 
that having no branches, they are liable to a penalty for taking 
charge of any vessel, and that they will not take branches be- 
cause the Legislature have rated their pilotage at two low a 
price, being all in a clan. I fear our trade will be hurt by the 
infamy of these people. 52 

The presence of the "Caswell" was evidently discouraging 
to British ships. Wilson observed that one ship, two sloops, 
and a brig ". . . take a peep at us every now and then, but 
are not disposed to venture in." 53 Wilson's serious complaint 
was the shortage of any fresh provisions excepting fish, which 
caused scurvy amongst his crew. It is difficult to understand 
why Wilson received no co-operation from the Bankers who, 
as noted earlier, were fat and well-fed. The British were 
obliged to raid the Banks for livestock, yet these seem to have 
been unavailable to Wilson's crew. 

On July 17, 1778, the North Carolina Gazette reported 
that "The cruizers are yet very troublesome on our coast, 
having lately cut several vessels and small craft out of Roa- 

50 Clark, State Records, XIII, 132-134. 
61 Clark, State Records, XIII, 132-134. 
53 Clark, State Records, XIII, 171. 
63 Clark, State Records, XIII, 171. 

12 The North Carolina Historical Review 

noke and Currituck Inlets." 54 The most active (and hated) 
of these raiding sea captains were Goodrich and McLean. 
Captain Hance Bond and Lt. Samuel Gardner raised a com- 
pany of marines for the "Caswell." The Naval Committee of 
Congress reported: 

At present we consider it an object of Importance to destroy 
the infamous Goodrich, who has much infested our coast, cruis- 
ing with a squadron of four, five, or six armed vessels, from 16 
guns downward from Egg Harbour to Cape Fear, North Caro- 
lina. 55 

On November 15, 1778, Captain Goodrich entered Curri- 
tuck Inlet and captured two vessels which he afterwards set 
afire. He then landed and had several cattle killed. This 
caused the inhabitants of the Banks to draw up a petition to 
Governor Caswell, in which it was stated that the enemy 
". . . are constantly landing men and plundering, being short 
of provisions will hazard their lives to gain." 56 Samuel Jarvis 
presented an appeal that the Bankers be exempted from the 

Those who live in the Banks, as well as on the Island of Roa- 
noke, are near and has often kept off Boats when coming to 
plunder. If those people are taken away, their families certainly 
will suffer, both from the enemy and want of Bread, as they all 
get it in small boats at this season of the year — a great scarcity 
likely to take place. Corn now is two pounds per barrel, and 
hard to get at any rate, being destroyed by a late storm of wind. 57 

Samuel Midgett, Caleb Brickhouse, and Enoch Daniel 
were amongst those who signed a petition praying exemption 
from a pending expedition to South Carolina and Georgia. 
On December 1, 1778, the Council meeting at Kinston decid- 
ed in favor of the Bankers because of the ". . . daily ravages 
of the enemy in plundering said islands and banks." 58 In 
January, 1779, another petition was received, this from the 

54 Clark, State Records, XIII, 459. 

55 Stewart, The History of Virginia's Navy, 53. 

56 Clark, State Records, XIII, 285-286. 

57 Clark, State Records, XIII, 285-286. 

58 Clark, State Records, XIII, 939. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 13 

people of Currituck County, ". . . praying to have a Fortifi- 
cation erected at Currituck Inlet." 59 

The "Caswell" and other galleys were ordered to attack 
East Florida in December, 1778. A replacement galley was 
ordered by Governor Henry of Virginia to proceed to Ocra- 
coke to keep the place defended. 60 The expedition against 
Florida was never realized, and the "Caswell" stayed at Ocra- 
coke for the remainder of her short life. Shortly afterwards, 
the "Caswell" received orders to carry eight 18 pound cannon 
to Ocracoke, to be delivered to the captain of Fort Hancock. 61 
Surprisingly little information can be found about Fort Han- 
cock, which was then being built on Ocracoke Island. The 
Council meeting at Kinston appropriated £5,000 toward the 
building of the fort, and Captain Cotteneau was later reim- 
bursed some £942, 15s., which had been spent by him on the 
structure. It appears that the fort was involved in little, if 
any, actual fighting. 

Early in 1779, the governors of Maryland and Virginia 
were assured that the depredations of Captain Goodrich 
would soon be put to a speedy conclusion. Then, on February 
6, Governor Henry complained to Governor Caswell that 
Virginia's two galleys were proving to be expensive and in- 
effective. Henry blamed North Carolina for failure to con- 
tribute in accordance with the original compact and asked 
for reimbursement ". . . in some considerable degree" for the 
". . . great expenditures incurred." 62 

On June 19 and 20, the Americans at Ocracoke were dis- 
turbed to observe several British vessels at the Bar, which 
they feared were preparing to enter. The inhabitants of New 
Bern were warned to be on guard from attack, but the raid 
never occurred. 63 

On June 22, 1779, Governor Caswell received word that 
Governor Jefferson wished to sell the "Washington" and "Cas- 
well." According to Jefferson, the galleys were so unfit for 

69 Clark, State Records, XIII, 663. 

60 Clark, State Records, XIII, 309-310 ; XXII, 943. 

61 Clark, State Records, XIII, 311-312. 

62 Clark, State Records, XIV, 19. 

63 Clark, State Records, XIV, 125. 

14 The North Carolina Historical Review 

service that a considerable expense would be involved in 
refitting them: 

. . . Our trade through that Inlet [Ocracoke] to and from 
South Quay has, from experience, been found inconvenient, and, 
therefore, of itself has got mostly, into a different channel, so 
that the little remaining there from this State will not justify 
the expense of keeping those Gallies any longer at their present 
station. 64 

Jefferson commented on the failure of North Carolina to 
build galleys to act in conjunction with those of Virginia, 
and wondered whether it was due to a ". . . similar want of 
importance in the trade, or of necessaries to build Gallies." 65 
Soon afterwards, the "Caswell" sank at her station at Ocra- 
coke, with her ". . . bottom eaten out," 66 and North Caro- 
lina's naval enterprises came virtually to an end. 

British raids became more daring after opposition was re- 
moved from the Inlet. A British tender chased an American 
ship over the Bar and followed it for several miles. The 
Militia was sent to defend the Banks, on the assumption that 
other British raids would follow. The Bankers had their most 
successful skirmish with the British at about this time: 

. . . Five vessels, viz. : Two Brigs, one Schooner and one Sloop, 
with a small Boat, came to anchor a little to the Northward of 
Cape Hatteras; sent three Boats on shore with men (seeing a 
gang of cattle near the shore) ; the Bankers were concealed 
amongst the Hills, but had not the patience to wait their coming 
up, rushed down upon them, killed five and took their muskets 
and several other articles they left behind, which sold amongst 
themselves for eight or nine hundred Dollars. The shipping kept 
up a constant firing, otherwise the Bankers would have made 
prisoners of all that landed. 67 

Colonel Russel reported that few men could be recruited 
on the Banks because of the ". . . Enemies' sending their 
Tenders within our Sound and so frequently landing so near 

64 Clark, State Records, XIV, 126. 

65 Clark, State Records, XIV, 126. 
6a Clark, State Records, XIV, 136. 
67 Clark, State Records, XIV, 139. 

Outer Banks in Revolutionary War 15 

us on the Banks." 68 Colonel Jarvis reported in like manner 
that "we are hourly in expectation of having our property 
taken from us, which we guard at our own expense." 69 Jarvis 
submitted a petition from the Bankers of Currituck County 
that they be exempted from future drafts because of the dan- 
gers. Captain Adam Gaskel of the Militia Company at Ocra- 
coke petitioned that his company be allowed to remain there 
". . . to prevent the Privateers from cutting out Vessels and 
committing other depredations praying to be exempt from 
the military duty." 70 The Council at Kinston praised Gaskel's 
Company for bravery in ". . . attacking and taking a number 
of armed boats with their crews, Persons that were attempt- 
ing to cut out some Vessels then laying in the River, . . ." 71 
The Council recommended that any Bankers subject to the 
draft be allowed ". . . to go to the Southward to remain on 
duty in said Comp'y on the Banks, and for the Protection of 
Ocracock Inlet; . . ." 72 They also authorized Gaskel to obtain 
cannon and ammunition from Edenton. This was to be kept 
at whatever part of Ocracoke that Gaskel thought advisable. 73 

On November 10, 1779, Governor Caswell was empowered 
to establish a company of militia, consisting of not more than 
twenty-five inhabitants of Ocracoke, for duty at the Inlet. 74 

In November, 1780, Colonel John Christian Senf reported 
to Brig. General Benbury as to his movements at Currituck 
and Indian Town, on the South Side of Cape Hatteras. The 
Colonel had ordered the Currituck Militia to make a stand 
at Tulley's Creek, but doubted if forty armed men could be 
mustered. ". . . the Inhabitants are much discontented by 
reconnoitring the County. I think with 300 Men the County 
still cou'd be defended against a considerable force." 75 

On February 13, 1781, General Arnold informed General 
Clinton that he intended to send four or five hundred troops 
through Currituck Inlet. The purpose was: 

68 Clark, State Records, XIV, 135. 

69 Clark, State Records, XIV, 152, 153. 

70 Clark, State Records, XIV, 334. 

71 Clark, State Records, XIV, 334. 
73 Clark, State Records, XIV, 334. 

73 Clark, State Records, XIV, 334. 

74 Clark, State Records, XIII, 901. 

75 Clark, State Records, XV, 144-145. 

16 The North Carolina Historical Review 

... to Sweep the Albemarle Sound as high as Edington [sic] , 
& to go to New Bern and destroy their Shipping Stores, &c, 
while a few armed Vessels take Post at Ocracoke Bar, and a 
Frigate Cruises without. This movement I am convinced will 
have a good effect, first, by destroying the Navigation of North 
Carolina, and thereby distressing the Inhabitants, and secondly 
by taking off their attention from my Lord Cornwallis and 
General Leslie. 76 

From 1781 to 1784, a bill obnoxious to the Ocracoke pilots 
was shuffled around in the Legislature. The bill would em- 
power ". . . the Commissioners of Ports Bath, Beaufort and 
Roanoke to remove Pilots who refuse to take Branches off 
the Public Ground on Ocracock Island and to empower said 
Commissioners to employ other persons to act as Pilots at 
Ocracock Inlet." The bill was finally rejected after a final 
reading. 77 

On March 30, 1782, General Greene wrote General Sum- 
ner that a force of four vessels ( forty guns, 250 seamen ) was 
preparing to destroy Beaufort, "in which they are informed 
there is a large quantity of public and private stores. Should 
they be repulsed there, they will proceed to Ocracoke with 
the same view." 78 

Although the danger of British attacks constantly threat- 
ened Ocracoke and the port cities, the Inlet remained open 
for the remainder of the war. The fact that the British were 
unable to close Ocracoke proved to be considerably impor- 
tant to the Continental cause. In spite of the insignificance 
of colonial military and naval operations on and off the Banks, 
the Inlet remained open. The geographical nature of the 
Banks itself was the biggest determining factor in this. The 
British had found the truth of the warning ". . . Beware Hat- 
teras." 79 

76 Clark, State Records, XVII, 985. 
"Clark, State Records, XIX, 447. 

78 Clark, State Records, XVI, 286, 575. 

79 The State Records contain the roster of only one company composed* 
of Banker men. Family names in this roster are significant since they,are 
typical of those found on Hatteras at- the present time. Colonel Shingold 
commanded five companies of "Currituck Foot," one company being, led 
by Captain Jacob Farrow. Included in the company roll are the ancestors 
of the present inhabitants of Hatteras. Among these were: Adam, John 
and Moris Baum; Joseph and Thomas Midgett; Hezekiah, John, Jacob, 
and Isaac Farrow; Christopher, Thomas, and John Oneal; William and 
Jacob Meekins; John and George Scarborough; Jalish Gennet; John 
Burras; William and Francis Rollison; James and Isaac Justice; etc. 
Clark, State Records, XXII, 496-498. 


By W. B. Yearns* 

Francois Xavier Martin was born on March 17, 1762, of a 
prosperous merchant family in Marseilles, France. 1 His par- 
ents destined him for the priesthood and provided him with 
a sound classical education; but he rebelled from this fate 
and while still in his teens sailed to Martinique in the West 
Indies to work for his uncle, a food contractor there for the 
French fleet. This uncle soon returned to France, leaving 
Frangois a modest sum with which to continue the contract- 
ing. The business world was too much for the youngster and 
before long his remaining investment was a cargo of molasses 
gone astray. Nothing daunted, he set out for the United 
States to find it. For a while his movements are unknown, 
and he next appeared as a volunteer in the Virginia militia 
during the Revolution. Not long afterwards he startled his 
camp by reporting a detachment of British nearby, only to 
have his comrades find that he had scouted a line of red 
undershirts hanging out to dry. He was ribbed so unmer- 
cifully that he deserted, next appearing in 1783 in New Bern, 
North Carolina. 

In New Bern Martin first taught French and delivered 
rural mail. These occupations afforded him a poor livelihood 
and, though having no previous experience, he soon found a 
job as typesetter in the shop of James Clark. From these 
endeavors he saved enough money to set up his own shop 

* Dr. W. B. Yearns is an Associate Professor of History at Wake 
Forest College, Winston-Salem. 

1 The biographical information on Martin was taken from the following 
sources: Frangois Xavier Martin, The History of North Carolina, From 
the Earliest Period (New Orleans, 2 volumes, 1829), I, vi-xii, hereinafter 
cited as Martin, History of North Carolina; William Wirt Howe, "Francois 
Xavier Martin," in Frangois Xavier Martin, The History of Louisiana, 
from the Earliest Period (New Orleans, second edition, 1882), vii-xxxvii; 
"The History of Louisiana, from the Earliest Period, by Francois Xavier 
Martin," American Quarterly Review, IX (1831), 186-232 [an unsigned 
book review]; Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana (Good- 
speed Publishing Co: Chicago, 2 volumes, 1892), I, 83; Edward Laroque 
Tinker, "Jurist and Japer, Francois Xavier Martin and Jean LeClerc," 
Bulletin of the New York Public Library, XXXIX (1935), 675-697. 


18 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and began to print school books, almanacs, and acts of the 
Assembly. In 1786 he started a small weekly, Martins North 
Carolina Gazette. The distinguished attorney Abner Nash 
then urged him to read law and, being admitted to the bar in 
1789, Martin added the practice of law to his printing busi- 
ness. This was a felicitous combination, for he began to write 
law books, edit case books, and revise statutes, all of which 
he himself printed and published. He prospered from these 
labors and in 1806 was elected to represent New Bern in the 
State legislature. His law books so enhanced his professional 
reputation that on March 7, 1809, President James Madison 
named him judge of the Mississippi Superior Court; in 1810 
he was appointed to the same position in New Orleans. 

At this time the judicial situation in Louisiana was vastly 
complicated. Within the past generation Spanish, French, 
and American jurisdictions had successively prevailed there; 
the problem for Martin and his associates was to formulate 
from these different bodies of law a single theory of juris- 
prudence and to provide a series of decisions to serve as 
precedents. To accomplish this, and undoubtedly to augment 
his bank account, Martin began publishing the reports of the 
cases decided in his court. He spoke French and English, was 
an experienced student of the law, and had no family to di- 
vert his attention. This herculean task was also rewarding, 
for when Louisiana became a state he was named its first 
attorney-general. Two years later, however, he was appointed 
to the state Supreme Court bench and served there for 31 
years. In 1846 a new constitution abolished the Supreme 
Court and forced Martin into retirement. He died on Decem- 
ber 10 of that year at the age of 84, leaving an estate valued 
at almost $400,000. 

Martin noted in the Preface to his History of North Caro- 
lina 2 that as early as 1791 he had conceived the idea of writing 
it. At that date the North Carolina Legislature had commis- 
sioned him to collect and publish the British statutes still in 
force and use within the State. This task "afforded him a 
complete view of the colonial system of England," 3 and stim- 

2 The edition referred to is The History of North Carolina, From the 
Earliest Period (New Orleans, A. T. Penniman, 2 volumes, 1829). 
8 Martin, History of North Carolina, I, vii. 

Martin's History of North Carolina 19 

ulated his interest in the history of his State. From then until 
his departure for Mississippi he busied himself in collecting 
his material. When he left North Carolina in 1809 he had 
done research on a history until that date, but by the time he 
had brought it down to the Revolution, eye failure made 
further writing impossible and he was forced to abandon it. 
The two-volume work was published in New Orleans by 
A. T. Penniman and Company in 1829. 

Martin based his History on about as good a selection of 
materials as were available to historians of his day. For back- 
ground information he used most of the general works then 
extant and pertinent to his subject. 4 They, interspersed with 
material from Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus or Pur- 
chas his Pilgrimes, constitute his only sources for his first 
few chapters. Actually throughout his History Martin's ref- 
erences to these general works serve primarily as supple- 
mentary reading suggestions. They are sketchily cited only at 
the end of each chapter and provide no reference to specific 
volume or page. A typical such set of references is the follow- 
ing: "Smith-Stith-Keith-Purchas." On several occasions Mar- 
tin referred within the body of his chapters to archaeological 
findings of various "professors"; on others he quoted from 
William Byrd's History of the Dividing Line betwixt Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina; and from Jeremy Belknap's Amer- 
ican Biography. He did not, however, include such works in 
his chapter citations; they did not constitute pertinent col- 
lateral readings nor were they consistent sources for his His- 
tory of North Carolina. 

Beginning with Volume I, Chapter 12, Martin referred 
constantly to his "records," the collective term by which he 
referred to most of his primary sources. He was particularly 
well supplied with official records, which he had taken to 
Louisiana with him and, according to his legal bent, which 
he used generously. The colonial and state laws of North 
Carolina were already in print and, as mentioned above, 
Martin himself had edited the Parliamentary statutes in force 
in North Carolina in 1791. In 1803 the North Carolina Legis- 

* Martin admitted that, living in Louisiana, he had neglected to use 
Hugh Williamson, History of North Carolina (Philadelphia, 1812). 

20 The North Carolina Historical Review 

lature authorized him to publish a revisal of the acts of the 
colonial and state legislatures to that date. 5 This work posi- 
tively decided him to write his History, and three years later 
when he was state representative the Assembly granted him 
access to the records of the office of the Secretary of State. 
Here he studied the executive branch of government, finding 
the governors' correspondence particularly valuable. Before 
leaving the State he talked with several prominent North 
Carolinians who remembered Revolutionary events; from 
others he received access to the family papers of Governors 
Gabriel Johnson, Matthew Rowan, and Samuel Ashe. The 
keepers of the Quaker and the Moravian records seem to have 
been equally generous and Martin made good use of these 
sources in his infrequent digressions into social history. 
Toward the last he often cited "magazines" and "gazettes." 

It is apparent that Martin's intention was to compile a 
straight-forward, chronological, and detailed history of North 
Carolina. He drudged toward this objective relentlessly, us- 
ing whatever sources were available, whatever writings were 
convenient, and including whatever he thought to be sig- 
nificant. He and his contemporaries had few scruples against 
plagiarism. Whenever parts of existing works met his require- 
ments, he unhesitatingly incorporated them bodily into his 
own History. He was handicapped in this economy, however, 
by the indolence of his predecessors and by the relative in- 
dustriousness of the colonial Virginia and South Carolina 
writers. The two occasions on which he flagrantly plagiarized 
were when the subject matter pertained to a general charac- 
teristic of the entire Southeast or when it was a part of Vir- 
ginia or Carolina history enacted within the present limits 
of North Carolina. For instance, William Stith in The History 
of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia pictur- 
esquely described the Indians of early Carolina, while Alex- 
ander Hewat's An Historical Account of . . . South Carolina 
and Georgia satisfactorily detailed the reforms of Governor 
John Archdale after Culpeper's Rebellion. Martin could 
have improved on neither account, and since they formed 

5 Laws of North Carolina, 1803, 33, 34. 

Martin's History of North Carolina 21 

important segments of early North Carolina history he incor- 
porated several pages of both directly into his own History. 

Even in dealing with the period preceding the Carolina 
Grant Martin by no means slavishly followed such works 
when they fell short of his requirements. He sharply con- 
densed their accounts of Virginia and Carolina events not 
pertaining directly to North Carolina, and he expanded them 
with supplementary information when they did. The adven- 
tures of John Smith and the rule of Governor Thomas Dale, 
in whose details Virginia historians reveled, were interesting, 
but only preliminary to North Carolina history, and Martin 
properly reduced them to a minimum. On the other hand he 
rejected all existing accounts of pre-Jamestown Carolina his- 
tory, particularly the story of the Roanoke Island Colony, and 
composed a far more detailed narrative based primarily upon 
Hakluyt. He also included information from Hakluyt that 
had been completely neglected until then, the most inter- 
esting such addition being the expedition of Anthony Long, 
William Hilton, and Peter Fabian to reconnoiter the country 
along the Cape Fear River. 

Martin's history of the first ninety years after the Carolina 
Charter of 1663 is by far his best writing. Northern Carolina 
had considerable autonomy in government and quickly de- 
veloped its own colonial characteristics. Martin was there- 
fore able to break away from his reliance on Virginia and 
South Carolina sources and to devote his full attention to a 
detailed state history. Now he relied on little but his "rec- 
ords," and used them quite conformably to modern semi- 
professional standards. One can check his pages against The 
Colonial Records of North Carolina and find that he did not 
line up a series of documents and paraphrase them into a 
jerky sequence, but composed a jerky narrative from a proper 
diversity of information. Spaced in this narrative are masses 
of statistics, local developments, and other addenda that 
Martin felt went into the making of state history. He even 
adopted the technique, which modern historians consider 
flavorsome, of quoting short phrases and passages from his 
documents. He paid no attention to accurate transposition, 

22 The North Carolina Historical Review 

but his selections were good and never long enough to be 

The two decades between the appointment of Governor 
Arthur Dobbs and the outbreak of the Revolution were 
stormy periods to which Martin devoted forty-five per cent 
of his work. He saw events of these years as little but prelim- 
inaries to the Revolution; to focus attention on this viewpoint 
he telescoped his History almost exclusively to the relations 
between the governors and the Assembly. When they worked 
together harmoniously he presented North Carolina history 
largely through the governors' messages and the laws by 
which the Assembly fulfilled their requests. This harmony 
was usually lacking, however, and the History amounts to 
little but paraphrasings of lengthy correspondences between 
the two. The following passage is typical. 

The house of assembly, in their answer, bewailed, as a circum- 
stance, which added pungency to the distresses of the people, 
that there was so little expectation of relief from the interposi- 
tion of government. 

They added, that, loyal in their principles and practice, and 
zealously attached to the constitutional powers over them, they 
had been ready, on all occasions, to testify their obedience to 
every salutary measure, which the king, through his governor, 
had been pleased to recommend to them ; and ruled by the same 
sovereign, and equally entitled to the blessings of the British 
constitution, with the rest of their fellow subjects, they claimed 
a security for their properties, essential to their commercial 
interest, and uniformly enjoyed by the rest of the inhabitants of 
the other British provinces on the continent. 6 

This particular exchange, by no means quoted in its entirety, 
shows Martin at his worst. His bibliographical citations are 
little but "records" and "magazines," but he used neither 
critically nor well. Official communications, however much 
they depict antagonism between branches of government, are 
a poor substitute for good history. 

Stylistically Martin was of the "dry as dust" school. Judging 
from his non-historical writing he was capable of somewhat 
better prose, but his excessive factualness and attention to 

"Martin, History of North Carolina, II, 303, 304. 

Martin's History of North Carolina 23 

detail left little room for literary facility. He conceived 
history as a series of facts and events. He minutely described 
charters, treaties, land grants, and changes in government. 
He noted the formation of each county, each town, each 
courthouse, and the laws authorizing them. Periodically he 
listed population figures, export statistics, pilotage laws, sal- 
aries, quit rents, and the like. When the colonial legislative 
records became adequate he often denoted progress, con- 
struction, and change by summarizing the intent of each sig- 
nificant law passed. His account of the administrations of 
Governors Dobbs and Tryon is particularly replete with in- 
formation on taxes, frontier protection, rights of appointment, 
and other matters, both important and picayune. All too often 
he merely dumped this material on the printed page, the 
result sometimes resembling an almanac as much as a history. 
Only occasionally did Martin abandon this style, and the 
reader receives these deviations as breaths of fresh air. Scat- 
tered through both volumes are short notices of North Caro- 
lina "firsts": the first printing press in the colony, its first 
internal tariff, and the "first evidence of a desire to encourage 
literature, manifested by the legislature of the province. . . ." 7 
While for one page he rhapsodized on Nature's generosity to 
North Carolina, 8 it is the writer's opinion that Martin wrote 
interestingly and well only on the Indians and the Church. 
It is true that in portraying the red man's life and habits 
Martin borrowed several pages 9 from Stith, but his descrip- 
tion of Indian wars, conferences, and politics is generally 
good. His account of the Tuscarora War and its causes is the 
equal of any historical writing of that time. He showed occa- 
sional interest in matters of the soul and described thoroughly 
the establishment of the Church of England in North Caro- 
lina and the irreligion of the colony. He had a particular 
fondness for the Carolina Quakers and in addition to fine 
passages on their history he included in his Appendix the en- 

7 Martin, History of North Carolina, II, 69. 

8 Martin, History of North Carolina, I, 9. 

9 Martin, History of North Carolina, I, 14-20 ; William Stith, The History 
of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia (Williamsburg, 1747), 

24 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tire "Succinct History of the Settlement of the Unitas Fratrum, 
or the United Brethren, in North Carolina." 

The practice of integrating American colonial history with 
its European background is a relatively modern technique, 
and Martin was no better or worse at it than were his con- 
temporaries. For the first half of his History he followed a 
standard practice of occasionally interrupting his narrative to 
cite random outside events, most of them worthless to any 
understanding of the English colonies. By no means excep- 
tional is the following paragraph quoted in its entirety: "The 
year 1648 is remarkable for the peace of Westphalia." 10 In 
Volume I he practically ignored the relationship between 
European and American religious and political developments, 
including no explanation of why the Carolina grant was 
made, no information about the Seven Years' War in Europe, 
and almost nothing on Restoration politics in England or on 
the question of religious dissent throughout Europe. His 
descriptions of the French and the Spanish empires in Amer- 
ica are almost exclusively confined to the period before 1607. 
In Volume II Martin somewhat remedied this deficiency, 
due not to any improved craftmanship but simply to the fact 
that Carolina was growing and its place in the British imperial 
system had become apparent. He gradually stopped his off- 
handed references to foreign events and quite properly in- 
troduced information of other nations, usually the French, 
when it immediately concerned North Carolina. He never 
satisfactorily connected European and American events, 
though he approached it once in describing the machinations 
of Spain and France in America against the British holdings. 

The History is far more satisfactory in describing North 
Carolina's economic role in the British imperial system. With 
the principles of mercantilism so prominent in his sources 
and undoubtedly because no one then understood very well 
how to write economic history, Martin portrayed the colony's 
economy mainly in relation to British commercial policy. 
While describing fully the Navigation Acts, the bounty sys- 
tem, and the southeastern fur trade, he made few references 
to colonial internal development. He even presented the 

10 Martin, History of North Carolina, I, 105. 

Martin's History of North Carolina 25 

quarrels over taxation, in which he was greatly interested, 
primarily by means of executive messages and statutes; the 
effect was that the only part of the tax situation that stands 
out is the difficulty the governors had in collecting the taxes. 
The only predominantly internal economic matter that Mar- 
tin considered at length was the inflationist movement re- 
sulting from the lack of specie, but here again he stressed its 
effects on British interests in Carolina rather than its effects 
on the colonists. Apparently this perspective met his needs. 
The theme in Volume II, insofar as Martin ever used one, 
was background to revolution; and the gradual development 
of North Carolina's disobedience to British financial laws 
served him with the best fulcrum for describing her growing 

Martin seldom held a brief for anything, and the reader 
cannot help but be impressed by the absence of prejudice, 
opinion, and bias in his History. What other North Carolinian 
could have quoted without comment or contradiction scath- 
ing slants against his State from Byrd's History of the Divid- 
ing Line? He was neither anti-Indian nor anti-English, not 
even anti-Puritan, and was barely pro-Carolina. He presented 
his dry and factual account without defending, accusing, or 
exterpolating. It might be thought that Martin, having been 
raised in France and having lived in Louisiana, was by the 
1820's completely detached in his feelings toward North 
Carolina. His History of Louisiana . . . , however, follows the 
same pattern, and one must simply conclude that he re- 
fused to evaluate evidence and derive conclusions; he be- 
lieved that his records would speak for themselves. 

His only venture into the field of interpretation was in de- 
scribing the rising tide of dissatisfaction in North Carolina 
against the later British policies. He indicated, primarily by 
ignoring the matter, that in his opinion the colonists for most 
of their history had no real grievance against England. When 
occasionally he felt compelled to comment upon some Brit- 
ish error it was to defend the democratic principle per se 
and not to condemn a specific British policy. For instance, in 
commenting on the failure of John Locke's Constitution for 
Carolina Martin merely stated that it showed "to all pro- 

26 The North Carolina Historical Review 

jectors the vanity of attempting to make laws for a people, 
whose will, proceeding from true principles, must be forever 
the supreme law." n He never implied that from earliest 
days North Carolinians had yearned for independence. 

Not until the decade of the 1760's did Martin concede the 
existence of serious and fundamental issues between colony 
and mother country; and only at this point did he begin to 
apply the test of colonial criticism to British policy. He devel- 
oped this thesis, however, in only a limited fashion. In the 
first place he simply increased the volume of his information 
to show the importance of the period. He never favored 
North Carolina by means of an injudicious selection of anti- 
English facts, nor did he ever pause to count the crimes of 
England or the virtues of the colonists. In the second place 
he believed that controversies over financial policy consti- 
tuted the only elements of discord between the two. His main 
criticism of Governors Dobbs and Tryon was that they were 
too extravagant personally and too energetic in enforcing the 
British financial laws; he considered anti-taxation the only 
cause of the War of the Regulation. Even in the realm of 
finance he respected the British point of view. In describing 
colonial resistance to the Stamp Act he presented England's 
case quite well and only indirectly showed his sympathies 
for the Americans. 

Martin's History of North Carolina was one of a long list 
of state histories that had been coming out after the Revolu- 
tion, and it is difficult to judge its reputation at the time of its 
publication. None of the literary periodicals reviewed it and 
even DeBow's Review in New Orleans only mentioned its 
publication. Its unheroic and detached nature caused it to be 
less popular than Williamson's History of North Carolina. 
Writers of a somewhat later date cited Martin's History fre- 
quently, but did not evaluate it. In his own peculiar way, how- 
ever, Martin accomplished the task that he had set for him- 
self. He believed that "history is the best means of teaching 
and exercising the minds of those who destine themselves to 
public life," particularly since their state had shaken off "the 
yoke of dependence, through alternate vicissitudes of mis- 

11 Martin, History of North Carolina, I, 195. 

Martin's History of North Carolina 27 

fortune and success. . . !' 12 He was conscious of, if not 
imbued with, the nationalism then pervading the United 
States, and he undoubtedly expected his material rather than 
his style to inspire his readers. Consequently his History was 
no better nor worse than its contemporaries; it exceeded them 
in information and was inferior to them in inspiration. It was 
not the kind of work that could earn for itself a hallowed 

Martin, History of North Carolina, I, v, vi. 


By Edward W. Phifer* 

North Carolina's students of local and sectional history 
have devoted relatively little space in their published writ- 
ings to the struggle by their people to combat disease. That 
this struggle has played a vital part in our economic and 
cultural development is obvious to all. 

The purpose of this paper is to record such facts and im- 
pressions as have been made available with regard to the 
practitioners of the healing art, their various professional 
qualifications, the diseases they encountered, their economic 
status, and their relationship to the people they served. This 
study is restricted temporally to the period between the for- 
mation of the county in 1777 and the outbreak of the Civil 
War in 1861, and is limited geographically to Burke County. 
For the purposes of this paper, it may be stated that this 
county initially encompassed a vast wedge of land containing 
all or large parts of the present counties of Burke, Catawba, 
Caldwell, McDowell, Yancey, Buncombe, Haywood, Madi- 
son, Mitchell, Avery, and Alexander in addition to small 
fragments now situated in Lincoln, Rutherford, Cleveland, 
and Swain. This area was greatly restricted in 1791 by the 
formation of Buncombe to the west and again in 1833 by the 
formation of Yancey to the northwest. The major portions of 
Caldwell and McDowell Counties remained in Burke County 
until the formation of the former in 1841 and the latter in 
1842. For the last nineteen years of the ante-bellum period, 
the land lying within the boundaries of Burke County rough- 
ly approximated its present area. 1 

During the years of rapid population growth prior to 1790, 
medical customs and attitudes developed and became so in- 
grained that they persisted to a lessening degree throughout 

* Dr. Edward W. Phifer is a surgeon and Chairman of the Surgical 
Service, Grace Hospital, Morganton. 

1 David LeRoy Corbitt, The Formation of the North Carolina Counties, 
1 663-19 1>3 (Raleigh, 1950), 42-48. 


Medical Practice in Burke County 29 

the entire period. Initially these customs and attitudes were 
born of necessity. Such trained physicians as existed in Co- 
lonial and Revolutionary North Carolina were, in the main, 
not frontiersmen and if they were, they were disinclined to 
turn their energies to healing the sick. Therefore a dearth of 
medical practitioners in this mountainous, sparsely settled 
county threw each family group on its own resources when 
any of its members became ill. For remedies, these people 
came to depend on the only readily available medicines — 
those derived from the plant life of their neighborhood. Sup- 
posedly inspired by the medical cult of the Indians, they 
soon accumulated a broad knowledge of botanical drugs 
which were indigenous to the vicinity. Older women learned 
the art of midwifery, combined it with an understanding of 
herb therapy and became the indispensable "granny doc- 
tors" of that day and age. Roads were few in number, and 
those that did exist often were no more than rough trails; 
travel was on foot, on horseback, or by gig. Only a small per- 
centage of the population lived in closely knit communities. 
Regardless of these facts, the early physicians were not well 
dispersed over the county but tended to congregate in and 
about the county seat. This tendency further fostered the 
need for lay practitioners. Furthermore, some people dis- 
trusted the "educated doctors" with their "strong medicines" 
and their fee schedules. 

Shortly after the turn of the century, almanacs began to 
appear in the county and these were well stocked with med- 
ical recipes as were the family medical books which appeared 
at a somewhat later date. 

The great majority of the people lived close to the land 
and they trusted the wild things that it provided. For respira- 
tory infections, they sipped scalding hot tea made of sage, 
sassafras, catnip, hoarhound leaf, rabbit tobacco leaf, penny- 
royal, or pipsissiway. Most cough mixtures contained extrac- 
tions of wild cherry bark. For gastro-intestinal complaints 
they gulped down concoctions made of ginger root, Jerusa- 
lem oak seed, comfrey root, inner bark of the sweet gum, 
blackberry root, purge grass, and elderberry. For colic in 
babies they used calamus root tea; and boneset tea or sheep 

30 The North Carolina Historical Review 

"saffron" was employed to "break a fever." An infusion made 
of sweet apple bark was "good for change of life." Tonics 
were concocted from bloodroot, wintergreen, alder bushes, 
leaves of gentian, and spicewood. Jimson weed seed were 
dried and smoked in a pipe to relieve asthma; spikenard root 
was used for kidney ailments. Heartleaf was employed in a 
salve for sore heels. When sore mouth developed they chewed 
yellowroot and when they had pneumonia, nothing would 
take the place of a boiled onion poultice. 

Patent medicine advertisements began to appear in the 
Salisbury newspaper before 1830. The most advertised of 
these remedies was billed as "The Matchless Sanative." No 
less a person than President Andrew Jackson relied on it 
heavily, said it was making a new man out of him, and rec- 
ommended it as a last resort to a young friend dying with 
pulmonary tuberculosis. 2 

Spas or watering places flourished in western North Caro- 
lina during ante-bellum days and one such health resort ex- 
isted in Burke County fifteen miles north-northwest of Mor- 
ganton on Upper Creek. Here were located the Piedmont 
Springs with their sulphur and chalybeate water. "Female 
diseases are speedily cured or relieved by these waters," said 
a brochure writer of a later day. 3 

Now, with some understanding of the reaction of the pub- 
lic toward health matters in general and their own illnesses 
in particular, one may proceed to the consideration of the 
profession itself. Within the prescribed area and period pre- 
viously defined, it has been possible to collect a roster of 
thirty-three medical practitioners and two dental practition- 
ers. 4 The lot of the dentist was harder than that of the phy- 

2 Marquis James, Andrew Jackson, Portrait of a President (New York, 
1940), 442, 445. 

3 William Simpson Pearson, Morganton and Burke County, North Caro- 
lina (Morganton, 1891), 16. 

4 Dates of birth and death of Doctors Samuel Tate, W. C. Tate, J. M. 
Happoldt, T. C. Lester, and W. A. Collett were taken from grave markers 
in Grace Episcopal Churchyard, Morganton. Same data on Doctors Walton, 
McRee, and John C. McDowell was taken from grave markers in First 
Presbyterian Churchyard, Morganton; on Dr. J. G. Peterson from 
grave marker at Mountain Grove Methodist Church, Burke County; on 
Dr. J. M. Carson and Dr. Mills from grave markers at Carson family 
cemetery, Green River Plantation, Polk County; on Dr. Glass from 
grave marker located in Dickson family cemetery, on Mulberry Creek 
in Caldwell County; on Dr. Connolly from grave marker in Connolly 

Medical Practice in Burke County 31 

sician for two reasons: first, the medical practitioners and 
even some of the lay practitioners performed dental proce- 
dures and second, it was the custom for many dentists to 
travel from town to town in a given section, put up at a local 
hotel, advertise their presence and stay as long as they were 
kept busy. One of the most successful and capable of these 
traveling dentists was Dr. W. F. Bason of Haw River. He 
worked in the Piedmont section and visited Morganton regu- 
larly. The two dentists residing in Burke County were Dr. 

[or Connelly] family cemetery near Bridgewater, Burke County; on Dr. 
J. A. Dickson and Dr. Sluyter Bouchelle from grave markers t in Forest 
Hill Cemetery, Morganton; on Dr. Newland from grave marker in Belle- 
view Cemetery, Lenoir; and on Dr. Johnson from grave marker in Oak- 
wood Cemetery, Hickory. Biographical data on Dr. Dobson obtained from 
a descendant, Mr. Cecil B. Dobson, 632 S. Livernois Street, Detroit 17, 
Michigan; on Dr. Ellis from a niece, Mrs. Thomas A. Mott, 507 Second 
Avenue, Hickory; on Dr. Christopher Happoldt and Dr. Robert N. C 
Tate from a collection of papers on Burke County doctors in Morganton 
Public Library; on Dr. Pearson from Transactions of the Medical Society 
of the State of North Carolina, 1906 (Fifty-third Annual Meeting), 157. 
Date of birth of Dr. S. H. Dickson taken from Dickson family Bible in 
possession of Mr. J. Dickson Taylor, Morganton. Biographical data on 
Dr. Joseph McDowell taken from random family papers in possession of 
Mrs. E. L. Abernathy, Morganton. Date of death corroborated by state- 
ment in minutes of Burke County Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions 
asserting that Joseph McDowell's will was "proved" April term, 1795. 
These misplaced court records were recovered and reproduced in News 
Herald (Morganton) September 11, 1945 to October 12, 1945. Dates of 
birth and death on Dr. Erwin taken from Erwin family genealogy in 
possession of Mrs. W. E. White, Morganton. Dates on John W. Carson 
taken from Carson family genealogy in possession of writer. Dates of 
birth on Dr. Henderson and Dr. Wilkie determined from their ages as 
recorded in the Census of 1860. Biographical data on Dr. Hugh W. Tate 
obtained from Senator S. J. Ervin, Jr., Morganton. Biographical data on 
Doctors Sluyter Bouchelle, Thomas Bouchelle, Perkins, Thomas, New- 
land, Satterwhite, Henson, Sudderth, Glass, and Johnson obtained from 
genealogical material of Mr. Allan L. Poe. Box 111, Lenoir. 

To determine the approximate years each physician resided in the 
county and also to furnish proof of residence where it was deemed 
necessary, the following items were utilized: Census of 1790 for Doctors 
Dobson and Joseph McDowell, Census of 1830 for Dr. Thomas, Census of 
18JfO for Dr. Mills who was also listed in the church register, 1841-1850, 
Grace Episcopal Church, Morganton. The others are listed in Census of 
1850 and Census of 1860, except the following: Dr. John W. Carson who 
is listed in Morganton Auxiliary Bible Society, Western Carolinian 
(Salisbury), April 2, 1822; Dr. Perkins who is listed for jury duty in 
Burke County court, January term, 1830 (State Department of Archives 
and History, Raleigh), also, a medical statement from Dr. Perkins rendered 
June 22, 1838 is in possession of Mr. Allan L. Poe, Lenoir; Dr. S. H. Dickson 
who is listed in minutes of the session, First Presbyterian Church, Mor- 
ganton, October 12, 1856, and Dr. Henson who is listed in same minutes 
September 12, 1853. These minutes are in print in A. C. Avery, History 
of Presbyterian Church at Quaker Meadows and Morganton (Raleigh, 
1913), 35-36. Also, medical fees of Dr. S. H. Dickson and others are listed 
in expense account book of S. A. Bettis, Morganton resident, for 1848- 
1861, now in possession of Mr. H. L. Riddle, Jr., Morganton. 

32 The North Carolina Historical Review 

William Connolly and Dr. Augustus Stanhope Sudderth. Dr. 
Connolly lived and practiced in the Linville River basin. He 
was born in 1811, died in 1864, and was undoubtedly Burke 
County's first dentist. Dr. Sudderth was in practice in Mor- 
ganton less than nine years before his death in 1858. Of the 
thirty-three physicians only half of them had a lengthy period 
of practice in Burke County. In fact there were only eight who 
never practiced elsewhere, exclusive of four who died within 
ten years of the time they first began to practice. At least 
sixteen of the thirty-three were born in Burke County, and 
nine others were born elsewhere in the Piedmont section of 
North Carolina. For example, Dr. William Feimster Thomas 
was a native of Iredell County and grew up on the Catawba 
River near the Island Ford. Dr. Horace B. Satterwhite was 
from Granville and Dr. William Lucius McRee from Cabar- 
rus. Dr. Otis Prentis Mills and Dr. Joseph McDowell Carson 
were from Rutherford. Dr. James Ransome Ellis was from 
Davie County, not far from Old Clemmonsville. Dr. James 
McKnight Henderson was from Mecklenburg. Of the re- 
maining eight, four were natives of Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, two were from Maryland, and the birthplace of one 
could not be determined. Finally, one of these men was born 
in the British Isles. This was Dr. Joseph Dobson, the first 
physician ever to establish residence in Burke County. The 
family tradition is that Dr. Dobson migrated from Pennsyl- 
vania to Tryon or Rowan County in 1756. On April 28, 1768, 
he was granted two hundred acres of land on the south fork 
of the Catawba River. Part of this land is now covered by the 
waters of Lake James. That he was living there in 1770 is 
indicated by the fact that he witnessed the Will of Joseph 
McDowell, Sr. on March 16 of that year. 5 Following the 
battle of Kings Mountain Dr. Dobson rendered valuable serv- 
ice to the wounded. Says one authority: "And many of them 
[i.e., wounded soldiers] were left in Burke County, eight or 
ten miles above Burke Court House, where Doctor Dobson, 
of that neighborhood, had eighteen of them under his care 

5 Rowan County Will Book A, 1771, 99, microfilm copy, State Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 

Medical Practice in Burke County 33 

at one time." 6 He continued to live in Burke County until 
his death in 1794. The legend is that he drowned in the Ca- 
tawba River while returning at night from a visit to a patient. 
The second earliest physician in the county was Joseph Mc- 
Dowell of Pleasant Gardens. This remarkable man, the only 
son of "Hunting" John McDowell, was born in 1758, fought 
with General Griffith Rutherford in the campaign against 
the Indians in 1776 at the age of nineteen, and was a heroic 
officer at the battle of Kings Mountain at the age of twenty- 
two. He died in April, 1795, when he was only thirty-six 
years old. Says one historian: "He was a physician by pro- 
fession, and is regarded as having possessed the brightest 
intellect of any of the connection." 7 

The first physician to practice and reside in Morganton 
was Dr. Sluyter Cor Slater] Bouchelle. He was the son of Dr. 
Peter Bouchelle and a grandson of Dr. Pieter Sluyter, a na- 
tive of Holland who migrated to Maryland as a leader of a 
Labadist colony. Dr. Sluyter Bouchelle was born and reared 
in Cecil County, Maryland, and later practiced in New Castle 
County, Delaware. He had business dealings in Wilkes Coun- 
ty, North Carolina, as early as 1789 while still living in Dela- 
ware. 8 Shortly after 1790 he moved to Morganton and was 
in active practice there in July, 1793, when the Burke County 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions authorized the "Warde- 
ans of the pour" to examine the "bill of physic" of Dr. Sluyter 
Bouchelle for attending upon and effecting a cure of David 
Franklin, and to pay such part of the bill as they "except of." 
Dr. Sluyter Bouchelle died in Morganton December 4, 1796, 
and was buried at Swan Ponds Plantation, the home of 
Colonel Waightstill Avery. His son [or grandson] Dr. Thomas 
Bouchelle also came to Burke County from New Castle Coun- 
ty, Delaware. Certainly he had arrived as early as July, 1798, 
at which time "he filed a deed freeing a slave by the name of 

6 Lyman C. Draper, King's Mountain and Its Heroes: History of the 
Battle of King's Mountain, October 7, 1780 (Cincinnati, 1881), 349, herein- 
after cited as Draper, King's Mountain. 

7 Draper, King's Mountain, 473. 

8 County court records of Wilkes County, N. C. contain Power of At- 
torney, dated 1789, from Dr. Sleighter Bouchell [sic] of New Castle County, 
Delaware, to Benjamin Howard, Esquire, and General William Lenoir, 
both of Wilkes County. Wilkes County Will Book 1, 1789, 255, State De- 
partment of Archives and History. 

34 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Ben." From 1801 until about 1821 he lived on a two hundred 
and sixty-seven acre farm on Hunting Creek and after this 
in the town of Morganton. He has been vividly portrayed by 
one of his many admiring patients as a whimsical man with 
a jovial bedside manner which immediately gave the patient 
confidence in his ability. He was well groomed, had a large 
bald head and often rode a beautiful spirited bay horse 
named Fanny. Dr. Thomas Bouchelle died suddenly in 1841. 9 

The earliest Burke native to study medicine at a school was 
Marquis de LaFayette Erwin who "spent the last winter in 
Philadelphia attending lectures on Anatomy etc." at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1815-1816. 10 He practiced only a 
short time and died in Madison, Georgia, at the age of thirty- 
one. Dr. Samuel Tate, another native son, began a medical 
career in Morganton in 1821 which continued without inter- 
ruption for twenty years. Dr. John Alfred Walton was the 
first native to receive a medical degree, which he did in 1829. 
Doctors John W. Carson, James Harvey Perkins, Joseph Cald- 
well Newland, William F. Thomas, Otis P. Mills, Horace B. 
Satterwhite, and William Caldwell Tate all practiced in the 
county for varying periods of time prior to 1840. The last 
mentioned, Dr. William C. Tate, carried on a successful prac- 
tice in Burke County for thirty-eight years, much the longest 
period of active practice for any local ante-bellum doctor. He 
was born near Morganton in 1808, began practice in 1831, 
and died in Morganton in 1869. 

In 1841 Dr. William Lucius McRee established himself in 
Morganton and altered the customary mode of practice to 
some degree. He constructed an ample office building on the 
southwest corner of Union and King Streets and also em- 
ployed a "druggist." He depended entirely on the practice of 
medicine for a livelihood. Dr. Newland, Dr. John Michael 
Happoldt, Dr. John Calhoun McDowell, and Dr. Samuel 
Tate's son, Robert N. C. Tate, all were in practice before 
1850. Dr. Joseph M. Carson and Dr. John Augustus Dickson 
began to practice in 1850 and two or three years later Dick- 

9 Morganton Herald, February 15, 1894, "Old Times in Burke by Col. T. 
G. Walton." 

10 Greensboro Daily News, May 24, 1931, letter from Waightstill Avery 
to James Avery, April 20, 1816 (location of manuscript is unknown). 

Medical Practice in Burke County 35 

son's younger brother, Dr. Samuel Howard Dickson, joined 
him. Twelve other men established themselves before the 
outbreak of war, and six of these young men continued in 
the county after the war. These six were Doctors Waightstill 
Avery Collett, Christopher Happoldt, Washington LaFayette 
Glass, Jacob G. Peterson, Robert Caldwell Pearson, Jr., James 
Theodore Johnson, and William C. Tate's oldest son, Hugh 
W. Tate. 

An analysis of the education of the ante-bellum practition- 
ers is of interest. No attempt has been made to determine the 
amount of precollege education. It can be assumed with a 
fair degree of certainty that most of them had an academy- 
type education, but surprisingly few attended college. Dr. 
William C. Tate attended William and Mary College; Dr. 
Horace B. Satterwhite in 1805, and Dr. John M. Henson in 
1847-1849 attended the University of North Carolina. Later 
Dr. Robert C. Pearson, Jr. attended the University of North 
Carolina for one year. Dr. James McKnight Henderson at- 
tended Davidson College in 1856. Dr. Christopher Happoldt 
attended the College of Charleston before entering medical 
school. An established system of medical education had not 
been developed in North Carolina. Legislation was not enact- 
ed establishing a state licensing board until the end of the 
ante-bellum period and even then there were no particular 
educational requirements. Many physicians of the colonial 
period were educated abroad as was the case with Dr. Dob- 
son but after the Revolution this practice became less feasible. 
Medical training of Burke County's physicians was usually 
initiated by a preceptorship under an experienced and estab- 
lished physician. Undoubtedly, this was the only method 
utilized by the Bouchelles, by Joseph McDowell of Pleasant 
Gardens, and even by some in a later period. Other of the 
earlier doctors, such as Marquis de LaFayette Erwin, Samuel 
Tate, and John M. Happoldt attended medical lectures at 
the University of Pennsylvania but did not graduate. Only 
five other medical schools were attended by physicians of 
this county. The University of South Carolina Medical Col- 
lege at Charleston graduated Doctors John A. Walton, 
William C. Tate, William L. McRee, Joseph M. Carson, S. 

36 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Howard Dickson, Christopher Happoldt, and gave one year 
of training to Dr. Otis P. Mills. New York University Medical 
School graduated Doctors John A. Dickson, Robert N. C. 
Tate, Robert C. Pearson, Jr., and James M. Henderson. Jef- 
ferson Medical College graduated Doctors W. LaFayette 
Glass and Waightstill A. Collett. Dr. James R. Ellis studied 
at the Medical College of Philadelphia and Dr. Hugh W. 
Tate at the Medical College of Virginia. 11 Dr. Christopher 
Happoldt studied in Europe for a year following his gradua- 
tion from medical college. Dr. William C. Tate studied fur- 
ther at Philadelphia in 1845. Brief excerpts from his cor- 
respondence written while there indicate his fine sense of 
public responsibility: "I have been in the city now for two 
months and I have received medical instruction beyond my 
most sanguine expectation. I have been a very close student 
ever since I came here. ... I hope it will be a great benefit 
to my children and, I trust, to the community." 12 

The physician of that day was subjected to undue hard- 
ships. Long and irregular hours, loss of sleep, fatigue, con- 
stant exposure to inclement weather, and frequent contacts 
with infectious diseases shortened their lives in many cases. 

11 Elizabeth S. Williams, Associate Librarian, Medical College of South 
Carolina, to writer, January 16, 1958, January 29, 1958, and February 
19, 1958, lists six graduates in addition to Dr. Mills who attended only 
one year; also cites Polk's Medical and Surgical Register, 1890, verifying 
the graduation of Dr. Ellis from Philadelphia Medical College (now 
defunct). Robert T. Lentz, Librarian, Jefferson Medical College, to writer, 
December 12, 1957, lists two graduates. Francis R. Houston, Executive 
Secretary, University of Pennsylvania Medical Alumni Society lists three 
who attended and one, Dr. J. Theodore Johnson, who graduated in 1861. 
Gilbert J. Clausman, Librarian, New York University Medical College, to 
writer, December 17, 1957 lists four graduates citing General Alumni 
Catalogue of New York University 1833-1907. Medical Alumni. S. J. 
Ervin, Jr., to writer, April 3, 1958 discloses that Hugh W. Tate graduated 
from Medical College of Virginia in 1860. Librarians of University of 
Virginia, Unversity of Maryland, Yale University, Wake Forest College, 
Transylvania College, and Louisville Medical College found no physician 
under study listed among their alumni. 

Alumni History of University of North Carolina, 1795-192U, lists three 
of group as undergraduates; unsigned response from Davidson College 
Library lists one; S. J. Ervin, Jr. to James A. Servies, Librarian, William 
and Mary College, January 16, 1958 indicates that Dr. W. C Tate studied 
there. Mary V. Powers, Librarian, College of Charleston, to writer, April 
1, 1958 states incomplete records do not list Christopher Happoldt; how- 
ever, data on Happoldt in Morganton Public Library states that he did 
attend that college. 

^William C Tate to Miss M. J. Wilson and others, December 27, 1845, 
in possession of Mrs. James K. Hall, 3011 Seminary Avenue, Richmond, 

Medical Practice in Burke County 37 

Doctors Joseph McDowell, Marquis Erwin, John W. Carson, 
John A. Walton, William L. McRee, Otis P. Mills, John A. 
Dickson, Joseph M. Carson, and T. C. Lester were less than 
forty years of age when they died. Dr. Collett was fifty; Dr. 
Glass, and Dr. John C. McDowell were fifty-one; Dr. Chris- 
topher Happoldt was fifty-five; and Dr. Ellis and Dr. Peterson 
were fifty-eight. 

The economic facets of medical practice contribute much 
to an understanding of ante-bellum medicine. Energy was 
dissipated and time lost in getting the patient and doctor 
together. As a consequence, a physician could see only a 
few patients per day. Since no hospital facilities existed in 
the county, continuous diagnostic observation and carefully 
controlled treatment were impossible. Mortality and mor- 
bidity statistics were discouraging. These factors weighed 
heavily upon the doctor's income. Collections were notori- 
ously poor. One North Carolina physician estimated that 
the average yearly income of practitioners in the State 
amounted to little more than three hundred dollars. 13 Obvi- 
ously this statement could have been little more than guess- 
work, but it does suggest that the doctors of the State felt 
their economic status to be unjustifiably poor. On the other 
hand, taxes on income were hardly a problem. In 1848-1849 
the North Carolina legislature did enact a measure which re- 
quired lawyers, dentists, doctors, and others whose salaries 
and fees yielded an income of not less than five hundred 
dollars to pay an income tax of four dollars, with exemption 
from this tax for the first five years of practice. A law of 
1856-1857 increased the tax to five dollars. The following 
year, this law was again altered to require the taxpayer to 
pay one percent on incomes over five hundred dollars. 14 The 
following fee schedule which was repeatedly published in 
sectional newspapers by western North Carolina physicians 
in 1822 coincides roughly with fees charged in Morganton 
throughout the ante-bellum period: 

13 Dr. Edward Warren, "Address," Transactions Medical Society of the 
State of North Carolina, 1856, 21. 

14 Fannie M. Farmer, "Legal Practice and Ethics in North Carolina, 
1820-1860, The North Carolina Historical Review, XXX (July, 1953), 353. 

38 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Fee Schedule Set From To 

Visit by day, per visit $ 1.00 $ 

Visit by night, per visit 2.00 

Mileage by day, per mile 25 

Mileage by night, per mile 50 

Cathartics and emetics 25 .50 

Pills, per doz. 50 1.00 

Epispasticks 50 1.00 

Fever powder, per doz 1.50 

Tinctures and mixtures, per oz 50 1.00 

P. bark and columbo, per oz 50 

Venesection 50 

Extracting tooth 50 

Consultations 3.00 5.00 

Written directions on recipes 1.00 2.00 

Oral advise 1.00 

Attendance, per hour, day 25 .50 

Attendance, per hour, night 50 1.00 

Obstetrical operations 10.00 20.00 

Amputations 5.00 25.00 

Paracentesis 5.00 10.00 

Dislocations 5.00 10.00 

Fractures 5.00 10.00 

Trepanning 20.00 40.00 

Extracting cataracts 20.00 40.00 

Introducing catheter 1.00 3.00 

Enema 50 1.00 

Gonorrhea 10.00 

Lues Veneria 20.00 

Merc ointment, per oz 50 15 

A few interesting examples of fees charged by Burke County 
practitioners have been selected from a random collection of 
old medical statements. For instance, Dr. Samuel Tate ren- 
dered a statement against the estate of William W. Erwin for 
three dollars in 1839 for a trip which he made on July 21, 
1836, from his home on South Green Street to Colonel 
Erwin's home at "Belvidere," a distance of five miles, to pre- 
scribe and furnish medicines for a certain Westley. Dr. John 
M. Happoldt rendered a statement to E. Jones Erwin in 1849 
for twelve dollars but deducted two dollars in return for 
two bushels of buckwheat. Another statement shows that, 

15 Western Carolinian (Salisbury), June 11, 1822, hereinafter cited as 
Western Carolinian. 

Medical Practice in Burke County 39 

in 1848, Dr. H. B. Satterwhite charged Dr. John C. McDowell 
five dollars for a visit and medicine when ministering to Dr. 
McDowell as a patient. Other ethical concepts were at vari- 
ance with modern standards. The physician's office was often 
referred to as his "shop," and the mortar and pestle was the 
emblem of his profession rather than the caduceus. An- 
nouncements of change of location were run repeatedly in 
the advertisement section of the newspapers. Such an an- 
nouncement, made by Dr. William F. Thomas, a respectable 
physician of this section, is reproduced here: 

Dr. W. F. Thomas 

Respectfully informs to the citizens of Burke County, and 
his friends, that he has located at Maj. John E. Patton's on the 
road leading from Morganton to Rutherford, where he may at 
all times be found, unless professionally absent ; ready to attend 
to all who may desire his assistance in the different branches of 
his profession, to receive a share of public patronage. 

Pattonville, May 5th, 1830 16 

People often exercised their right to change doctors; nor 
did they hesitate to go elsewhere for medical attention. Dr. 
Charles S. H. Schieffelin, who practiced at Rutherfordton 
from 1815 to 1835, treated patients from Burke County. He 
enjoyed a wide reputation and "was considered the finest 
surgeon in Western North Carolina." 17 The tradition is that 
he studied medicine on the continent of Europe and was a 
surgeon of high rank in the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte. 18 
In addition to Dr. Schieffelin, Dr. James F. E. Hardy of Ashe- 
ville was an unusually successful physician and undoubtedly 
attended patients from Burke County since he married into 
a local family. Conversely, patients came to Morganton from 
surrounding counties for medical care. As a youth, Zebulon 
B. Vance who lived in Buncombe County was treated on two 
occasions by Dr. McRee at Morganton, once for "white 

16 Western Carolinian, June 22, 1830. 

"James Atkins Shackford, "David Crockett and North Carolina," The 
North Carolina Historical Review, XXVIII (July, 1951), 313-314, quoting 
R. C Whitson to W. C Ervin, June 6, 1894. Dr. Schieffelin was Samuel P. 
Carson's surgeon at his duel with Robert B. Vance. 

18 Dorothy Long, "Medical Education in Early North Carolina," North 
Carolina Medical Journal, XV (October, 1954), No. 10, 520, citing Clarence 
Griffin, Essays in North Carolina History (Forest City, 1951), 16-18. 

40 The North Carolina Historical Review 

swelling," and a second time when: "He fell from a tree and 
was ruptured/' 19 

All things considered, it was not surprising that from the 
beginning, practitioners of the county found cause to resort 
to other means in order to supplement their income. Dr. 
Dobson taught a subscription school near his home and also 
served as Burke County's first Clerk of Superior Court from 
1782 to 1785 and as County Entry Taker in 1788 to 1789. 20 Dr. 
J. Harvey Perkins taught school and represented Burke 
County in the legislature in 1834, 1835, and 1836. Dr. Sat- 
terwhite was primarily interested in gold mining, speculated 
in land, and raised thoroughbred horses. Dr. Mills and Dr. 
Joseph Carson mined gold at Brindletown. Dr. Newland at 
one time operated a hotel in Marion and later served as Clerk 
of Court in Caldwell County. Dr. John M. Happoldt owned 
and operated a hotel in Morganton, Dr. John A. Dickson 
drifted away from medicine and took up law. Dr. Alberto 
M. Wilkie was a small non-slaveholding farmer. Dr. Ellis 
published a newspaper after he moved to Hickory Tavern, 
and others owned large farms and worked them with slave 
labor. Among these were Doctors Christopher Happoldt, 
John C. McDowell, Satterwhite, and Thomas Bouchelle. The 
two Tate brothers, Dr. Samuel and Dr. William C, were the 
largest land owners among the doctors. The latter was a 
successful planter as well as a physician. In 1850 he owned 
twenty-nine slaves, two hundred acres of improved land, 
five hundred acres of unimproved land, and livestock valued 
at one thousand three hundred and thirty dollars. 21 

An occasional physician felt that his opportunities were 
better if he established himself in one of the outlying areas, 
well away from the county seat where he would have less 
competition. Thus, to some degree, he would overcome the 
travel difficulties by living among his patients. Following Dr. 

"Clement Dowd, Life of Zebulon B. Vance (Charlotte, 1897), 12. 

20 Said one of his better known pupils : "My father, discovering that I 
had neither inclination nor capacity for a farmer, placed me with Dr. 
Joseph Dobson of Burk [sic] County where I received all the education 
I ever possessed, although but a common English education, so-called." 
Samuel R. Walker (ed.), Memoirs of the Honorable Felix Walker (New 
Orleans, 1877), 7. 

21 Seventh Census of the United States, 1860, Agriculture Schedules, 
Burke County, microfilm copy, State Department of Archives and History. 

Medical Practice in Burke County 41 

Thomas in the southwest part of the county was Dr. Mills 
at Brindletown and a few years later his brother-in-law, Dr. 
Joseph M. Carson. Dr. Satterwhite also lived in the south- 
west section, about four miles east of Dr. Mills. Dr. John C. 
McDowell lived north of town on Johns River. Dr. Jacob G. 
Peterson practiced in the Irish Creek and Upper Creek sec- 
tions of the county while Doctors James R. Ellis, Washington 
LaFayette Glass, and James Theodore Johnson all practiced 
for a time in the Rutherford College and Connelly Springs 
neighborhoods of northeastern Burke County. 

There were those, however, who were not content with a 
modest practice in a sparsely settled community. Few were 
financially able to do large-scale farming or mining. Some 
were unwilling or unable to devote part of their time to other 
occupations. Whether for these obvious reasons or for reasons 
not obvious, the fact remains that there was a definite move- 
ment of medical personnel out of the county after 1815. A 
number of examples can be given which authenticate this 
statement. Dr. Perkins moved to Cherokee County about 
1839. Dr. Thomas departed before 1840, probably for Shelby 
County, Tennessee. Dr. John Happoldt was in Salisbury in 
1858 and 1859 but returned to Morganton in 1860. Dr. Robert 
N. C. Tate migrated to Texas after 1850. Dr. S. Howard 
Dickson remained in Morganton less than eight years before 
going to Tennessee. Dr. John McKamie Henson went to 
Mississippi prior to 1860. Dr. Samuel Tate moved to Chero- 
kee County in 1839 but returned to Morganton to live after 
he retired from medicine. 

The following analysis of the diseases which confronted 
the physician of ante-bellum Burke County is based on the 
mortality statistics of 1860 as compiled from the census of 
that year. An examination of Table I discloses that the great 
majority of the deaths of known causes were due to infectious 

42 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Causes of Death in Burke County 
Causes of Death Number 

Unknown 26 

Old Age (Senile changes) 7 

Pneumonia 17 

Scarlet Fever 10 

Typhoid Fever 14 

Flux and Cholera Infantum 17 

Croup 7 

Dropsy (Heart failure) 3 

Measles 1 

Accidental Deaths 4 

Worms, Hives, Teething, and Fever 7 

Inflammation of Brain (Meningitis) 1 

Affection of Brain 1 

Ulcer of Bowel 1 

White Swelling and Scrofula (Tuberculosis) .... 2 

Asthma 1 

Inflammatory Rheumatism (Rheumatic Fever) . . 1 

Of the one hundred and twenty deaths reported, the duration 
of illness in forty-three cases was less than one week. The age 
at death is also striking: 

Age at Death 
Years of Age Number 

Under one 21 

Under sixteen 71 

Under fifty 101 

Fifty and over 19 

Gastro-intestinal infections vied with the acute respiratory 
infections for leadership in the mortality figures, and spring 
and early summer seemed to have been the most disastrous 
months, as illustrated by the following chart: 

Medical Practice in Burke County 



Seasonal Incidence of disease 
























Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

Thus, it is readily seen that the practitioner of 1860 faced a 
decidedly different pattern of health, disease, and survival 
from the pattern we face today. Even allowing for the high 
incidence of deaths from unknown causes and old age, heart 
disease still was not a major problem and malignant disease 
was not mentioned as such. Accidental deaths were few and 
would have been even fewer, had the Western North Caro- 
lina Railroad not been under construction through Burke 
County at the time of the census. 

What was the attitude of the physician of the county to- 
ward its health problems? Today it is obvious that a general 
condition of good nutrition and public sanitation would have 
conquered most of his enemies, but the knowledge was not 
his, and had it been, the means for concerted action did not 
exist. As he saw it, his duty was to combat the diseases that 

44 The North Carolina Historical Review 

he saw with the means at his disposal. Preventive medicine 
was in its infancy and people were slow to accept new ideas. 
For example, Dr. Edward Jenner in England discovered a 
vaccine for smallpox in 1798 and by 1803 it was widely used 
in that country and in Europe. Yet in the spring of 1808, a 
young lawyer of Lincolnton wrote to Archibald D. Murphey 
in Hillsboro: 

The Small pox has broken out and rages with violence in this 
part of the Country. There is great consternation among the 
people; almost every person that has taken it have died. It is 
said that one person that had had the vaccine took the Small 
Pox and has died. It is in almost every house in Morganton. It 
has also reached this county; it is in a family not more than 
eight miles from town. In consequence of its being in Morganton 
there will be no Court. 22 

And a week later, the Raleigh Register had this tardy advice 
for the smallpox victims of Burke County: 

We are concerned to state, that the small pox, at present, pre- 
vails in Burke County, in this State. How much it is to be de- 
sired, that the people would generally inoculate with the Kine 
Pock which is found to be a complete security against this 
dangerous and loathsome disease, and which is so mild in its 
operation as seldom to occasion confinement. 23 

In 1836, another epidemic of smallpox occurred in western 
North Carolina, but after this the vaccine must have been 
widely used by the physicians of Burke County for, as has 
been noted, there were no deaths from the disease in 1860. 
However, any serious discussion of diagnosis and treatment 
is far beyond the scope of this paper. Most of their treatment 
was symptomatic or empirical as much of it is in this century. 
The doctoral theses of several of these men have been pre- 
served and the subjects they chose is revealing in regard to 
their comprehension of medicine: John A. Walton wrote on 
Diseases of the Spleen, William C. Tate on The Use of Cal- 
omel, William L. McRee on Cold Water as a Therapeutic 

22 William Henry Hoyt (ed.), The Papers of Archibald D. Murphey 
(Raleigh, 2 volumes, 1914) , II, 21, Henry Y. Webb to Archibald D. Murphey, 
March 30, 1808. 

23 Raleigh Register and North-Carolina State Gazette, April 7, 1808. 

Medical Practice in Burke County 45 

Agent, Joseph M. Carson on Fever, S. Howard Dickson on 
Diagnosis, Christopher Happoldt on Observations on the Epi- 
demic Breakbone Fever of 1850 in Charleston, and J. Theo- 
dore Johnson on Duties of a Medical Student. 

Early practitioners of Burke County did not attempt to 
organize medical societies or band together in any way either 
for scientific enlightenment or for economic protection. How- 
ever, a sectional organization called the Piedmont Medical 
Society existed in 1850 and at its spring meeting in Shelby, 
Dr. John A. Dickson of Morganton delivered an oration on 
"Progress in Medicine" in which he pleaded for a basic 
scientific approach to medical subjects, and in the course of 
his lecture made the following prophetic observation: 

Every step in the growth or refinement — every discovery in 
the useful arts, adds to the task which Medicine proposes to 
perform, as it places a new item upon the dreadful list of dis- 
eases, or materially alters one or more of the old ; and the ever- 
varying modes of life, and means of livelihood, adopted as steps 
in the progress of civilization, make day by day additional 
breaches in the walls by which men seek to shut out death. 24 

The state medical society was formed in 1849 but its early 
meetings were held in the eastern part of the State and were 
not attended by Burke County doctors. Ten years later, in 
1859, at its meeting in Statesville Dr. Christopher Happoldt 
and Dr. Waightstill Collett became the first members to 
join from Burke County. Dr. John Happoldt had joined a 
year previously while living in Salisbury. On May 8, 1861, 
the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Medical 
Society was held at Morganton. "Dr. Christopher Happoldt 
read an interesting report from the county of Burke, which 
illicited an elaborate discussion from the physicians of his 
county. Dr. J. M. Happoldt, of Morganton, entertained the 
Society with an interesting case of vernal asthma, as it pre- 
vailed annually in his own person." 25 In the evening a party 
was given for the Society at the Mountain House by the 

24 John Augustus Dickson, Progress in Medicine, an Oration (Asheville, 
1850), 7. 

25 Transactions Medical Society of the State of North Carolina, 1861, 

46 The North Carolina Historical Review 

physicians of Morganton. Thirteen days later, the Burke 
Rifles or Company G of the First North Carolina Volunteers 
were encamped at Richmond and in another twenty days, 
they heard the guns roar at Big Bethel Church. The ante- 
bellum period had come to a close in Burke County. 

Ante-Bellum Burke County Physicians 
Name Began practice in 

county about: 

Dobson, Joseph 1768 

McDowell, Joseph (of Pleasant Garden) 1780 

Bouchelle, Sluyter 1792 

Bouchelle, Thomas 1798 

Erwin, Marquis de LaFayette* 1816 

Tate, Samuel 1822 

Carson, John W.* 1822 

Walton, John Alfred* 1829 

Perkins, James Harvey* 1830 

Thomas, William Feimster* 1830 

Tate, William Caldwell 1831 

Satterwhite, Horace B 1835 

Mills, Otis Prentis* 1840 

McRee, William Lucius 1841 

Newland, Joseph Caldwell * 1842 

Happoldt, John Michael 1844 

McDowell, John Calhoun 1848 

Tate, Robert N. C* 1849 

Carson, Joseph McDowell * 1850 

Dickson, John Augustus 1850 

Dickson, Samuel Howard * 1853 

Henson, John McKamie Wilson* 1853 

Lester, T. C* 1853 

Collett, Waightstill Avery 1856 

Ellis, James Ransome* 1857 

Happoldt, Christopher 1858 

Glass, Washington LaFayette 1859 

Henderson, James M.* 1860 

Wilkie, Alberto M.* 1860 

Peterson, Jacob G 1860 

Pearson, Robert Caldwell, Jr 1860 

Johnson, James Theodore 1861 

Tate, Hugh W.* 1861 

* Physicians who practiced intermittently or for a short time. 


By W. Harrison Daniel* 

One of the most persistent problems of southern church- 
men during the Civil War was to provide for the spiritual 
care of the soldiers. The different denominations made valiant 
efforts to meet this problem. They sent missionaries and 
evangelists to preach to the men in camp, and they co- 
operated with the government by urging men to seek the 
office of chaplain. The purpose of this article is to discuss the 
office of chaplain and the relationship of that office to 
southern Protestantism. 

The chaplain was a recognized part of the army organiza- 
tion of the United States Army, 1 but the Provisional Congress 
of the Confederate States, when it formulated rules and 
regulations for its army in the spring of 1861, failed to pro- 
vide for this office. This initial neglect offers an insight to 
the importance which Congress attached to the office, and 
reflects an attitude which was to change only slightly. It 
was not until after churchmen had presented petitions to 
their congressmen requesting that chaplains be provided for 
the army, 2 and after Secretary of War L. P. Walker had asked 
President Jefferson Davis to urge Congress to make pro- 
visions for chaplains, 3 that Congress acted. 

The first of a series of laws which Congress enacted per- 

* Dr. W. Harrison Daniel is an Assistant Professor of History at the 
University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia. 

a Bell I. Wiley, "Holy Joes' of the Sixties: A Study of Civil War Chap- 
lains," The Huntington Library Quarterly, XVI (May, 1953), 287, here- 
inafter cited as Wiley, " 'Holy Joes.' " 

8 Journals of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861- 
1865 (Washington, 7 volumes, 1904-1905), I, 170, hereinafter cited as 
Journals of the Congress of the Confederate States. 

8 The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of 
the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D. C. : Government 
Printing Office, 70 volumes [127 books and index], 1880-1901), Series IV, 
I, 252, hereinafter cited as Official Records; James D. Richardson, A 
Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Confederacy, Including 
the Diplomatic Correspondence, 1861-1865 (Nashville, 2 volumes, 1904), 
I, 81. 


48 The North Carolina Historical Review 

taining to the office of chaplain was on May 3, 1861. This law 
empowered the president to appoint such number of chap- 
lains to serve with the armies of the Confederate states as 
he deemed expedient and to assign them to such regiments, 
brigades, or posts as he deemed necessary. Their pay was 
to be eigthy-five dollars a month, 4 a salary five dollars less 
than that of a second lieutenant. 5 This law made no mention 
of rank, uniform, quarters, rations, or forage for a horse. It 
provided for the appointment of chaplains but left them 
without status, a situation which remained unchanged 
throughout the war as the status or rank of the chaplain was 
never clarified by Congress. The only commission the chap- 
lains ever received was that of chaplain, and they could 
resign it whenever they wished. 6 The publication, Regula- 
tions for the Army of the Confederate States, does not men- 
tion chaplain. 7 However, chaplains were under considerable 
military authority and army discipline. 8 The day John C. 
Granberry was commissioned chaplain he wrote, "I am 
now ... a regular chaplain, and will therefore be subject to 
the strict discipline of the army/' 9 If a chaplain wished to 
transfer from one regiment to another the commanding 
officers of both regiments had to approve the change. 10 Chap- 
lain furloughs had to have the approval of the commanding 
officer, 11 as did leaves of absence for reasons of illness. 12 
There are references which seem to indicate that in matters 
of a non-religious nature the chaplain was generally under 

4 James M. Matthews (ed.), The Statutes at Large of the Provisional 
Government of the Confederate States of America (Richmond, 1864), 99, 
hereinafter cited as Matthews, Statutes at Large. 

5 Matthews, Statutes at Large, 120. 

6 J. William Jones, Christ in the Camp, or Religion in Lee's Army (Rich- 
mond, 1887), 564, hereinafter cited as Jones, Christ in the Camp. 

7 Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States (Richmond, 1862). 

8 James H. M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," Confederate 
Veteran, XXI (May 1913), 230, hereinafter cited as M'Neilly "Religion 
in the Confederate Armies." 

9 J. C. Granberry to Miss Ella F. Winston, July 12, 1861, J. C. Gran- 
berry Papers, University of Virginia Library, Charlottesville, Virginia, 
hereinafter cited as Granberry Papers. 

10 Jones, Chrst in the Camp, 568. 

"Jones, Christ in the Camp, 467; W. R. Gwaltney's war diary, entry 
of August 5, 1863, W. R. Gwaltney Papers, Southern Historical Collection, 
University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. 

^Joseph Cross, Camp and Field. Books Third and Fourth (Columbia, 
1864), 104, hereinafter cited as Cross, Camp and Field. Books Third and 


The Office of Army Chaplain 49 

the authority of the commanding officer, 13 whereas in mat- 
ters religious the chaplain was virtually his own authority. 14 
The law of May 3, 1861 pertaining to chaplains, inade- 
quate as it was, was attacked almost immediately in Con- 
gress and in less than two weeks it was revised, reducing the 
monthly pay from eighty-five to fifty dollars. 15 The explana- 
tion for this reaction cannot be clearly established, 16 but the 
fifty dollar figure was a compromise. 17 Wiley P. Harris of 
Mississippi wanted to cut the pay to forty dollars. He argued 
that chaplains were not entitled to much pay as they preach 
ed only once a week and had the rest of the time free 
William Smith of Alabama is reported to have said that chap- 
lains were mere drones and ought to be in the army as 
soldiers with muskets on their shoulders. 19 One author says 
that the reduced salary was supposed to be a deterrent to 
ministers seeking the office for pecuinary gain. 20 The fifty 
dollar a month salary was considerably less than the salary 
some states had been paying chaplains in their militia prior to 
the time state troops became Confederate troops. Chaplains 
in North Carolina and Virginia regiments were paid one 
hundred and fifty dollars a month and had the rank of major 
before they were transferred to Confederate command. 21 To 
keep a competent chaplain, the men of some regiments, after 
the transfer of commands, contributed money supplementing 

"M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," 230; Thomas W. 
Caskey, Caskey's Last Book, Containing an Autobiographical Sketch of 
his Ministerial Life, with Essays and Sermons (Nashville, 1896), 46, here- 
inafter cited as Caskey, Caskey's Last Book. 

"Joseph B. Cheshire, The Church in the Confederate States. A History 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States (New York, 
1914), 88; Jones, Christ in the Camp, 472. 

15 Matthews, Statutes at Large, 116. This revision came on May 16, 1861. 

M Wiley, " 'Holy Joes,' " 288. 

17 Matthews, Statutes at Large, 120. This salary, though less than that 
of any commissioned officer was greater than that of a sergeant, which 
was thirty-four dollars a month. 

18 Journals of the Congress of the Confederate States, I, 226. 

19 Herman A. Norton, "The Organization and Function of the Confederate 
Military Chaplaincy, 1861-1865" (Ph.D. dissertation, Vanderbilt Library, 
1956) , 33-34, hereinafter cited as Norton, "The Organization and Function 
of the Chaplaincy." 

20 Sidney J. Romero, "The Confederate Chaplain," Civil War History 
(June, 1955), I, 130. 

21 Biblical Recorder (Raleigh), October 2, 1861, hereinafter cited as 
Biblical Recorder; Church Intelligencer (Raleigh), October 4, 1861, here- 
inafter cited as Church Intelligencer. 

50 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the government salary so that their chaplain received one 
hundred and forty-five dollars a month. 22 

A second law referring to chaplains was enacted August 
31, 1861. This act virtually relegated the chaplain to the 
status of private by providing that he was to receive one 
ration a day, the same as a private. 23 Revisions of the original 
chaplaincy act elicited comment from churchmen. It was 
said that Congress had disgraced itself by lowering the posi- 
tion of the clergy. Rather than enacting laws to provide for 
chaplains, Congress was depicted as passing laws to abolish 
the office. 24 The Reverend T. V. Moore, pastor of the Second 
Presbyterian Church in Richmond, told his congregation that 
the government's action toward chaplains was wrong, sui- 
cidal, short-sighted, and should be remedied. 25 The editor 
of one religious newspaper said that Congress should in- 
crease the pay of a chaplain to that of a captain of infantry, 
allow him forage for a horse, and give him rank. 26 However, 
a Baptist editor in North Carolina approved of the revisions 
made in the original chaplaincy act. He wrote that the new 
law "was a good one, that six hundred dollars was sufficient 
for a chaplain . . . since he encountered none of the cares, 
responsibilities, and dangers of officers." 27 

Although the government enacted laws providing for chap- 
lains and the church was concerned that the spiritual welfare 
of the men not be neglected, there were never enough chap- 
lains to average one per regiment, the sometimes stated 
goal of both government and church. 28 It is difficult, if not 

22 Religious Herald (Richmond, Virginia), September 26, 1861, herein- 
after cited as Religious Herald. 

23 Matthews, Statutes at Large, 210. 

24 Church Intelligencer, October 4, 1861 ; Religious Herald, September 26, 
1861; Due West Telescope (Due West, South Carolina), Ferbuary 21, 1862. 

25 T. V. Moore, God Our Refuge and Strength in This War. A Discourse 
Before the Congregations of the First and Second Presbyterian Churches 
on the Day of Humilation, Fasting, and Prayer, Appointed by President 
Davis, Friday November 15, 1861 (Richmond 1861), 13. 

26 Central Presbyterian (Richmond, Virginia), March 2, 1862, herein- 
after cited as Central Presbyterian. 

27 Biblical Recorder, October 2, 1861. 

28 Tennessee Baptist (Nashville), January 25, 1862; Religious Herald, 
April 9, 1863; Central Presbyterian, April 7, 1863; North Carolina Chris- 
tian Advocate (Raleigh), December 2, 1864, hereinafter cited as North 
Carolina Christian Advocate-, Arthur H. Noll (ed.), Doctor Quintard, 
Chaplain, C. S. A., and Second Bishop of Tennessee. Being His Story of 
the War (Sewanee, Tennessee, 1905), 2, hereinafter cited as Noll, Doctor 

The Office of Army Chaplain 51 

impossible, to determine the exact number of chaplains who 
served in the army. There was no Chief of Chaplains in the 
Confederate government, and hence no records concerning 
chaplains were kept. 29 Perhaps the nearest approach to any 
government record pertaining to chaplains is found in the 
reports of the secretary of treasury and the secretary of war 
in their estimates of money required for the army for a given 
period. These reports for 1864 and the first six months of 
1865 estimate the number of chaplains at five hundred. The 
total number of regiments was listed as seven hundred and 
seventy for 1864, and seven hundred and twenty-two for 
1865. 30 Different writers have attempted to make lists of 
chaplains, however, there is considerable variation in these 
lists. 31 

The turnover in chaplains was extremely high, with ap- 
proximately only fifty remaining in service from the date of 
their commission to the cessation of hostilities. 32 Some chap- 
lains considered the August 31, 1861, act humiliating and 
gave it as a reason for resigning their commissions. 33 The 
inadequate provisions which the government made for chap- 
lains, probably more than anything else, explains the con- 
stant lack of chaplains in the army. The chaplain did not 
resent the one ration a day, as such, even though this ration 
became progressively smaller as the war was prolonged. 34 

29 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 529. 

80 Report of the Secretary of Treasury, Confederate States of America, 
May 2, 186 U, 62 (cover to this publication is missing) ; Report of the 
Secretary of War, Estimate of Expenses Required for the Army of the 
Confederate States, January 1 to June 30, 1865, 30 (cover to this publica- 
tion is missing). 

81 Sidney J. Romero, Jr., "Religion in Rebel Ranks" (Ph.D. dissertation, 
Louisiana State University Library, 1953), 214-227, lists 601 chaplains 
who served in the Confederate Army. Frank Hieronymous is presently 
ligion in the Rebel Ranks"; Charles F. Pitts, Chaplains in Gray (Nashville, 
1957), 138-157, lists 643 chaplains who served in the Confederate Army, 
hereinafter cited as Pitts, Chaplains in Gray; Jones, Christ in the Camp, 
529-533, gives a partial list of the chaplains who served in the Army of 
Northern Virginia. His list consists of only 102 names. Norton, "The 
Organization and Function of the Chaplaincy," 303-330, lists 653 chaplains 
who served in the Confederate Army. Frank Hieronymous is presently 
working on a dissertation at the University of California (Los Angeles) 
pertaining to the Confederate chaplain and one of his aims is to establish 
an authoritative list of chaplains. 

32 Norton, "The Organization and Function of the Chaplaincy," 106, 253. 

83 Romero, "Religion in Rebel Ranks," 60-61. 

^Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, 1862, 234-235; 
William M. Dame, From the Rapidan to Richmond and the Spottsylvania 
Campaign (Baltimore, 1920), 26. 

52 The North Carolina Historical Review 

They did resent being discriminated against. Officers were 
permitted to draw extra rations and also to purchase supplies 
and food from the Commissary. Thus they could entertain 
friends, family members, visitors, and provide for servants. 
Chaplains, by law, were not permitted to do this. If a chap- 
lain wished to invite a fellow minister to camp to preach, he 
would have to tell his friend to bring his rations with him. 35 
The chaplain also felt discriminated against because the 
government never made provisions for him to have a horse, 
and if he did acquire one it was not until January 22, 1864, 
that the government granted forage for the horse. 36 One 
chaplain wrote that he resigned because he could not submit 
to the snubs and ill-treatment of the government. He accused 
the government of ignoring the office and of doing all it 
could to clog the efforts of chaplains, by not giving them 
rank, refusing to permit them to purchase at the commissary, 
and by paying them an insufficient salary. 37 Some chaplains 
also resented the fact that they would have to have their pay 
application certified by the commanding officer before they 
could receive their salary, a procedure no officer had to fol- 
low. 38 Probably some chaplains resigned because they felt 
that they and their work were not accorded proper respect 
by some of the officers. General D. H. Hill once referred to 
his regimental chaplains as trifling; 39 at another time he 
characterized them as being effeminate. 40 There were also 
instances of officers using Sunday as a day of work and in- 
spection, thereby making religious services impossible. 41 

35 Religious Herald, September 26, 1861, June 25, 1863; Southern Lutheran 
(Charleston, South Carolina), August 1, 1863, hereinafter cited as South- 
ern Lutheran; Richmond Christian Advocate (Virginia), October 29, 1863, 
hereinafter cited as Richmond Christian Advocate. 

36 James M. Matthews (ed.), Public Laws of the Confederate States of 
America, Passed at the Fourth Session of the First Congress, 1863-181 >4 
(Richmond, 1864), 175; Charles T. Quintard Papers, Duke University- 
Library, hereinafter cited as Quintard Papers. Daily forage for a horse 
in August, 1864, was six pounds of corn. 

37 Biblical Recorder, December 23, 1863. 

88 Joseph Cross, Camp and Field. Book Second (Macon, Georgia, 1864), 
23 ; Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, 1862, 111 ; Church 
Intelligencer, April 10, 1863. 

39 D. H. Hill to R. L. Dabney, March 26, 1861, Robert L. Dabney Papers, 
Union Theological Seminary Library, Richmond, Virginia, hereinafter 
cited as Dabney Papers. 

40 D. H. Hill to R. L. Dabney, June 7, 1863, Dabney Papers. 
"■Religious Herald, April 3, 1862; Private Journal of Lt. Josiah Ryland 

(typed copy in University of Richmond Library), entries of January 11, 
18, 25, and February 1, 1863, hereinafter cited as Journal of Josiah Ryland. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 53 

The lack of provisions provided by law, plus a salary which 
made it impossible for him to care for his family, were not 
the only obstacles which the chaplain encountered. There 
were other factors which deterred ministers from seeking 
the office. One was the lack of rank, referred to above. 42 
Some churchmen felt that the chaplain should have the rank 
and pay of a captain. 43 In the summer of 1861 a resolution 
was offered in Congress by W. P. Harris, instructing the com- 
mittee on military affairs to inquire into the expediency of 
conferring rank on chaplains. This did not receive a favor- 
able report from the committee, and the resolution was 
tabled. 44 This was the usual treatment given questions deal- 
ing with religion whenever they were presented. Once when 
several chaplains petitioned Congress to bestow rank and 
uniforms upon army chaplains, the petition was referred to 
committee without being read. 45 On another occasion, when 
a question involving chaplains was raised, one congressman is 
reported to have said that he wished all chaplains were in 
hell. 46 The chaplain never received any rank. A law enacted 
on April 19, 1862, increased his salary from fifty to eighty 
inflated dollars, 47 an amount which remained unchanged 
throughout the war. Although the chaplains could do nothing 
about their rank, they did undertake, on their own initiative, 
to do something about their dress, another item which Con- 
gress ignored. Usually the chaplain wore whatever he had 
available. In the fall of 1862, a friend met Dr. Charles T. 
Quintard, Chaplain of the First Tennessee Regiment, and 
found him wearing a deep blue overcoat and military boots. 48 
Chaplain J. H. McNeilly's uniform consisted of "brown jeans, 
quilted; . . . jacket of gray, with wooden buttons ... a shirt 
of checked osnaberg [which] would not button at the 
collar . . . Pantaloons which . . . were in strings from the 

42 See above, pages 47, 48. 

^Church Intelligencer, December 20, 1861. A captain's pay was $140 
per month. 

** Journals of the Confederate Congress, I, 293, 307. 

45 Journals of the Confederate Congress, VI, 57. 

46 Religious Herald, June 25, 1863. 

" James M. Matthews (ed.), Public Laws of the Confederate States of 
America, Passed at the First Session of the First Congress, 1862 (Rich- 
mond, 1862), 45. 

48 Cross, Camp and Field. Books Third and Fourth, 247. 

54 The North Carolina Historical Review 

knees down . . . and . . . brogans that let in air and mud 
through gaping chinks." 49 An observer at Richmond during 
the war remarked that many chaplains wore the uniform of 
the soldier and that they were distinguished only by the 
simple cross of gold lace on the sleeve of their coat or jacket. 50 
The chaplains of the second and third corps of the Army of 
Northern Virginia decided to use as an insigna the letter "C" 
with a half wreath of olive leaves worked in gold on a back- 
ground of velvet. It was a design about two and a half inches 
wide and was worn on the sleeve or collar. 51 The chaplains 
of the army at Mobile adopted a mark of distinction for 
themselves. It was a maltese cross of gold or brass, about an 
inch in diameter, and was worn as a major's star on each side 
of the collar. 52 The Chaplain's Association of the Army of 
Tennessee, in the spring of 1863, adopted as an insigna a 
ring of gold, three-fourths of an inch in diameter and one- 
eighth of an inch in breadth, enclosing an open Bible of 
silver and mounted on black cloth. It was worn on the lapel 
or collar. 53 

In spite of the handicaps under which the chaplain 
labored, the fact remains that many ministers, representing 
the different denominations, did leave their pulpits and 
became chaplains. 54 The great majority of these ministers 
were welcomed by both men and officers and were cared for 
better than the letter of the law required. Most ministers who 
entered the chaplaincy did not do so for pecuniary gain but 
because they felt their services were needed in upholding 
a cause which was believed to be "interwoven with the prog- 

49 Pitts, Chaplains in Gray, 45. 

50 Sallie A. Putnam, Richmond During the War; Four Years of Personal 
Observation (New York, 1867), 318-319. 

51 Religious Herald, June 25, 1863. 

52 Central Presbyterian, April 9, 1863. 

53 W. C. Bennett to C. T. Quintard, March 25, 1863, Quintard Papers. 
^Romero, "Religion in Rebel Ranks," 214-227; William W. Sweet, The 

Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War (Cincinnati, 1912), 222, 
says that 209 Methodist ministers served as chaplains. Norton, "The 
Organization and Function of the Chaplaincy," 96-98, says that the Meth- 
odist church sent the largest number of ministers into the chaplaincy. 
His figure is approximately 200 which agrees with that of Sweet. Norton 
also states that the Baptist and Presbyterian churches sent approximately 
100 ministers each into the chaplaincy. The best proportionate representa- 
tion of any denomination in the chaplaincy was the Protestant Episcopal 
church which sent 65 ministers into this field. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 55 

ress of Christianity and with the salvation of mankind." 55 
All of the major denominations agreed that religious ser- 
vices, instruction, and preaching, were extremely important 
for the welfare of the soldiers, and throughout the war the 
various denominations urged men to enter the chaplaincy 
and sought to supplement their government salary. The army 
was described as a place where the field was "ripe for the 
harvest." 56 There was said to be a need for ministers to take 
the word of God to men who were exposed to danger and 
death, and to save them from such evils of camp life as 
gambling, drinking, and cursing. 57 It was denominational 
leaders in the Presbyterian church who formulated the most 
detailed plan for recruiting men for the chaplaincy. This 
plan was outlined in a letter which the Reverend Moses D. 
Hoge sent to William P. Miles, Chairman of the Committee 
of Military Affairs. It was termed a scheme for increasing 
the number and efficiency of chaplains without expense to 
the Confederate government. The plan as stated in the 
Hoge letter follows. 

My Dear Sir: 

At your suggestion I furnish you with an outline of the plan 
for increasing the number and efficiency of the chaplains in the 
Confederate service, to which I will thank you to call the atten- 
tion of Congress in whatever way you deem proper. 

Probably half of the regiments now in the field are without 
chaplains, and in some of them an earnest desire has been ex- 
pressed to be supplied immediately. . . . 

The amount of compensation allowed is too small to enable 
ministers having families to support to enter the service as 
chaplains and in consequence, it often happens, men of experi- 

05 Richmond Christian Advocate, June 13, 1861; William W. Bennett, 
A Narrative of the Great Revival Which Prevailed in the Southern Armies 
During the Late Civil War Between the States of the Federal Union 
(Philadelphia, 1877), 51, hereinafter cited as Bennett, The Great Revival 
in the Southern Armies; Horace Jewell, History of Methodism in Arkansas 
(Little Rock, 1892), 75, hereinafter cited as Jewell, History of Methodism 
in Arkansas; M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," 230. 

66 Southern Presbyterian (Columbia, South Carolina), February 22, 1862; 
Proceedings of the Ninth Biennial Session of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention. Held in the Green Street Baptist Church, Augusta, Georgia, May 
8-12, 1863 (Macon, Georgia, 1863), 54; Southern Lutheran, February 6, 

67 Christian Index (Macon, Georgia), September 18, 1863, hereinafter 
cited as Christian Index. 

56 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ence, learning, and piety who otherwise would be willing to 
devote themselves to this work cannot do so. . . . 

These things seem to be requisite to the efficiency of the chap- 
lains in the army : that they be men of the right stamp ; that they 
receive an adequate support; that they have a rank which will 
give them a position in each regiment to which men exercising 
the duties of this sacred office are entitled. 

The plan which I propose follows : let the different denomina- 
tions unite in each state ... in raising whatever amount of 
money they wish to devote to the support of chaplains. Let the 
salary of each chaplain be at least $1000 [a year] and let the 
number of chaplains representing any one denomination ... be 
directly in proportion to the amount contributed by such denom- 
ination ... In order to secure the appointment of qualified men, 
I would have a central committee having charge of the matter 
at the capital of each state. This committee would be composed 
of resident ministers representing the denominations contrib- 
uting to the general fund ... It should be the business of this 
committee to nominate to the government men whom they know 
to be suitable for the office of chaplain, and not only to present 
the names of approved ministers making application for the 
post of chaplain, but to seek clergymen as they know to be qual- 
ified for . . . such work and nominate them for appointment. 

The advantages of this scheme . . . are these : chaplains would 
be furnished to the army . . . without any expense to the govern- 
ment ; chaplains selected in this way would be men of the proper 
qualifications in as much as each denomination . . . for its own 
credit and standing . . . would be interested in securing the 
services of such men as would be likely to do honor to both the 
men and the denomination. . . . 

This plan is not intended to interfere in any way with that 
already in operation for the appointment and pay of chaplains, 
but to provide an additional number without cost to the govern- 
ment, and to supply numerous destitutions now existing ... It 
is not intended to obtrude chaplains upon regiments which do 
not wish them ... or to supply them with chaplains of such de- 
nominations as they do not prefer . . . All we ask Congress to do 
is to agree to commission such chaplains as we may select and 
be willing to support, and that Congress will give to such chap- 
lains, as well as those already in the field, such a rank as will 
enable them to mess with officers, and secure for them the re- 
spect which is always paid to their rank, as well as to minis- 
terial character in the army. 

Very respectfully yours, 
Moses D. Hoge 58 

58 Moses D. Hoge to W. P. Miles, Chairman of the Committee of Military 
Affairs, May 7, 1862, Moses D. Hoge Papers (microfilm copy in the Uni- 
versity of Virginia Library), Charlottesville, Virginia. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 57 

This plan did not receive a favorable response in Congress 
and consequently no changes were made in the government's 
chaplaincy program. However, later that same year, the 
Presbyterian church in Virginia appointed Moses D. Hoge 
commissioner for the synod, to correspond with chaplains 
and colonels concerning chaplain vacancies; to work with 
the Committee of Domestic Missions of the local presby- 
teries in trying to secure able ministers for the chaplaincy; 
and to aid them in obtaining a commission. 59 Other demoni- 
nations were also active in urging men to seek the office of 
chaplain, but the Presbyterians seem to have made the 
greatest effort in this work. 60 

The major Protestant denominations agreed to supplement 
the government salary of men who accepted the office of 
chaplain. The Domestic Mission Board of the Southern Bap- 
tist Convention supplemented the salary of eleven chaplains 
during the war. 61 The Presbyterian church, at the General 
Assembly meeting in May, 1863, resolved to supplement the 
salary of Presbyterian chaplains so that they would have an 
income of $1,000 a year. 62 In 1864 it was reported that eighty 
per cent of the Presbyterian chaplains received partial or 
entire support from the denomination. 63 In the fall of 1863 
a conference of Methodist bishops recommended that sala- 
ries of Methodist chaplains be supplemented. They suggest- 
ed that a single man have his salary supplemented so that 
it would total nine hundred dollars, a married chaplain 
eighteen hundred dollars, and if a chaplain was a father 
there should be a supplement of three hundred dollars for 
each child. 64 However, rather than centering attention on 
supplementing chaplains' salaries, the denominations placed 

69 Minutes of the Synod of Virginia at Their Session in Staunton, 
October, 1862 (cover to this publication is missing), 310. 

60 Central Presbyterian, October 1, 1863. This paper quotes the Con- 
federate Baptist as saying, ". . . the Presbyterians are more zealous in 
supplying chaplains than any other [denomination]. . . . They seem to 
have more chaplains . . . [and] men of the best intellects and attainments." 

61 Proceedings of the Southern Baptist Convention Held at Russellville, 
Kentucky, May 22-26, 1866 (Richmond, 1866), 40. No figure was given 
as to the amount of supplement these chaplains received. 

82 Central Presbyterian, November 5, 1863, November 7, 1864. 
63 Religious Herald, February 18, 1864. 
"Richmond Christian Advocate, December 3, 1863. 

58 The North Carolina Historical Review 

their major emphasis on the sending of missionaries and 
evangelists to the army. 

Among the larger Protestant denominations only one, the 
Southern Baptist, voiced any official protest against the 
appointment and paying of chaplains by the government. The 
editors of two Baptist papers felt that another method of 
selecting and paying a chaplain was preferred; the men of a 
regiment should vote for a minister who had visited and 
worked among them, and his salary should be paid by the 
men of the regiment and by the missionary board of the de- 
nomination of which he was a member. 65 The objection to 
the paying of chaplains by the government seemed too much 
like the state supporting the church, 66 and contrary to the 
emphasis which traditionally the Baptists had placed on the 
complete separation of church and state. The Georgia State 
Baptist Convention of 1864 adopted the following resolution, 

This convention does not approve of the principle of appoint- 
ing chaplains for the army to be paid out of the public treas- 
ury . . . and we pledge ourselves as a denomination to do all in 
our power to support all ministers of our denomination [who] 
attend as missionaries upon regiments or battalions which may 
petition for their services. 67 

Two local Baptist associations in Texas also adopted state- 
ments disapproving the appointing and paying of chaplains 
by the government. 68 This view, however, seems to have been 
one of a relatively small group within the denomination. 
The Southern Baptist Convention which met in 1863 did not 
mention any opposition to the appointing and the paying of 
chaplains by the government. 

If a minister wished to become a chaplain, it was not dif- 
ficult for him to receive a commission. A common procedure 
at the beginning of the war was for a local minister to act 
as the chaplain for the local company. Later when that 
body was made part of a regiment, the chaplain in many 

65 Christian Index, April 15, 1862, December 25, 1863; Biblical Recorder, 
January 16, April 8, 1864. 

66 Christian Index, November 30, 1863. 

67 Minutes of the Forty Second Anniversary of the Georgia Baptist State 
Convention. Held in Atlanta, April 22-25, 186k (Macon, 1864), 11. 

68 Pitts, Chaplains in Gray, 45. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 59 


instances would be commissioned chaplain of the regiment. 
If the chaplains of several companies were candidates, the 
one whom the commanding colonel recommended would be 
commissioned. 70 Commissions were granted by the Secretary 
of War, after the colonel of a regiment had been requested 
by his men to present the name of a given minister for chap- 
lain. 71 The different denominational weeklies advised minis- 
ters who wanted to become chaplains to visit a regiment, 
preach several sermons, become acquainted with the men and 
officers, and see if each liked the other. If the men approved 
of the minister, they would ask their colonel to secure his 
commission from the Secretary of War. 72 The War Depart- 
ment, however, was never burdened with any large number 
of requests for these commissions. 

The life of the army chaplain was not as severe as law 
would lead one to expect. Chaplains were ministers, men of 
God, and they were respected by the vast majority of the 
men and officers in the Confederate armies. 73 At least a year 
before Congress passed a law permitting chaplains to have 
forage for their horses, such generals as Jackson, Hardee, and 
Bragg were not only issuing forage but often providing 
chaplains with horses. 74 Ministers who visited chaplains and 
preached in the army were frequently treated as guests of one 
of the higher officers. This was possible because officers 
were permitted more than one ration a day. 75 Chaplains 
were often given furloughs to attend ecclesiastical meetings 

69 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 8; David Sullins, Recollections of an Old Man, 
Seventy Years in Dixie, 1827-1897 (Bristol, Tennessee, 1910), 200, here- 
inafter cited as Sullins, Recollections of an Old Man. 

70 Official Records, Series IV, I, 766. Chaplains were always appointed 
by the President through the War Department. The recommendation of 
the commanding officer was always respected in making these appointments. 

71 Caskey, Caskey's Last Book, 30. 

72 Central Presbyterian, August 14, 1862; Christian Index, April 22, 1864; 
North Carolina Christian Advocate, January 10, 1865; Church Intelligencer, 
June 37, 1861. 

73 John B. McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of Tennessee," The Home 
Monthly, IV (January, March, and April, 1868), 26, hereinafter cited as 
McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of Tennessee" ; Jones, Christ in the Camp, 
6, 299, 511; M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," 231; J. C. 
Granberry to Miss Ella F. Winston, May 14, 1861, Granberry Papers. 

74 0. P. Fitzgerald, John B. McFerrin (Nashville, Tennessee, 1888), 273, 
hereinafter cited as Fitzgerald, John B. McFerrin. 

75 Diary of Francis M. Kennedy, entry for July 13, 1863, housed in the 
University of North Carolina Library, hereinafter cited as Diary of 
Francis M. Kennedy. 

60 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of their denomination. 76 The best chaplains, the ones whom 
the men loved and respected, like Dr. Charles Todd 
Quintard 77 of the First Tennessee Regiment, sought no favors 
because they were ministers. They lived with the men, 
messed with them, 78 slept on the ground, 79 marched with 
the soldiers, gave their horses to tired men, 80 ministered to 
their needs on the battlefield, in the hospital, and in the 
camp. 81 Their life was not much different from that of the 
soldier. As a chaplain in the Army of Northern Virginia said, 
"The work is hard, there are privations to be endured, ex- 
posure and discomforts are encountered, the work of the 
chaplain is demanding and often discouraging but it is a 
rewarding work." 82 

The labors of the sincere or conscientious chaplains were 
virtually unending. They preached as often as circumstances 
permitted, conducted prayer meetings, counseled with the 
men, 83 organized choirs, 84 conducted Bible classes, 85 organ- 
ized classes and taught men to read and write, 86 distributed 
religious literature, collected money from the soldiers to 
purchase tracts, hymn books, and testaments, 87 established 
camp and post libraries, 88 supervised hospital arrangements, 89 
visited the sick and wounded, read to them, wrote letters to 

76 W. A. Betts (ed.), Experiences of a Confederate Chaplain, 1861-186^. 
By Rev. A. D. Betts, Chaplain, 30th N. C. Troops (n.p., n.d.), 51; J. C. 
Granberry to Miss Ella F. Winston, December 5, 1861, Granberry Papers. 

77 Sam H. Watkins, Co. Aytch, Maury Grays First Tennessee Regiment 
or a Side Show of the Big Show. With an Introduction by Bell I. Wiley 
(Jackson, Mississippi, 1952), hereinafter cited as Watkins, Co. Aytch. 

78 Religious Herald, February 25, 1864. 

79 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 21. 

80 Watkins, Co. Aytch, 80. 

81 M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," 230. 

83 B. T. Lacy, "An Address of the Chaplains of the Second Corps Army 
of Northern Virginia, to the Churches of the Confederate States," Southern 
Historical Society Papers, XIV (January-December, 1866), 350-351, here- 
inafter cited as Lacy, "An Address of the Chaplains." 

83 Randolph H. McKim, A Soldier's Recollections (New York, 1910), 222, 
hereinafter cited as McKim, A Soldier's Recollections. 

84 McKim, A Soldier's Recollections, 238. 

85 McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of Tennessee," 28. 

88 The Soldier's Visitor (Richmond, Virginia), January, 1865, hereinafter 
cited as The Soldier's Visitor; Bennett, The Great Revival in the Southern 
Armies, 80. 

87 Diary of Francis M. Kennedy, March 7, 1863. 

88 Christian Index, April 2, 1862. 

89 Nicholas A. Davis, The Campaign From Texas to Maryland (Rich- 
mond, 1863), 93, hereinafter cited as Davis, The Campaign From Texas 
to Maryland. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 61 

their loved ones, comforted the condemned, 90 administered 
the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper to the 
men, organized army churches, 91 collected food, clothing, 
and medical supplies for the men, performed wedding cere- 
monies for soldiers, 92 and often acted as postmen for them. 93 
One chaplain established a bureau for locating missing 
persons and was instrumental in locating 30,000 individ- 
uals. 94 Faithful chaplains kept records of the men in their 
charge. Such data as home circumstances, church connec- 
tions, and change of religious status were noted. 95 Conscien- 
tious chaplains were no respecters of persons. They minis- 
tered to the Federal soldier as if he were one of their own. 96 
The Reverend William Owen, chaplain of the Seventeenth 
Mississippi Regiment, kept a record of the wounded Federal 
soldiers to whom he ministered following the battle of 
Fredericksburg. He also wrote to the families of the men 
whom he buried, telling them the location of the graves. 97 
The work of the faithful chaplain may best be seen in the 
activity of one of them. Such a chaplain was Dr. Charles T. 
Quintard, an Episcopal rector from Nashville and chaplain 
during most of the war to the First Tennessee Regiment. This 
northern-born chaplain had an M.D. degree from the Uni- 
versity of the City of New York. After practicing medicine 
for several years, he entered the ministry in 1855. When 
the war came he was rector of the Church of the Advent in 
Nashville. 98 When the Rock City Guards left that city to 
form part of the First Tennessee Regiment, he went with 
them and was made regimental chaplain. Throughout the 
war Dr. Quintard combined the dual role of army surgeon 

80 Romero, "Religion in the Rebel Ranks," 44. 

91 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 226-227. 

92 Norton, "The Organization and Function of the Chaplaincy," 142. 
. ^R. L. Dabney to Moses D. Hoge, June 11, 1862, Dabney Papers. 

94 Norton, "The Organization and Function of the Chaplaincy," 227-228. 

95 The Soldier's Visitor, January, 1865; Jones, Christ in the Camp, 227. 
^McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of Tennessee," 161; A. Toomer 

Porter, Led On! Step by Step (New York, 1898), 131; Porter remarked 
that northern prisoners and wounded were often surprised at the care 
they received from southern chaplains. George A. Blackburn (ed.), The 
Life Work of John L. Girardeau, D.D., LL.D. (Columbia, South Carolina, 
1916), 108-109. 

97 Robert Stiles, Four Years Under Marse Robert (New York, 1903), 
144, hereinafter cited as Stiles, Four Years Under Marse Robert. 

98 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 5-6. 

62 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and chaplain." In addition to the usual duties of the chaplain 
his duties included serving as a surgeon for fourteen and a 
half hours following the battle of Perryville, 100 supervising 
the hospitals of Bragg's corps, 101 and compiling devotional 
books for the men and officers. 102 Frequently he received 
letters from parents and friends of soldiers asking him to 
locate and report on some loved one from whom they had not 
heard in a long time. 103 In addition to his hospital responsi- 
bilities, in October, 1864, Dr. Quintard was appointed by 
Bishop Stephen Elliott as general missionary to the Army of 
Tennessee from the Diocese of Georgia. 104 He shared the 
life of the soldier, was the confidant of privates and generals, 
and was admired by those who knew him. 105 

In their preaching the chaplains put aside sectarianism 
and confined their interests to those aspects of Christianity 
common to all of the denominations. 106 Their sermons stres- 
sed the importance of repentance and trust in God and 
warned against the temptations of drink, gambling, and 
profanity. 107 Sermons on conduct did not always appeal to 
all of the men. One chaplain, after preaching against card 
playing, found the next morning that his horse's tail had been 
shaved. 108 Frequently the sermon would have a close rela- 
tion to the current situation. In the spring of 1862, as McClel- 

99 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 5-6. 

100 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 60. 

101 Cross, Camp and Field. Books Third and Fourth, 202. Quintard was 
given this duty in the spring of 1863. 

102 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 7. Perhaps no chaplain performed the varied 
services of Dr. Quintard, however, some did have additional duties. See 
Sullins, Recollections of an Old Man, 207; Davis, The Campaign From 
Texas to Maryland, 93. 

103 C. Miningerode to C. T. Quintard, April 18, 1862; Mary E. Danger- 
field to C. T. Quintard, February 23, 1863, Quintard Papers. 

104 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 102. 
105 Watkins, Co. Aytch, 136. 

106 Robert L. Dabney, Life and Campaigns of Lieut. Gen. Thomas J. 
Jackson (New York, 1866), 651, hereinafter cited as Dabney, Life of 
Jackson; G. W. Anderson, "Religion in the Confederate Army," Con- 
federate Veteran, VI (December, 1898), 579; Mary A. H. Gay, Life in 
Dixie During the War (Atlanta, 1901), 83, says that the chaplains united 
to preach the saving power of Christ. This reference will hereinafter be 
cited as Gay, Life in Dixie. See also McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of 
Tennessee," 161. 

107 Lacy, "An Address of the Chaplains," 350; Romero, "Religion in the 
Rebel Ranks," 170. 

108 William M. Polk, Leonidas Polk, Bishop and General (New York, 2 
volumes, 1894), II, 208. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 63 

Ian was converging on Richmond, a Confederate chaplain 
preached from the text, 

Behold an host encompassed the city both with horses and 
chariots. And his servants said unto him, alas, my master! how 
shall we do? And he answered, fear not; for they that be with 
us are more than they that be with them. And Elisha prayed . . . 
and behold the mountain was full of horses and chariots of 
fire. 109 

On the day that General "Stonewall" Jackson died, Bartlett 
Y. Malone and his comrades heard a sermon in which the 
chaplain told them not to despair for "we know all things 
work together for good to them that love God." 110 In the 
summer of 1862 a Virginia lieutenant had his "dull, cold 
heart" stirred by the preaching of the regimental chaplain, 
whose name was Wiatt. 111 During the spring and summer of 
1863 John C. Granberry preached from such texts as John 
17:15, Matthew 11:30, 112 John 14:27, Luke 14:33, 113 and 
Revelation 22:17. 114 On August 23, 1863, his text was 
Hebrews 11:6. His exposition of this text was outlined in 
a letter to his wife. He wrote, 

. . . the chapter records the achievements of faith . . . among 
them national deliverance and triumphs. The independence of 
our own country may be won by this potent principle. . . . But 
there is lack of faith. . . . God is. God reigns. God's government 
is moral. The inference is that we surfer the calamities of war 
as a punishment for our sins. . . . Before the disruption of the 
union our great crime was the deification of national pros- 
perity . . . riches, power, splendor ... we were covetous, haughty. 
. . . God is punishing us. 115 

Some chaplains sought to influence the conduct of the sol- 
diers by picturing to them the agonies of hell. It was describ- 

109 William W. Pierson, Jr. (ed.), The Diary of Bartlett Yancey Malone 
(Chapel Hill, 1919), 18, hereinafter cited as Pierson, The Diary of Bart- 
lett Yancey Malone. 

^Pierson, The Diary of Bartlett Yancey Malone, 33. 

m Journal of Josiah Ryland, August 17, 1862. 

113 J. C. Granberry to his wife, April 21, 1863, Granberry Papers. 

U3 J. C. Granberry to his wife, May 29, 1863, Granberry Papers. 

u * J. C. Granberry to his wife, May 25, 1863, Granberry Papers. 

115 J. C. Granberry to his wife, August 22, 1863, Granberry Papers. 

64 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ed as a place of no mercy, where people were tormented by 
flames and were shut into darkness forever, and where there 
was only weeping, wailing, and gnashing of teeth. 116 In 
October, 1863, a North Carolina officer wrote, "I heard a 
first rate sermon last night by the Rev. Mr. Ewing, Post Chap- 
lain, from Isaiah 55:6 . . . seek ye the Lord while he may be 
found; call upon him while he is near." 117 A chaplain at 
Dalton, Georgia, in the spring of 1864 preached a sermon 
from Isaiah 53 on the text, "He was wounded for our trans- 
gressions and bruised for our iniquities." 118 In the autumn 
of 1864 Chaplain Randolph McKim preached on the sub- 
ject, "Divine Providence in Human Affairs," using as his 
text Psalms 97:1,2. The line of thought he developed was as 

What practical effect should belief in God's universal provi- 
dence have on us? We should rejoice. Innocence will be vindi- 
cated and right will at last be might, because "The Lord reign- 
eth." . . . We have arrived at the crisis in the fate of our beloved 
country. Whatever the result, the Christian need not fear. The 
doctrine of divine providence should also make us tremble least 
we resist His will and bring down His vengeance upon our 
guilty heads. 119 

Most of the sermons by army chaplains were simple 120 and 
dealt with orthodox Christian themes. 121 However, on oc- 
casions the men might hear a sermon like the one Dr. Quin- 
tard heard an Alabama chaplain preach. It was described as 
a "war sermon," one in which the chaplain prayed that "the 
Yankee moral sensibilities might be awakened by the roar 
of our cannon and the gleam of our bayonets." 122 

Denominational and doctrinal differences were not em- 
phasized in army services during the war, and the clergy of 

116 The Chaplain of the 10th, Virginia Cavalry, Wither Bound, 4-5. This 
publication is a religious tract and lists no publisher or date of publication. 
It is one of many housed in the Confederate Museum, Richmond, Virginia. 

117 H. M. Wagstaff (ed.), The James Graham Papers, 1861-188U (Chapel 
Hill, 1928), 156. 

^ Gay, Life in Dixie, 82. 

119 McKim, A Soldier's Recollections, 251-252. 

120 Norton, "The Organization and Function of Chaplaincy," 146. 

121 Pitts, Chaplains in Gray, 110. 

122 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 72-73. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 65 

the various religious bodies engaged in some Christian co- 
operation in their labors among the soldiers. A minister 
visiting the Army of Northern Virginia attended a service in 
which the men heard a Presbyterian sermon introduced by 
Baptist services under the direction of a Methodist chaplain 
in an Episcopal church. 123 

An example of interdenominational co-operation may be 
seen in the formation of the chaplain s associations. The first 
of these associations was formed in Jackson's corps of the 
Army of Northern Virginia. The idea spread, and in a short 
time similar groups were formed in other armies. The Chap- 
lain's Association of the Army of Northern Virginia was 
organized March 16, 1863, at the instigation of General 
Thomas J. Jackson. 124 The purpose of this association was to 
consolidate the religious work of the corps and to try to pro- 
vide services for the men of all the regiments. The chaplains 
held weekly meetings at which time they would discuss 
their activities and problems, arrange and concert their 
labors, and devise means for supplying the destitute regi- 
ments of the army. 125 They also issued reports of their work 
and invited ministers to come and preach in the camps. 126 
The association had a president and a secretary elected by 
the chaplains. Reverend B. T. Lacy, the president, was re- 
quested by Jackson to serve as a missionary in the regiments 
of his corps which were without chaplains. He was also to 
try to secure ministers for them. If he was successful in 
finding a minister who was agreeable to the men of a regi- 
ment, he would give the minister's name to Jackson. Jackson 
would then secure his commission as chaplain from the War 
Department. 127 The secretary of the association corresponded 
with chaplains in other corps, discussing the state of religion 
in the armies; he also wrote to ministers arranging for them 
to visit the army and conduct services. 128 This type of organi- 

123 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 223. 

124 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 230. 
^Dabney, Life of Jackson, 651. 

™ Religious Herald, September 3, 1863. 

127 Dabney, Life of Jackson, 648. 

128 Central Presbyterian, September 10, 1863. 

66 The North Carolina Historical Review 

zation was later adopted in other corps of the Confederate 
Army. 129 

The official position of both governments during the war 
toward the chaplain was that he was a non-combatant and 
was to be discharged immediately if taken prisoner in bat- 
tle. 130 Though not always strictly adhered to, 131 this was the 
general policy. 132 Some Confederate chaplains, however, bore 
arms and were combatants. There were no rules authorizing 
or prohibiting their bearing arms. It seems to have been a 
matter which was left mainly to the discretion of the in- 
dividual chaplain. 133 It was a rare corps which did not have 
its "fighting parson." These men not only harangued the men 
to fight but fought with them. The Reverend I. T. Tichenor, 
Chaplain of the Seventeenth Alabama Regiment, was a minis- 
ter of this type. In writing to a friend about the battle of 
Shiloh he said, 

During the engagement we were under a crossfire . . . and the 
boys wavered. I had been wounded and was sitting down, but 
seeing them waver, I sprang to my feet, took off my hat, waved 
it over my head, walked up and down the line and . . . preached 
them a sermon. I reminded them that it was Sunday, that at that 
hour all their folks were praying for them. ... I called upon 
them to stand and die, if need be for their country. The effect 
was evident . . . every man stood his post. ... I feel in my heart 
I have served the cause of my God and my country. 134 

T. L. Duke, Chaplain of the Nineteenth Mississippi Regi- 
ment, was complimented for his actions in the fighting near 
Fredericksburg in December, 1863. The report of his com- 
manding officer stated, "He remained at the front of his 
regiment with his musket during the engagement and di- 

129 Army and Navy Messenger (Petersburg, Virginia), February 1, 1864; 
Bennett, The Great Revival in the Southern Armies, 245, 347; McFerrin, 
"Religion in the Army of Tennessee," 28. 

™ Official Records, Series II, IV, 269, 288. 

131 Official Records, Series II, V, 674; Series II, VI, 158; McFerrin, "Re- 
ligion in the Army of Tennessee," 122. 

132 Official Records, Series II, VI, 762; Series II, VII, 770. 

133 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 522; Caskey, Caskey's Last Book, 46. This 
author mentions a colonel who forbade his chaplain to fight. 

134 B. F. Riley, A Memorial History of the Baptists of Alabama, Being an 
Account of the Struggles and Achievements of the Denomination From 
1803 to 1923 (Philadelphia, 1923), 153-154. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 67 

rected the movements of the skirmishers of that regiment." 135 
The Reverend James Sinclair, Chaplain of the Fifth North 
Carolina Regiment, was given command of the right wing 
of the regiment at Manassas and led it for nine hours. 136 
Another righting chaplain was the Reverend Thomas W. 
Caskey. He said he did not attempt to kill anyone, although 
he shouldered a gun and fought. He always aimed low, only 
trying to break legs. He reasoned that this not only incapaci- 
tated the man but also required two others to carry him from 
the field, and therefore made for three fewer of the enemy. 
On the other hand, to kill a man would lessen the number 
by only one. He commended this mode of fighting to all who 
wished to amuse themselves by shooting at each other. 137 
Chaplain Colin Shaw of the Eighteenth North Carolina Regi- 
ment, in a letter to his wife, said, "We are eager to spill the 
Yankee blood." 138 Others would also engage in fighting when 
the battle became hot 139 but were careful not to neglect their 
ministerial function to the men. 140 

Spiritual leaders did not urge chaplains to fight, and at 
least one religious editor explained that it was the duty of 
the chaplain to minister to the comforts of the men and not 
to engage in fighting. 141 The more distinguished chaplains 
did not bear arms. Dr. Quintard never carried arms. 142 Ran- 
dolph McKim, after he became a chaplain, never shouldered 
arms. 143 The same was true of William Owen. 144 These men, 
however, went onto the field of battle with the troops, minis- 
tered to them when they fell, accompanied the wounded to 
the hospital, wrote to their relatives, buried the dead, for- 
warded their personal effects, and often gave their lives in 

135 Official Records, Series I, XXV, Part I, 873. 

136 Central Presbyterian, August 3, 1861. 

137 Caskey, Caskey's Last Book, 34. 

138 Colin Shaw to his wife, December 30, 1861, Shaw Papers, State De- 
partment of Archives and History, Raleigh. 

139 Edgar L. Pennington, "The Confederate Episcopal Church and the 
Southern Soldier," Historical Magazine of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, XVII (December, 1948), 360. 

140 Stiles, Four Years Under Marse Robert, 143; P. L. Rainwater (ed.), 
A Civilian's Recollections of the War Between the States. By H. S. Fulker- 
son (Baton Rouge, 1936), 140. 

141 Religious Herald, July 10, 1862. 

142 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 12. 

143 McKim, A Soldier's Recollections, 226. 

144 Stiles, Four Years Under Marse Robert, 143. 


68 The North Carolina Historical Review 

performing their duty. 145 Although there were chaplains who 
felt that the "armour of the Lord and the breast plate of 
righteousness" were not sufficient in the heat of battle, such 
men were in the minority. The large majority confined their 
actions to serving the needs of the men in a ministerial 
capacity. 146 

The chaplain was a recognized asset to the army. 147 During 
the war Generals T. J. Jackson and John B. Gordon urged 
more ministers to enter the army as chaplains. 148 General Lee 
was interested in the work of the chaplains and attended 
their meetings when his duties were not too heavy. 149 
General L. K. Polk told John B. McFerrin that a minister 
could do more good in the army than anywhere else. 150 
McFerrin also found that Generals Joseph E. Johnston, P. G. 
T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, and John B. Hood gave en 
couragement to religious services in their commands. 
Colonel A. W. McDonald believed that a chaplain was neces- 
sary to offset the demoralizing influences of campaign life. 152 
Captain John Weller was of the opinion that "clean-minded 
and pure-hearted" chaplain George B. Overton was the 
greatest influence for good in the entire regiment. 153 General 

D. H. Hill felt that if more chaplains were active in the army 
there would be less profanity spoken by the men. 154 Chaplain 
H. H. Kavanaugh of the Sixth Kentucky Infantry was describ- 

145 Church Intelligencer, June 13, 1862 ; Official Records, Series I, 
XXXVIII, Part II, 845; Jewell, History of Methodism in Arkansas, 182; 

E. Guthrie, "Chaplains Killed on the Field," Confederate Veteran, XXIII 
(February, 1915), 86. 

146 Noll, Doctor Quintard, 3; Wiley, "'Holy Joes,'" 298. 

147 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 205 ; Romero, "Religion in the Rebel Ranks," 
67; Bennett, The Great Revival in the Southern Armies, 71-79. 

148 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 94, 105. 

149 Douglas Southall Freeman, R. E. Lee (New York, 4 volumes, 1934), 
III, 224. 

150 McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of Tennessee," 26. 

151 McFerrin, "Religion in the Army of Tennessee," 25. A commander 
might encourage his men to attend religious services, but there were no 
rules or regulations requiring the men to attend. Religious activity on 
behalf of the men was voluntary. A commander might issue a general 
order for better observance of the Sabbath, but such did not require the 
men to attend services. See Official Records, Series I, XXXIII, 1150; 
Central Presbyterian, February 19, 1863. 

152 Official Records, Series I, II, 954. 

153 Ed Porter Thompson, History of the Orphan Brigade (Louisville, 
1898), 535, hereinafter cited as Thompson, History of the Orphan Brigade. 

154 D. H. Hill to R. L. Dabney, June 7, 1863, Dabney Papers. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 69 

ed by one soldier as a Christian inspiration for the soldiers. 155 
Major John Bagby said that the chaplain in his regiment was 
exerting a fine influence in favor of religion and morality. 156 
An unnamed colonel is reported to have said that he would 
rather have a good chaplain than a lieutenant-colonel or 
major. 157 W. L. Fleming says, "The good influence of the 
chaplain over the undisciplined men of the Southern armies 
was incalculable." 158 According to Dr. Bell I. Wiley the chap- 
lain "made a considerable contribution to the morale and 
combat efficiency of the men." 159 Other commentators praise 
the chaplains for their devotion to the welfare and interest 
of the men and their strengthening influence among them. 160 
If praise from the enemy is a criterion of value, the southern 
chaplain was all his most ardent booster claimed for him. A 
southern chaplain at David's Island prison in New York re- 
quested, through a northern minister friend, that he be 
permitted to conduct services for the Confederate prisoners. 
In answer to this request the Federal Commissary General 
of Prisoners write, "Such is not advisable. . . . There is prob- 
ably no class of officers whose influence is more powerful to 
keep up the spirits of the rebels than their chaplains." 161 

Not all chaplains were competent ministers and interested 
in the spiritual welfare of the soldiers. 162 A minister who 
served as chaplain in the Army of Tennessee said, "Oc- 
casionally one might find a lazy or shirking or self-seeking 
man in the chaplaincy." 163 O. P. Fitzgerald tells of a chap- 
lain in the Army of Tennessee who was caught in the act 

165 Thompson, History of the Orphan Brigade, 537. 

156 John Bagby to his wife, January 19, 1862, Bagby Family Papers, Uni- 
versity of Virginia Library, Charlottesville. 

157 Religious Herald, November 5, 1863. 

"* Walter L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (New 
York, 1905), 225. 

159 Wiley, " 'Holy Joes,' " 304. 

160 M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," 231 ; Official Records, 
Series I, XXXVIII, Part III, 933. 

161 Official Records, Series II, VI, 249. 

182 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 490. In this reference a minister notes that 
he believed that the chaplaincy improved after the first year of the war. 
This was because of the fact that at the beginning of the war some ministers 
went into the army under the influence of the war spirit or for secular 
motives. This minister is of the opinion that most of these men dropped 
out after a year or eighteen months. 

168 M'Neilly, "Religion in the Confederate Armies," 231. 

70 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of theft and relieved of his commission. 164 A South Carolina 
chaplain seems to have been more concerned for his personal 
comfort than in enduring the hazards of army life. 165 In 
Virginia, Reverend J. J. McMahon, a former chaplain, was 
court martialed for deserting his command and going to 
New York. 166 Some chaplains were criticized because they 
would not fight in battle. Sam Watkins of the First Tennes- 
see Regiment tells of a chaplain who preached on the text, 
"Blessed be the Lord God, who teaches my hands to war 
and my fingers to fight," but when the enemy attacked, he 
spurred his horse to the rear of the lines. 167 Evidence of 
cowardice on the part of the chaplain was an almost certain 
means of his losing the respect of the men. 168 An Englishman 
who fought in the Confederate Army said that most of the 
chaplains were loud-mouth ranters, who did little, if any, 
good and were more interested in card playing than in 
saving the souls of the soldiers. 169 

There were other criticisms of chaplains. Some were ac- 
cused of forsaking the men and going home during the winter 
months; 170 others, for their lack of preaching. 171 It appears 
that the chaplain was the target of some soldier criticism 
whether he preached or not. 172 A minister might be accused 
of being so "high larnt" that he spoke in terms the men could 
not understand, 173 or he might be called a whining and 
gasping speaker 174 and be charged with ignorance and a 
lack of education. 175 Others might describe his preaching as 
lifeless and lacking emotion. 176 The theology of some chap- 

164 Fitzgerald, John B. McFerrin, 348. 

165 Personne [Felix G. DeFontaine], Marginalia; or, Gleanings From an 
Army Notebook (Columbia, 1864), 176. 
168 Religious Herald, January 5, 1865. 

167 Watkins, Co. Aytch, 113-114. 

168 W. C. Dodson, "One of the Fighting Parsons," Confederate Veteran, 
XIX (February, 1911), 71; McKim, A Soldier's Recollections, 219. 

169 An English Combatant, Battle-Fields of the South From Bull Run 
to Frederickburg (New York, 1864), 194-195. 

170 Romero, "The Confederate Chaplain," 136. 

171 Wiley, " 'Holy Joes/ " 293 ; Jones, Christ in the Camp, 489. 

172 Wiley, " 'Holy Joes,' " 293. Wiley says that soldier comment on 
chaplains is not always reliable. Jones, Christ in the Camp, 515, states that 
the delinquencies of a few chaplains cast odium upon the many. 

173 Watkins, Co. Aytch, 113. 

174 Wiley, " 'Holy Joes,' " 294. 

175 Romero, "The Confederate Chaplain," 137. 
178 Journal of Josiah Ryland, January 26, 1862. 

The Office of Army Chaplain 71 

lains was criticized by an unnamed brigadier who described 
them as "the scourges of the army because by awakening the 
men's fear of retribution, [they] have unfitted them for 
battle." 177 

The chaplain found it difficult to please all of the men. 
Some of them may have preferred an evangelistic sermon and 
an informal approach to religion while others may have 
appreciated a more formal or liturgical service. However, it 
appears that the majority of the men who left their pulpits to 
minister to the soldiers were devoted to their work and were 
respected by the men. The incompetents, cowards, and self- 
seekers were the exceptions rather than the rule. 

In summary it might be said that the Confederate govern- 
ment never made a sincere attempt to provide for the estab- 
lishment of an adequate and competent chaplaincy. The ef- 
forts it did undertake were half-hearted and were made be- 
grudgingly. However, the churches realized the importance 
of providing spiritual care for the soldiers and sought to 
arrange a compromise plan with the government whereby 
chaplains would be furnished and paid by them, if the 
government would confer rank upon the chaplains. This 
plan was not favorably received by the government; and 
throughout the war, as the number of chaplains became less, 
the efforts of the government remained static. The actions 
of the Confederate government to provide chaplains exhibits 
some not uncommon characteristics of the Confederacy- 
lack of planning, organization, and leadership. Had the 
churches not assumed the responsibility of caring for the 
spiritual needs of the soldiers by supplementing salaries of 
chaplains, and more especially by sending civilian mission- 
aries and evangelists to the camps, the army would have been 
virtually destitute of religious influences. 

177 Jones, Christ in the Camp, 227. 


By Mary C. Wiley * 

On May 20, 1869, my father, Calvin Henderson Wiley, left 
Raleigh with his young wife and infant son James for Knox- 
ville, Tennessee, to assume his duties as Superintendent of 
the American Bible Society for Middle and East Tennessee. 

As first superintendent of the public schools, or as they 
were formerly called common schools, of North Carolina, 
1852-1865, Calvin H. Wiley had shown marked ability as an 
organizer and leader. By the beginning of the War Between 
the States, he had by his indomitable courage in the face of 
opposition and manifold difficulties; and by his gentle, wise 
leadership firmly established the public school system of his 
native State and during the four years of conflict, with the en- 
couragement and aid of Governor Zebulon B. Vance, he had 
kept the school fund intact and the schools in successful 
operation. When the last gun was fired, as he wrote at the 
close of the Civil War in a personal letter to Governor Worth, 
the doors of the common schools were still open and the 
schools numbering their pupils by the thousands. 1 

In his pioneer work of developing the public school system 
of North Carolina Superintendent Wiley had attained a repu- 
tation even beyond the border of his native State for bringing 
together discordant factions into a common interest. He was 
invited, 2 therefore, by the American Bible Society to under- 
take the delicate and difficult task of superintending the work 
of the Society in Middle and East Tennessee. 

This meant the straightening out of the financial tangles 
which the former superintendent had allowed to disrupt the 
work; the soliciting of funds from a people impoverished and 
discouraged through bitter years of warfare on their soil and 

* Dr. Mary C. Wiley was for many years Head of the Department of 
English at the R. J. Reynolds High School, Winston-Salem, and writes a 
column, "Mostly Local," in the Twin-City Daily Sentinel, Winston-Salem. 

X M. C. S. Noble, A History of the Public Schools of North Carolina 
(Chapel Hill, 1930), 249. 

* Greensboro Patriot, May 20, 1869 ; North Carolina Presbyterian (Wil- 
mington), May 19, 1869. 


Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 73 

adjustments during reconstruction days; the reviving of auxil- 
iary agencies— many of them in widely scattered rural com- 
munities—and creating in congregations already burdened 
with the obligations of their specific denominations, vital in- 
terest in an extra, interdenominational cause with headquar- 
ters in New York City, and with policies directed by a group 
of men out of touch with the problems of the South, and for 
the most part not in sympathy with the viewpoints of south- 
ern men and women. 

Devotedly attached to his native State it was no easy mat- 
ter for him in middle life to pull up the stakes and begin life 
anew in a state where, as he records in his Diary, he had 
never set foot, where he had no friends. A man of strong local 
attachment, of sensitive and deep feelings, it was heartrend- 
ing to break up the old home, Woodbourne, in Guilford 
County, six miles from Greensboro, to leave the scenes of his 
boyhood, the neighborhood and church associations of years, 
to separate from the aged mother to whom since her widow- 
hood he had ministered with a son's full devotion, and the 
children of a departed sister whom he had taken into his 

In his Diary, dated Knoxville, May 31, 1869, he writes: 

I came to Tennessee a total stranger, personally, to the people. 
I was never in the State before & came on this mission reluc- 
tantly. It involved painful separation from an old & comfortable 
home in North Carolina. I have with me Mrs. W. & a child 30 
months old. These latter are in feeble health & as yet we have 
no nurse, not being certain where we will have our home. 

I have had much difficulty getting a temporary location suit- 
able. I do not know where I can live cheapest & be in a convenient 
postion & I have no one to guide me. 

I have no papers or instructions from my predecessor & the 
whole Bible cause seems in confusion. I find that the list of 
auxiliaries & officers in the report of the American Bible Society 
for 1868 was made from reports before the War & many changes 
have occurred since. I have nothing to guide me but this report 
& have to learn for myself the state of things, the friends of the 
cause I represent : I have to enlighten the public mind as to the 
Bible Cause, bring order out of confusion; in fact, prepare the 
whole field to a great extent & this while I am a stranger, my 
dear wife without friends & my family not knowing where to 

74 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In the mean time I am gathering up all the information I can 
of my field of labor & studying plans of operation. 

An idea of my father's diligence in acquainting himself 
with his new field of labor is glimpsed in the entry of July 
26, 1869 of his Diary, written during an enforced stay of 
weeks on Lookout Mountain attending a very sick wife and 
a small son. 

We are preparing to go tomorrow to Chattanooga. I trust our 
stay here has been profitable to us in many respects. I have 
studied the geology of Tennessee — its resources, etc., & have 
tried to make myself familiar with the character of each county 
in my field & have made a tabular statement of the comparative 
wealth, the position geographically & the state of each in refer- 
ence to the Bible cause. Have also written out my plan for sys- 
tematic work in having all my field canvassed & supplied by 
bringing the strong [Bible] societies to the aid of the weak & 
have sent it to William Adams, treasurer of the Nashville Soci- 
ety. Have also come into correspondence with the Bible Agents 
of West Tennessee & Mississippi & East Kentucky. 

I humbly hope my experience here has taught me a more simple 
dependence on the Divine Power; has made me more humble & 
enabled me to wait with more patience on Him who alone can 
guide one wisely. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to review the difficulties 
which my father had to overcome in reviving the cause of 
the field to which he had been called nor to trace the steps 
by which he accomplished the sacred task assigned him. 

It is not out of place, however, to point out that one of the 
most effective means he used in carrying on his work was 
the selection of a group of men to assist him as colporteurs, 
and through detailed written instructions and personal con- 
tact, he trained these for their important work. 

Through these faithful co-laborers he was enabled to have 
some forty thousand families, more than one-fourth of the 
population of Middle and East Tennessee, visited during the 
first three years of his service and supplied with Bibles or 
portions of the Bible— some as donations from the Society, 
others at nominal cost. An idea of the need of such personal 
visitation may be inferred from the fact that in three counties 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 75 

in which the colporteurs had gone from door to door one- 
third of the population was without the Word of God. 3 

Significant of the state of affairs in Middle and East Ten- 
nessee during Reconstruction days is the June 2, 1869, entry 
in my father's diary: 

Spent the day in Knoxville. Called on ex-Governor Brownlow. 4 
Find the elements here extremely ready for collision on all sub- 
jects, & have to manage with extreme caution & delicacy. E. G. 
Last Sunday night preached in the Northern Methodist Church 
here (in Knoxville) from Acts XX:27 and Acts X:45. Subject — 
what we are to preach & what the Church is to teach. All moral 
truth revealed in the Bible & here are the boundaries of thought. 
We can know only what is revealed — all that it concerns us to 
know is plainly made known & in all ages & everywhere men 
need to be informed only of how a man can be just with God. It 
is all told in the text: here is the remedy for a ruined world & 
no other remedy will be found. Folly of trying to reply to all the 
evils of metaphysics. Ministers, Christians should frankly con- 
fess that they have no commission to explain what God has not 

The Press & Herald (Democratic) of June 2 noticed the ser- 
mon approvingly & adroitly applied it to Dr. Pearce (Editor of 
the Whig) making it cover the case of ministers going into other 
callings, which it did not. Dr. Pearce has been informed by me 
today of the character of the sermon, cordially approved it, etc., 
but I fear his reply will do harm. 

I am much worried at what has occurred & fear the Whig's 
reply will in judicially connect the Bible agency with exciting 
matters. It (the Bible agency) ought not be named at all in such 
connections & I have done nothing to cause it & everything to 
avoid it. There was no mention of it or any name in the article 
of the Press & Herald & I have got a friend, Col. Baxter (John 
Baxter of the Knoxville Law firm Baxter, Champion & Ricks) to 
see that this paper does not notice the Whig's reply & thus have 
the matter dropped. 

On horseback, in hired buggy, by stage, and railroad and 
steam boat, my father was constantly traveling from one end 
of his broad Tennessee field to the other, and while on these 

3 Circular entitled The Bible Cause issued in 1873 by Calvin H. Wiley, 
family papers in the possession of Misses Mary C. and Mittie T. Wiley, 

4 William G. Brownlow (1805-1877), known as "Parson Brownlow, Fight- 
ing Whig of Tennessee." 

76 The North Carolina Historical Review 

field trips he wrote almost daily, or rather nightly, to my 
mother. From a bundle of these letters, treasured through the 
years by my mother, we get graphic glimpses of the country 
over which he traveled, of the hotels in which he stopped, 
the over-heated, over-crowded day coaches in which he often 
had to travel at night. 

Reading these intimate letters of my father, or extracts 
from them, arranged in chronological order, is like talking 
over with him the day-by-day experiences of his travels up 
and down post-war Middle and East Tennessee. 

Nashville, Sept. 9, 1869. Nashville looks beautiful this weather. 
The fruit stalls are loaded with glorious peaches & large splen- 
did pears ; I wanted to buy some for preserves but they are 8 cts. 
a piece & $2 a peck. There are large, fine sweet potatoes in mar- 
ket & we had some sorry ones for dinner, half cooked. 

Rockford, Tenn. March 5, 1870. Rockford is about a mile from 
the railroad & as usual I had to walk through a long land, hilly 
& rich in red mud, then [had] to cross the river (Little River) 
on the dam on a narrow bridge of floating planks that would 
sink & I had burst one of my boots. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson were 
absent. (Mr. W. is proprietor of the cotton factory & the village 
consists of operatives who did not feel prepared to take in a 
stranger.) Finally when about given out, I hired a boy & mule 
& rode a mile to the (home of) the treasurer of the Bible Society 
& here I was well treated. I have longed to lie down but have to 
sit with a door open on me. 

I dread tonight. But God has been good to me & the little 
crosses I refer to are not worthy to be compared to the mercies 
I enjoy. I am ashamed to have alluded to them & made so much 
of them, but we are human & like to have some one to tell our 
troubles to, though we seldom speak of our mercies or think of 

Nashville, May 16, 1870. [This letter addressed to his small 
son Jimmy gives an unusual sideline to hotel life.] There is a 
great big black bear in the back yard at the hotel where I am. He 
is grown up, most as big as a cow, has a chain around his neck 
& is chained to a stake. He has a big box for his house, & at the 
door [there is] a great big hole full of water where he goes out 
& washes his face with his fore paws like a cat. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 77 

He climbs up on his house & lies down in the sun to get warm. 
He eats rats & cabbage & potatoes, & is very fat. Tell your Mama 
to show you a picture of a bear. 

Nashville, May 19, 1870. I went to Lebanon, sixteen miles, in 
a hired buggy yesterday. Lebanon is one of the sweetest towns 
I ever saw. Nearly every house is tasteful, embosomed in trees 
with large yards & wildernesses of flowers & blue grass. The 
Kentucky blue grass abounds in all that region. I traveled on 
graveled turn pike, dry as a floor, the rocks pounded to fine 
peebles. These pikes, splendid roads, abound in Middle Tennessee. 

Both roads [both sides of the road] were lined with neat, often 
fine, country houses, with large groves, often half [of] the trees 
poplar (now in bloom), blue grass knee high & wildernesses of 

[In this letter is slipped this note to Jimmy, telling more 
about the bear in the hotel back yard.] 

Jimmy, the bear is here yet. He has great long hair & big 
white teeth. He wont hurt anybody & he can stand straight up 
on his hind feet & hold out his fore feet for folks to give him 
something to eat. When you come near him, he stands up & holds 
out his forefeet for something to eat. 

Nashville, Nov. 17, 1870. The train to Knoxville was crowded. 
I counted eleven standing in the passage. I had to stand a great 
deal & the train being nearly two hours behind, we went at a 
breakneck speed. The cars were sickening hot & I could not take 
off my overcoat, for I had no place to lay it. 

At Knoxville we 5 got another coach & though a good deal of 
way (side) travel got in, I managed finally to get all of us in the 
same coach & near each other. 

We had nearly made up our time to Knoxville, but the new 
engine put on at Knoxville kept going out, so that when we 
reached Chattanooga we were an hour behind time. 

The Memphis train had only two coaches & there were colored 
people enough to fill one ; hence the other was badly crowded 

I saw all safely in. Mrs. Dick and the children had seats but 
John (Donnell) & Dick were still standing when I left. Many 

5 This letter was written just after my father had accompanied the 
family of his recently deceased sister, Mrs. Emily Wiley Donnell, wife of 
John Donnell of Guilford County [North Carolina], and cousins from 
Guilford County, Mr. and Mrs. Dick, enroute to Texas as far as Chatta- 
nooga, where he saw them safely on the Memphis train and bade them, as 
he says in his letter, "a sad farewell." 

78 The North Carolina Historical Review 

others were also standing when I left and many could not get in 
& had to lie over. Such wretched management ought to be pub- 

Nashville, Tenn. Dec. 7, 1871. The snow had not covered the 
ground here & the soil being tight frozen for nearly a week, the 
streets get very dusty. The dust & coal smoke darkened the air 
& gave the streets a very peculiar & gloomy look. It was hard for 
me to keep warm Monday night. I had just one thin mattress & 
nothing under or over it, a pair of blankets & one comfort, but 
all the rooms at the Battle House have stoves in them & I burned 
coal all night. The stove is now most disagreeable, especially with 
coal fire & I long for a fire place & wood fire. 

My health has been good but the close dry heat at night is 
telling on me, & I am becoming nervous. I get up unrested, & 
cold as it is, have to raise a window to get moist air. . . . 

I have bought me a silk shirt for $4: they have them, very 
heavy, double twisted thread, as high as $23 per pair. 

On the Road, July 20, 1872. We are now on the road between 
Chattanooga & Knoxville & above Sweetwater. I stayed in Chat- 
tanooga last night at a new hotel near the depot, a large airy 
brick house. . . . The Reids who kept the McMinnville House you 
have often heard me speak of have this new house in Chatta- 
nooga ; it will be the best hotel in Tennessee, though not so fine 
as the Maxwell House in Nashville. I came on the day train to 
Chattanooga, got there at 5 p.m. & left at 5 this morning. I was 
up at 4 o'clock & got little sleep. 

McMinville, Tenn. July 26, 1872. There is a large & very finely 
furnished hotel here, crowded with Nashville people. Beersheba 
Springs 6 on a mountain 20 miles from here is the summer resort 
of Nashvillians & they have what they call a "Calico Ball" there 

Nashville, Nov. 24, 1872. I came on without stopping at Chat- 
tanooga & the train arrives here at 1 a.m. ... I had intended to 
go to the Maxwell House a half a mile from the depot, but it was 
raining when I arrived here & I could not get a hack or any one 
to carry my valise. So I stopped at the Nicholson near the depot, 
a small hotel but more of a boarding house than a hotel. 

6 "Beersheba Springs in this county [Grundy] is one of the most delightful 
and fashionable watering places in the South. The waters are chalybeate 
and freestone." J. B. Killebrew, Resources of Tennessee (Prepared under the 
direction of the Bureau of Agriculture, 1874), 748, hereinafter cited as 
Killebrew, Resources of Tennessee. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 79 

I find a number of the old Battle House boarders here & quite 
a lot of city families, but for a mere transient man & a stranger, 
the house is only SO-SO. 

I miss the good servants who know me, like those at the Atkins 
House & the Battle House. There is no bell to the rooms & when 
I want anything, I have to hunt all over the house for a servant, 
my room is cold ; I have a poor fire, poor attendance, etc. 

They have the horse disease here & the streets are full of oxen 
& mules. They have oxen yoked & in the shafts, big ones & little 
ones, good & bad ' a general hubbub with them. There are few 
horses running, all of them covered with blankets ; no street cars 
run [horse cars, of course]. 

Nashville, Dec. 21, 1872. I write this under difficulty. The ink 
in the hotel is, at best, not much better than boot-blacking ; but 
it is all out & at every sentence I have to scrape up some dregs 
& dip my pen, or rather shove the dregs on to the pen. Why do 
people buy such stuff? 

Nashville, Jan. 22, 1873 . . . The lard butter is beginning to 
tell on my stomach ; it makes me sick to think of & I long to see 
real butter again. This lard business is getting to be a scandalous 
& intolerable nuisance & I wonder the papers do not open on it. 
Even rancid butter, that is butter, would be a relief after this 
white hog grease. The hotels are crowded. 

Nashville, Jan. 27, 1873. I got here today from Lebanon, where 
I preached at 11 a.m. (on the preceding day) in the Cumberland 
Presbyterian Church ; held a Bible meeting of the officers of the 
Society & town pastors at 3 o'clock at the home of Dr. Beard, 
President of the Society & President of the Theological Depart- 
ment of Cumberland University, located here; 7 & at 7 P.M. 
preached, by request, a Bible sermon in the Methodist Church, 
South, to all the congregations (in town). It was a quarterly 
meeting (of the Methodists) but they voluntarily gave way to 
me & the Presiding Elder sent after me. . . . Without thinking 
of such a thing, I have made quite a reputation on this trip. I 
had the University professors out Sunday morning; two judges, 
etc. but aimed to preach a plain, practical gospel sermon. The 

7 "Cumberland University is one of the best institutions of the South. In 
addition to the Academical Department, it has a Law School, Theologican 
School, and Commercial and Telegraphic School. The Alumni of this Uni- 
versity have supplied the bar and bench, the pulpit, and the halls of Con- 
gress to a considerable extent, and have furnished many of the best 
editors, teachers and business men of the Country. The University is under 
the care of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church." J. B. Killebrew, Resources 
of Tennessee, 1011. 

80 The North Carolina Historical Review 

pastor with whom I am a favorite told me he got a new idea & 
that my sermon was much commented on Sunday P.M. Today on 
the cars I heard it quoted several times. The Bible address the 
Presiding Elder told me today was much commended. 

I am thankful that while aiming only to do good, I have left 
a good impression, but I have no pride about it. My desire is to 
be approved by the Master. . . . 

The remaining part quoted from this letter was written for 
the benefit of Jimmy, the small son of the family. Whenever 
a letter from my father was received, the family would gather 
around my mother to hear her read it aloud, for he always 
sent a special message or greeting to each member of the 
household, including the Negro servant, Jane Glenn, who 
had come out to them from the old home in Guilford. 

It snowed here yesterday, some of it melted & then froze into 
ice last night & I tell you the streets are slippery. 

On a wide street where there is a long hill near that white 
marble house Jimmy saw called the Capitol the boys are having 
a great frolic, sliding on the ice. I passed them at sundown & 
there were fifty or more boys — big & little, white & black, rich 
& ragged, laughing & holloing. Some were sliding on nice little 
sleighs, some on sleds of boards, some on planks ; one fellow was 
on a bucket, one on a flat rock. 

I expected some of them would get their heads or legs broken, 
they slided so fast & so many of them together, running races 
& running against each other & knocking one another over. But 
a man called a policeman that keeps bad folks from doing mis- 
chief was there & kept them from hurting each other. Two great 
big boys had skates on their feet (Mama will tell you what that 
means) & slided on their feet. 

Nashville, Feb. 14, 1873. It rained incessantly at Chattanooga 
Tuesday night & the waters were high Wednesday. The road 
through the mountains was flooded; the creek we crossed some 
dozens of times was nearly up to the cross ties & in some places 
stretched hundreds of yards on each side of the road, the road 
being an island in it. (In coming through the mountains we fol- 
low the valley of a crooked creek with low valleys). 

If spared, I leave to-night, hoping to arrive in Knoxville at 
12 M to-morrow. 

Near Knoxville, Saturday a.m. Feb. 15 (In pencil) ... I wish 
you all could see the Tennessee — it's looking lordly compared 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 81 

with its low condition for years. The other side of Chattanooga 
we cross on two streams, there being a large island between the 
streams. Now the river is over much of the island & out of its 
banks on the opposite side. . . . 

I got a glimpse of a new phase of western life this A.M. [It is 
of interest to note how my father always refers in his letters 
to Tennessee as the West — that is, west from his beloved North 
Carolina.] In these freshets, the people float their grain in flats 
& barges down the little rivers to the Tennessee [River] & 
down the Tennessee to Chattanooga, where the producer takes 
the cars & the flats are sold. This A.M. the front car is full of 
rollicking boatsmen going home. 

McMinnville, Tenn. October 14, 1873. I am just here. Preached 
last night in Manchester & had a Bible meeting (there) this 
A.M. ... I had a miserably hard bed to lie on; the shucks (in 
the mattress) had only cobs left & I had to put the comfort under 
me; there was a big crack in the wall at my head & I lay cold 
with all my coats on. ... I am sorry I will not get your letter 
before I mail this. The cross railroad from Tullahoma here & 
the Post Master General have had a falling out & the mail comes 
by buggy & will not get here until 6 o'clock tonight. 

McMinnville, Tenn. Oct. 16, 1873. It kept me very busy much 
of the day yesterday to finish my correspondence & get my 
office work up to date. . . . 

How lonely I am without you all. Much as I stay in my study 
at certain hours at home, yet at certain hours we all meet & then, 
too, I ever hear you all about me. How I miss this hum of dear 
voices when away & the frequent greetings! 

If spared, I will carry this (letter) out to Tullahoma tomorrow 
A.M. & mail there to let you know how I am getting along. 

Tullahoma, Oct. 17, 1873 [At bottom of page] Arrived here 
safe at 8% A.m. You have little idea what an affliction the dust 
is over here. The weather is fine but rather warm. Have your 
postal card of the 12th. Leave in 40 minutes for Mufreesboro. 
Love to all. 

On December 12, 1873, my father started out on a tour, by 
train and private conveyance, of Middle Tennessee, em- 
bracing Fayetteville, Columbia, Lewisburg, Gallaton, and 
Nashville. 8 

8 Diary of Calvin H. Wiley, December 11-21, 1873. 

82 The North Carolina Historical Review 

On December 15, 1873, he records in his diary: 

On the road from Fayetteville to Pulaski all day by private 
conveyance. It was a very raw day, the road was bad & could 
not reach Pulaski & I had hard work to get a place to stay (over- 
night) . At 6 p.m an hour after sundown was taken in at a rough 
place & kindly treated. 

In a letter to my mother written from Pulaski the next day 
he goes into detail concerning the hard ride of the previous 
day and the night at the "rough place" at the end of it. 

At night fall, I begged a man living in a neat white house 
to take me in, promising to eat my own supper, but as I got 
out awkardly (stiff from the day's hard ride) I scattered in 
the mud my crackers I had brought with me. I could have cried, 
but I had one of Jane's biscuits left. The people were very kind, 
gave me coffee, cold hard corn dodger & fried pork. I ate Jane's 
biscuit, dry, drank coffee & went to bed, first stopping all the 
big air holes. 

I can't describe to you the dirt & coarseness inside. Breakfast, 
such soda biscuits as you never saw, fried pork & coffee, no 
butter, & the pork only the pure fat. 

How tired I am of seeing pork; it was grease, pork, all the 
time & cooked in a way you would not like. On the road here 
about every other farm was killing hogs yesterday. I have not 
eaten a full meal at all except a few mouthfuls yesterday morn- 
ing in 24 hours. 

Please do not understand me as complaining of Providence. 
I feel truly gratitude for His new, unfailing mercies & enjoy 
them now & have done so on this trip. I only wanted to give you, 
once for all, a glance at Tennessee life in many places for which 
there is no excuse. My host last night was evidently a large 
farmer, one of many men who live in good houses, have much 
property, whose families make a show outside & yet they are 
not much above the Cherokee Indians in the art of civilization. 

In Nashville, December 23, 1873, my father records in his 

9 In 1850, Tennessee took first rank as a hog-growing state. In 1860 she 
raised even more hogs than in 1850. The industry of hog-raising was al- 
most annihilated during the Civil War, but owing to the rapid reproduction 
of the animal, Tennessee in the 1870's was producing twenty per cent 
more hogs than in 1860 — an average of 145 hogs to each 100 inhabitants. 
Killebrew, Resources of Tennessee, 129, 138, 139. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 83 

The Lord permitting, I leave tonight at 8 o'clock for home in 
Jonesboro & I would here record my humbly grateful sense of 
the Divine goodness to me on all this trip, as in all my life. To 
the Lord & to the Word of His grace I commit myself & the dear 
ones at home, praying that He would unite us in His peace and 
in thanksgiving to Him. Letters 41. 

An outstanding event of the years my father spent in Ten- 
nessee as Superintendent of the American Bible Society for 
Middle and East Tennessee was the epidemic of cholera dur- 
ing the summer of 1873 in his field. 

A yellowed slip of paper bearing the date August 1, 1873, 
written in pencil, evidently in haste, by a physician, with a 
postscript in another hand, brings to memory the stories 
handed down by my father and mother of the fearful days 
when suddenly and almost without warning the scourge of 
cholera struck the lovely little East Tennessee town, Jones- 
boro, in which they were at the time making their home. 

On the yellowing slip before me "W. R. S." sends the fol- 
lowing information to "J- N. Hess, Esq.: 

Minnie Floyd Rittie Reese Fannie Folson (or Irbe) & Polly 
Ackenhair died since my last & new cases this morning (are) 
Old Jeff Hoss (whom) I visited for first time a few minutes 
ago — entirely pulseless on first visit so with the case of a Negro 
child Old Hannah Stuart almost so — Armstrongs wife (the Dr's) 
just taken. W. R. S. 

P.S. [written on other side of slip] Mag Floyd will most likely 
die today so will Jeff & perhaps one or two more — Mag has been 
for 40 hours without pulse — 

I have a strong hope that I shall be able to devise a remedy 
which will be of a substantial benefit. 

[The pencil notation in another hand reads:] One more 
case in the last ten minutes, Silas Parkers wife. F. Devault. 
P.S. A. C. Collins is very bad not expected to live. Seven or 
eight new cases since daylight. F. D. 

Turning to my father's diary I find the first mention of 
cholera in the entry of June 15, 1873. This entry and others 
in the diary relating to the dread scourge are as follows: 

84 The North Carolina Historical Review 

June 15, 1873. Jonesboro. There is said to be cholera in Green- 
ville & other places in my field, as well as in Nashville, where 
it seems an epidemic. There is much alarm & confusion & such 
a general tendency to sickness that I have considered it proper 
to remain at home at present. 

June 16, 1873. Jonesboro. It is believed the cholera is certainly 
in Greenville ; it is in Nashville & other places & has interrupted 
my plans, but the God I wish to serve rules in all things & 
righteously rules. 

June 18, 1873. Jonesboro. In Jonesboro is much fear of cholera. 
There has been much fatal sickness in Greenville; there were 
5 deaths there night before last. I hope that our fears of pestil- 
ence will prove unfounded. 

June 28, 1873. The state of things in Greenville is most sad. 
The cholera is still very fatal & the town nearly deserted. There 
is a general fear of the cholera (here) every day & the physicians 
fear it. 

June 30, 1873. Jonesboro. Monday. To-day at my effort there 
was a union prayer meeting at 10 A.M. & another one at 4 P.M. 
The Lord permitting, I long to see the Christian people coming 
to God for deliverance from the threatened cholera & every 
other evil in penitance & confessing & forsaking their sins. 

July 5, 1873. Saturday. To-day I moved my family to Mt. Airy, 
Wythe County, Virginia. (Rural Retreat is the Postoffice now.) 
My dear wife is very feeble, threatened with sickness. I am 
feeble & the children not well. Besides we have been over two 
weeks within 25 miles of Cholera, (at Greenville) where it has 
been exceeding severe, and looking for it in Jonesboro. Suspense 
was affecting us all & confining me. I feared to go off on Bible 
work, & we left at the advice of our physician. I have earnestly 
prayed that the blessing of God may be on the movement. We 
arrived safely. 

July 7, 1873. Monday. Mt. Airy. Fixing up. Our house, engaged 
for us by a friend, is not as good as we expected, but we are 
trying to be contented. 

On July 17, 1873, my father's family physician and per- 
sonal friend, Dr. D. J. Gibson, mailed this letter to him. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 85 

Jonesboro, Tenn 
July 17th 1873 
Rev. C. H. Wiley: — 

Dear Friend, your note with Mrs. W's kind letter was reed 
this morning. We rejoice to hear of the improved health of your 
family & hope to hear of your realizing as much benefit as the 

A little baby boy came to us on the night of the 14th at 11 
o'clock. It was a great event. And although the little fellow may 
appear to the ordinary observer just as any other baby, to those 
who have noticed him most he has peculiar attractions. He 
weighs 8 lbs. blankets and pins included, has large dark eyes 
& rejoices (I guess he does) in the name of David J. Gibson, Jr. 

Mrs. G. was taken at 11 A.M. Monday & continued in hard 
labor until 11 p.m., when she was safely delivered. She has been 
quite confortable, grateful & happy ever since. A little while 
after she was taken in the morning, Dr. Lewis addressed me a 
note saying that his wife was in labor & anticipating difficulty 
requested me to remain at home so that he could avail himself 
of my assistance if necessary. I returned for answer that my 
wife was in the same condition ! At three o'clock the same night 
I was hastily summoned with my instruments to his house. When 
I arrived, I found Drs. Wheeler & Deadereck in attendance, Mrs. 
L. having had two convulsions. Her labor was hard but not 
sufficient & while I was preparing her mind for an instrumental 
delivery, she took the third convulsion. As soon as there was a 
little relaxation, I proceeded at once & in a very few minutes 
delivered her with the forceps of a nice living boy. . . . 

Such are the events of the week. Coan Collins wife died of 
cholera Monday night. It seems she contracted the disease of 
Old Mrs. Campbell who you remember was sick there. This 
makes three cases that have occurred here. I had one case of an 
old woman of the name of Head three miles below town on the 
Creek. She had been sick 13 hours before I saw her & was in 
a collapse state. She died, of course. The disease was contracted 
when she lived on the banks of this town Creek in a low damp 
place when the water overflows the banks & is fetid. I hope & 
believe the disease will not spread here. But there is a decided 
tendency to bowel complaints. Cholera seems to be abating 
everywhere in Tenn. There has been but little (cholera) only 
one or two cases in Knoxville, some worse in Chattanooga & 
fearful in Greenville. 

We hope that you may soon return to us refreshed & invigorat- 
ed. We have missed you very much. Sarah (Mrs. Gibson) says 
tell Mrs. W. she had the dearest little baby in the world. She 

86 The North Carolina Historical Review 

does wish she was here to help her love it. Thanks her for her 
kind letter & would answer it right off if she dared use her 
eyes. Sends love to her & your Mother. 

Johnnie (small son) reports the pigeons have returned to 
their home, will look after them Carlo (dog) made us a visit 
upon invitation from Johnnie, turned up his nose at bread — evi- 
dence of his not being without friends. I think all is safe at your 
house. I know your squashes are delicious. 

I have no pen at hand & no time to review & correct my hasty 
letter. Please excuse all. Should be glad to hear from you all 
again. With kind regards to the family I am. 

Very truly your friend 
D. L. Gibson 

On July 25, 1873, Mrs. D. L. Gibson-the "Sarah" of Dr. 
Gibson's letter— in a warm personal note to my mother has 
this to say of conditions in Jonesboro: 

I do not expect to see you here very soon for I know Dr.'s 
letters will discourage you. Tell Jane [my mother's faithful 
colored servant from North Carolina] the colored people are 
very much alarmed, perhaps more than any others, as there 
have been such sudden deaths among them. If we were safely 
away from Jonesboro, I would not return at present. I feel 
anxious about Dr. He is so poorly & still has many calls & can 
not give himself the rest he needs. Yesterday Mrs. Dr. Deadrick 
made me a nice long call. I enjoyed it very much. We thought 
& talked much of you. We miss you all & shall be so glad to see 
you again. The children go over to your home nearly every 
evening (afternoon) & meet the Morrison children. I think all 
is going on well there, tho' poor old Carlo (the dog) is very 
lonely; . . . 

. . . Give much love to all your family. I trust you may be 
kept in Safety & that you will not find your camp life so hard 
to prevent your improvement ; take it as easy as possible — hard- 
ship is better than to live in continual fear of cholera. 

On Sunday, July 29, 1873, my father records in his diary: 

At Rural Retreat. 

Last week we were thinking of returning to Jonesboro by to- 
day or to-morrow, D. V., when late in this week our family 
physician & others wrote us, warning us to keep away, as the 
cholera was quite threatening & about the same time my dear 
Mother was taken quite sick. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 87 

Four days later, Saturday, August 2, 1873, my father re- 

The last reports from Jonesboro are awful; the cholera 
is very fatal & the town nearly deserted. The news is most dis- 
tressing. Mother is still very low. 

Among the letters preserved bearing the "last reports" of 
the cholera situation in Jonesboro is this one, dated August 
1, 1873, from J. L. Lampson, "Dealer in General Merchandise 
and Country Produce, Jonesboro" Washington Co., Tenn." 
( as the letter heading states ) . 

Rev. C. H. Wyly 

Dear Sr I rec'd your letter yesterday & was glad you were 
all well — Desolation reigns supreme. I don't suppose that there 
are more than from 6 to 10 families in town. Every one that 
could — has left. I am now at Easleys Springs with my family, 
have been since last Saturday. Our little Nannie died Monday 
morning at 3 A.M. We returned by morning train with the 
Corpse & buried her the Same day & Return (ed) to this place 
(Easely's Springs) where we shall stay till find best to leave 
for some other place. It seems as tho' all our troubles were com- 
ing at once. There have been 21 Deaths in town (Jonesboro) 
since the third of July when it begun. Its ravages far surpass 
those of Greenville thus far — Among the dead are the names of 
Mr. Febuary, Mr. & Mrs. Floyd & 2 Girls, Wm Boyd, Kitty 
Ruse, one Leg Jackson, Mrs. John Naff, Mrs. Shaver; Polly 
Lucky, black, Mrs. Collins & the rest are blacks. I have just 
locked up my house & store & left them to take care of them- 
selves. I will just enclose you a note from Dr. Sevier [no doubt, 
the note on the slip signed W. R. S. mentioned before] to show 
how it stands today. It must be a sad state of things there now. 
I was there on Wednesday morning (July 30) & found General 
Jackson, Nu Carvan, John Cox, Capt. Grisham, Denke, Young, 
Baily, Mr. Lockwood & a few young men in town. Dr. Borrel 
(?) has recovered so as to be considered out of Danger, but 
very few cases have been cured since the disease here go a fair 
start. Dr. Campbell from Knoxville & Dr. Smith from Greenville 
are there (in Jonesboro) helping our own Drs. Dr. Gibson & 
Dr. Wheeler have been unable to do anything since the beginning. 
In regard to your mail — I will have it forwarded if possible. I 
fear the P. 0. is closed by this time. Much love for your family. 

88 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Pray for us — that we may be delivered from this terrible 
scourge. Your friend. 

J. L. Lampson 
Direct your letters to Johnson City 

On August 5, 1873, A. E. Jackson wrote the following let- 
ter to my father: 

Jonesborough Aug 5th /73 
Rev. C H Wiley 
Rural Retreat Vir 
My Dear Sir 

Your esteemed favor of yesterday came to hand this morning, 
from which I am pained to learn your family has been greatly 
afflicted since you left here. I trust however you have passed 
thro the worst. 

Our Town has been most severely scourged by that most 
fearful of all diseases Cholera, and our population becoming 
panic stricken have fled in all directions, until we have not 
enough left to care for the sick & dying. And but for the timely 
aid received from Knoxville, Bristol, and other points, we would 
not have been able to bury the Dead. Nearly all of those who 
left us at the outset seemingly have forgotten us, and failed 
to send back any material aid for the relief of the sufferers, 
yours, Doser's, Lampson's & McMahoney's being exceptionable 
cases. We have funds enough for all purposes and we think 
under your affliction and the heavy expense you have been sub- 
jected to in the removal of your Family, it would be unjust to 
accept your generous offering for our afflicted community, feel- 
ing grateful however for your kind sympathy we hope to be 
excused for respectfully declining your offer. Mr. Lampson on 
whom you have drawn has not been in Town for a week there- 
fore we will hold up the enclosed order until we hear from you. 

We hope and trust the Epidemic is now passing from us, and 
our wandering may soon be permitted to return to their deserted 

Mrs. Jackson & Lilly unite in warmest regards to Mrs. Wiley 
and family 

Yours Very Truly 
A. E. Jackson 

P. S. Col Grisham died yesterday 2nd p.m. The rest of the 
patients are all doing well [Then in pencil is added] In declining 
your generous offering you must not think your kind intentions 
not appreciated AEJ 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 89 

In a letter bearing the date August 10, 1873, Jackson writes 
my father: 

The health of our town is so much improved within the last 
five days, (not having had a death in that time) I think our 
absent Friends may return to their homes in safety by the 
middle of the present week. Rev. Mr. Morrison has been with us 
for the past two days, visiting the sick, all of whom now have a 
fair prospect of recovery. Mrs. Jackson unites in my kind re- 
gards to Mrs. Wiley and Family. 

On Monday, August 25, 1872, my father records in his 

At Rural Retreat. . . The Lord willing we are anxious to re- 
turn to Jonesboro this week. We have two letters of the 24th; 
from these (we learn) a second attempt to rob our house was 
made Saturday night & our garden, a very fine one, has been 
completely stripped & then hogs & cows turned in as a blind. 

One of the two letters mentioned above has been preserved. 
It is from Dr. B. C. Gibson and reads: 

Jonesboro Aug. 24th 1873 
Rev. C. H. Wiley:— 
Dear Sir, 

You letter of yesterday is just rec'd. I shall reply at once to 
the inquiries you make as well as I may be able. But I can not 
give you as full and as satisfactory an account of the health and 
condition of the County as I could if I were in full practice. My 
opportunities for knowing are of course very limited. 

The Cholera disappeared from this town as abruptly, even 
more abruptly, than it came. Trupler, the jailor, I believe was 
the last one who had a genuine attack of the disease. For a few 
days after his attack there were a few cases of disorder which 
I believe were called Cholera in a mild form by the attending 

There are and have been some cases of diarrhea ever since 
in town, which are not any longer called Cholera. I think there 
are not now any more cases of diarrhea in town than we ordin- 
arily have at this season of the year. And there does not seem 
to be any tendency to any other disease. The citizens, with the 
exception of a few families have all returned. And they all so 
far as I have had an opportunity of observing look enfeebled 
and very much "worse of the wear." They all have suffered from 
mental anxiety & many of them probably from too rigid a diet. 

90 The North Carolina Historical Review 

There have been a few cases of Cholera in the County some- 
southeast of Washington College — some at Carters Depot and 
on Boons creek & a few at Pagantown. But it has not been general 
and does not seem to be increasing. 

I hope & trust we may not have a revisitation of the dreadful 
scourge at this place. I believe it is very uncommon for it to 
appear the second time in one locality the same Season. It has 
not done so at Greenville. Not a single case I am informed has 
appeared there since it first abruptly left the place. There have 
been a few cases at Knoxville all the time. Yesterday a telegram 
came for Dr. Sevier to visit Judge T. A. R. Nelson at K. It stated 
that he had a mild attack of Cholera. This morning Dr. S. sent 
a dispatch stating that Mr. Nelson was dying and ordered his 
grave to be dug that he might be buried at this place at 4 o'clock 
this evening. I also heard it stated yesterday that there were 
over 13 [cases] of it at Knoxville. But from all I see & from what 
I have stated I believe we shall not have Cholera here again this 
season, and if I were situated as you are I would return at once. 
I may be wrong in my judgment but I speak candidly — just as 
much as when I advised you to leave. 

I think Henry Crawford does not use water out of your spring 
— why he does not I can not tell. None of them have been sick. 
If you should return I think it would be well for you to have 
your house aired & disenfected a day or two before you arrive. 
Mary Rhea or Henry Crawford would either of them probably 
be willing to attend to it for you. Hattie has just informed me 
that she heard at Sunday School today that your house had been 
broken into again last night. You may not hope to find things 
undisturbed when you return. But I think you will find that no 
very serious damage has been sustained. 

So far as our household is concerned I would say we are a 
"fiber folk." I have just got able to ride a little — visited my first 
County patient to-day. Sarah was not getting up very strong 
and a few days ago she had a spider to bite her on the breast 
which made her very sick & has given her a very painful sore. 
Her breast is very much inflamed and has a sore which resembles 
a carbuncle upon it, & which is now discharging pus fulp. She 
is in a most uncomfortable condition. She says under other cir- 
cumstances she would write to Mrs. Wiley — desires to be re- 
membered to all. 

She says tell your Mother we all wish to see her & hope she 
will find things more cheerful here than she imagines. But that 
if she should go to N. C. she will meet with a sad disappoint- 
ment. She got very homesick to visit N. C. once & when she got 
there she found things so changed she was glad to get back to 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 91 

I have written hastilly but I believe I have noticed all the 
points of inquiry. Hoping to see you and yours and in an improv- 
ed state of health, I am as ever your & 

D. J. Gibson 

From his ministerial friend, Rev. William W. Morrison, of 
the Southern Presbyterian Church, my father, two days after 
Dr. Gibson's letter, received this one. 

Jonesboro Aug 26th 1873 
Dear Bro 

I went up & opened your house this morning & as I could 
not get either Chloride of Lime or Soda, put a solution of Cop- 
peras in all the rooms. I have engaged Mary Rhea to scour the 
rooms & windows as requestered. She says she will clean all & 
put out the beds etc. for $2. You rarely saw a house more mould- 
ed than it is — even the floors covered with mould. I will have 
fires made in the rooms & shut them up until they are all well 
heated & then open all up well. This will do more to purify it 
thouroughly than anything else. 

I have advised with Mr. Lampson & we advise what we be- 
lieve a better plan than to go into the house. The surroundings 
there will be hard to clean ; there is so much rotten wood about 
the house & yard. I have seen Mr. Will Doser; you can get his 
mother's place for a year for $100 or you can occupy it by the 
month ; this place is clean & has a good cistern. Then if you get 
the Adler place you can also move to it if you wish. I know we 
would love to have you for a neighbor & hope we shall. The 
additional move will not amount to much. I will have all your 
bedding, etc. moved & put into the Doser house after having 
them sunned & aired one day — not put back in the present house 
but moved (to the Doser house) after being out all day. Then 
have them put out there the next day. I feel sure that this will 
be much better for you than going to the Lucky house. We don't 
want you to leave Jonesboro & I feel sure as far as a house is 
concerned, the Doser will be about as comfortable as any you 
can get at Bristol & then the Adler (is) much better if you 
can get it. 10 

M My father was able to rent the Adler place and in his diary on Septem- 
ber 27, 1873, he writes: "Today I moved from the Lucky house which I have 
occupied since Jan. 27, 1870 to the Adler place. I here would record my 
most grateful sense of the Divine goodness to us at the old place which I 
had to rent (by mail) while we were on a visit to N. C. & where we were 
well suited in many respects; dear little David was born there. The house 
had got very cold, the roof was utterly decayed. May our God still be with 
us, our dwelling place, glory & hope." 

92 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Let me hear from you either by mail in the morning or by 
Telegraph, so that I may know what to do. If do not hear from 
you, I shall go over & have your place (the Lucky place) cleaned 
up as well as I can. 

Our Presbytery meets Thursday. I shall not go. It does not 
suit me to be away at this time. Let me hear from you ; anything 
I can do for you will be attended to with pleasure. Sorry to 
hear of your Mother's & Mrs. W.'s sickness. Hope you all will 
soon be well again. 

We are well as usual. No special news. Much love for you all. 
Yours as ever fraternally 
W. M. Morrison 
I shall expect to hear from you tomorrow (Wednesday). 

When my father removed with his family from Jonesboro 
on July 5, he had expected to be away only a few weeks, but 
it was August 29 when he returned to Tennessee from Rural 
Retreat, Virginia. In his diary he writes: 

August 29, 1873. Came with my family to Jonesboro, Mother 
was very sick, Mrs. W. quite unwell & I was feeble & we were 
greatly hurried to get off, but the good hand of our God was on 
us & we arrived safely at our old home and received a very kind 
& warm greeting from our friends. 

August 30, 1873. We are happy to be home again. We have 
not found much damage from robbery ; one half of our chickens 
are gone & the garden a total wreck, but so far we miss nothing 
from the house, though it has been several times entered & 

September 1, 1873. I desire to record here my most devoutly 
grateful sense of the Divine goodness to me & my family, all 
undeserved by us. We were delivered from the dangers & the 
terrors here & brought back all alive. Today the sick are all 
better & we find we have not lost much by rogues except our 
garden & no doubt the vegetables were unhealthy. 

There is still a tendency to cholera here & a few mild cases. 

When it became known in the late fall of 1873 that a va- 
cancy was to occur in the office of Superintendent of the 
American Bible Society for North Carolina, friends of my 
father, ministerial, political, old college mates, sent a petition 
to the New York headquarters of the Society asking that my 
father be transferred to the North Carolina field. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 93 

On December 6, 1873, Rev. W. B. Tidball, pastor of Ala- 
mance Church (Presbyterian), Guilford County, North Caro- 
lina, sent the following letter from the corresponding secre- 
tary of the Society, Edward W. Gilman, in reference to the 

Bible House, Astor Place 
New York, Dec. 3rd 1873 
Rev. W. B. Tidball, 
Greensboro, N. C. 
Dear Sir, 

It will give me great satisfaction to present to our Board the 
evidence that our esteemed friend the Rev. C. H. Wiley is so 
much beloved and appreciated in North Carolina ; and this fact, 
taken in connection with his own desire to return to his native 
State, will have due weight here whenever we may be called upon 
to take any steps toward making a new appointment for that field. 

Yours very truly, 
Edward W. Gilman, 
Co. Sec. 

On January 24, 1874, Jonesboro, my father records in his 

Letters 71. Documents 65. 

This has been a very busy week in office duties. 

I have been transferred to my native State, N. Carolina, with 
the request to remain in Tenn. till near the close of the Bible 
year, & am much pushed putting my unfinished business in order. 

The transfer is to fill a vacancy ; not my own request. 

In a letter to my mother dated Feb. 16, 1874, my father 
writes from Nashville: 

I send you an article from the Nashville Union of yester- 
day ; it is by my friend Killebrew, n who told me he wanted 
to give me a parting salute & asked me for some facts, etc. He 
was once an editor of the paper (the Nashville Union) & 
was educated at Chapel Hill. 

J. B. Killebrew, author of Resources of Tennessee. 

94 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The enclosure in this letter, taken from the Nashville Daily 
Union, February 15, 1874, reads: 

Rev. C. H. Wiley 

We regret to learn that this estimable gentleman, who has 
held the position of Superintendent of the American Bible So- 
ciety for East and Middle Tennessee for several years, has been 
transferred to his former home in North Carolina. During the 
period that Mr. Wiley held his responsible position in this State, 
he has distributed a great many Bibles to indigent persons, and 
has had twenty counties thoroughly canvassed. His labors have 
been efficient and thorough, and while we do not doubt he will 
prove a burning light in his native State, as he has in this, yet 
a feeling of regret comes over us as we reflect upon the loss of 
his services to our own people. 

In this connection we desire to say that for fourteen years 
Mr. Wiley held the Superintendency of public schools in North 
Carolina, and with the means at his disposal made the schools 
all that could be hoped. He has prepared several historical works 
of high merit, and many of a purely literary character. That he 
would have made his impress upon the literature of the age 
had circumstances permitted him to continue in that field, there 
is not a doubt in the minds of those acquainted with his great 
literary taste, judgment, skill and ability. We wish him abundant 
success in his old State, that has hitherto under a more pros- 
perous condition of affairs, wreathed his brow with honors, and 
who now invites him back to aid in restoring her crippled 

The last Tennessee entry in my father's diary bears the 
date Wednesday, March 18, 1874. In Jonesboro, my father 

We are exceedingly busy getting ready to leave for N. C. this 
evening. And here I record my devout sense of the exceeding 
& most undeserved goodness of God to me & mine in Tennessee 
& in our whole history in coming & staying here & I humbly 
pray that our merciful Father will still go with us & be our 
portion ! 

At the bottom of the page in different ink appears this ad- 
ditional item written evidently the next afternoon while 
waiting in Burkeville, Virginia, for the Greensboro train. 

Calvin H. Wiley in Tennessee 95 

At 5% P.M. left Jonesboro with all my family & amid universal 
evidences of kindness to us & regret at our departure. 

Pasted in the front of my mother's photograph album, a 
souvenir of the Tennessee days, is this clipping from a Jones- 
boro paper— name and date cut off. 

Rev. C. H. Wiley and family who removed to North Carolina 
last week have left warm friends in Jonesboro that were loth 
to give them up. Their sociability and kindness as well as their 
earnestness in the cause of religion will long be remembered 
by their neighbors in this place. We wish for them a happy and 
pleasant home in the old North State. 


North Carolina Governors, 1585-1958: Brief Sketches. By Beth 
G. Crab tree. (Raleigh: State Department of Archives and 
History. 1958. Pp. [14], 137. Illustrations. $1.50.) 

This volume contains brief biographical sketches, each 
about 400 words, of the ninety-one governors of North Caro- 
lina. Pictures accompany the sketches; unfortunately por- 
traits are lacking for all except three of the colonial gover- 
nors, and six are missing for the period since the Revolution. 
The impression is that North Carolina's governors have been 
chosen for their talents rather than their pulchritude. 

Preceding the sketches is a useful table giving the gov- 
ernor's name, date and place of birth, residence, occupation, 
term of office, date of death, place of burial, and party affilia- 
tion. Much of this information is lacking for the early gov- 
ernors. Sometimes the birthplace is not known or must be 
given as a nation or colony; occupations may be vague— Ed- 
ward Hyde is listed as "Nobleman," and Richard Everard as 
"Baronet." In the colonial period some were planters, others 
lawyers, surveyors, or soldiers. John White is listed as artist, 
Thomas Miller, apothecary, Robert Daniel, Indian fighter, 
and William Tryon, soldier. There has been only one Repub- 
lican governor since 1877 ( Russell ) , and since 1897 only one 
farmer (Scott), and one industrialist (Hodges); all others 
have been lawyers. Notes to the table explain how the gov- 
ernor was chosen, whether by appointment, election by the 
legislature, or by popular vote. 

The sketches are unpretentious and mainly factual, though 
there is a bit of editorializing here and there. Due to lack of 
information some of the sketches are more historical than 
biographical; throughout the emphasis is on the accomplish- 
ments of each governor's administration. The volume is in- 
tended primarily for the use of public school pupils, and each 
sketch is followed by one or more references to additional 
sources of information. 

Robert H. Woody. 

Duke University, 



Book Reviews 97 

The Archeology of Coastal North Carolina. By William G. Haag. 
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1958. [Coast- 
al Studies Series, Number Two]. Pp. xi, 136. Illustrations, 
tables, and bibliography. $3.00.) 

This cardbound book, multilith of 148 pages, describes the 
available evidence concerning the early occupation of the 
maritime area of northeastern North Carolina. 

Geological events that led to the elongated sand banks are 
discussed and the procedures are outlined. The stated objec- 
tives are the Indian prehistory in the region and any evidence 
of the Lost Colony. 

The author describes some 75 sites where artifacts indi- 
cated more than passing Indian occupation. Thirteen of these 
sites were on the present Hatteras and Ocracoke Islands. 
Other sites were on the beach strip north of Oregon Inlet 
(9), and along the waterways of the mainland. The Bandon 
Site, that was of greatest depth, was some 90 miles northwest 
of Cape Hatteras. 

The work of wind and water had left disturbed material 
at most of the sites examined. Withal a considerable collec- 
tion of pottery was secured. This was well analyzed for com- 
position, finish, and form. With the few stone artifacts this 
led to the conclusion that the beach areas had been occupied 
by Indians for something over 1,000 years prior to the English 

Adding information from all sources it is concluded that 
these Algonkian Indians were small wandering, sometimes 
fugitive, groups that pursued their hunting-fishing-gathering 
skills as a means of livelihood. The author adds that they 
lived in isolation and lagged far behind in cultural develop- 

The author starts with the provoking statement that the 
region was "terra incognita to the archeologists." His style of 
presentation is involved enough to deter the interested lay- 
man, but it will be foundation material for a National Park 
handbook. There are many known sites in similar beach and 
sound side areas within 60 miles to the south and these merit- 
ed some attention. As the author says there is need for further 

98 The North Carolina Historical Review 

research. "The Colony is still lost," and the red men disap- 
peared "and quite as suddenly and dramatically." 

Harry T. Davis. 

State Museum of Natural History, 

Gift from the Hills: Miss Lucy Morgan's Story of Her Unique 
Penland School, with LeGette Blythe. (Indianapolis-New 
York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. 1958. Pp. 314. Il- 
lustrations. $5.00.) 

Interwoven with the objective facts about the Penland 
School are an unself-conscious self-portrait of a great woman 
and a heroic story of human vision, energy, imagination, faith, 
and fellowship— a story widening from a parochial circle into 
an international sphere. 

In 1920, Miss Lucy Morgan arrived at Penland to teach in 
her brother's Appalachian School. Soon afterward, a visit 
with Aunt Susan Phillips, the only hand-weaver in Mitchell 
County, inspired Miss Lucy to do everything she could "to 
help preserve . . . the rapidly dying handicraft skills" of the 
North Carolina mountains. At Berea College she learned to 
weave, and soon she was teaching pupils and neighbors. She 
wanted to revive hand-weaving and to provide her neighbors 
"with a means of adding to their generally meager incomes." 
Shortly, "Penland was in business." 

With little money, but with an infectious passion for cre- 
ative craftsmanship, with foresight, with humor, and with un- 
failing persuasiveness, Miss Lucy expanded the plant, the 
teaching staff, and the scope of training and activities. High 
points of this story are the communal erection and equipment 
of the Weaving Cabin and the Craft House; the incorpora- 
tion of the School in 1929; the addition of related crafts to the 
curriculum; the exhibit at the Chicago World's Fair in 1933; 
the construction of The Pines and the gift ("up to the roof"), 
of the Lily Loom House; and Miss Lucy's triumphant Euro- 
pean tour in 1953. 

The story is animated and beautified by the personalities 
and the behavior of hundreds of people, and by innumerable 

Book Reviews 99 

lively anecdotes. There are Aunt Susan; Mr. Golightly Tippy- 
toe, the "Episcopalian" moonshiner; the story-teller and 
banjo-picker Dock Hoppes; Maudie, the mountain gal; Col- 
onel Fishback; Henry the cook; and a long procession of in- 
teresting visitors. Miss Lucy takes us on a trip to Roan Moun- 
tain, to a lassy-biling, to square dances, on a snipe-hunt, and 
on excursions in Scandinavia, Finland, and Switzerland. She 
tells us how Penland made the green baize covers for the 
tables in Independence Hall. 

Meanwhile, foreign students and visitors at Penland and 
Penland's activities abroad have made Penland "the little 
United Nations," "with neighbors reaching across the world 
into thirty-five different countries." 

Miss Lucy communicates the joy of living strenuously, the 
enduring satisfaction of creative craftsmanship. She exempli- 
fies "the verity of that great admonition of the Apostle Paul, 
that man should live well and fruitfully through the posses- 
sion and exercise of that great triumvirate of virtues— faith, 
hope, and love." 

Gift from the Hills is not merely a highly entertaining book. 
In a troubled world, it points the way to individual happiness 
and to better international relations. 

A. P. Hudson. 

The University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill. 

Only in America. By Harry Golden. Foreword by Carl Sandburg. 
(Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Company. 
1958. Pp. 317. $4.00.) 

Harry Golden, the rotund sage of Charlotte, needs no in- 
troduction to North Carolina readers. Even if they have not 
seen a copy of his Carolina Israelite or heard him on the lec- 
ture platform, they surely have read him or read about him 
in the newspapers of the State, in the New York Times, in 
Time Magazine, or in other national publications. He is a 
Tar Heel phenomenon of the time. 

Doubtless many subscribers to the tabloid-size Carolina 
Israelite, watching their hoarded files turn yellow and brittle, 

100 The North Carolina Historical Review 

have wished they had Golden's precious stuff in some more 
permanent form, as this reviewer often has wished. Their 
wishing has not been in vain. The Golden best, including a 
few pieces from other magazines, is now available in a neat 
volume of selections, edited by Harry Golden, Jr. 

This book contains 184 essays. They vary in length from 
four words to nearly four thousand. They range widely in 
subject. Here are a few samples: "Buying a suit on the East 
Side," "The Vertical Negro Plan," "Negro and Jew in Dixie," 
"Shakespeare wrote the works of Bacon," "James Street," 
"Cato's cure for a hangover," and "America owes it all to 
Christianity." The essays may be classified as follows: 1. Sto- 
ries of Jewish life in New York some fifty years ago. 2. Ob- 
servations on present-day Southern mores, especially as these 
bear upon the relations of Negro and white and Jew and 
Gentile. 3. Bits of history and historical gossip retold with the 
Golden touch. 4. Comments on everything, from sex to syn- 

But, really, there is no classifying Harry Golden or his 
writings. His work cannot be characterized by word counts 
or lists of topics. Essentially this is conversation, engaging, 
often deeply moving, always well-informed and well- 
expressed. It is philosophy, in the sense of humane and hu- 
morous commentary on life. It is history—of New York, North 
Carolina, America, mankind. And it is more than any of those 
things. It is also a heart- warming expression of the human 
spirit, which soars freely despite the fetters of racial and re- 
ligious prejudice. 

Richard N. Current. 

The Woman's College of the 

University of North Carolina, 


Book Reviews 101 

The Colonial Records of South Carolina. Series 1, Journal of 
the Commons House of Assembly, September 10, 1746-June 
13, 1747. Edited by J. H. Easterby with the assistance of Ruth 
S. Green. (Columbia: South Carolina Archives Department. 
1958. Illustration and index. Pp. xii, 444. $10.00.) 

This volume is the seventh in the series of The Colonial 
Records of South Carolina, being published by J. H. Easterby 
and the staff of the South Carolina Archives Department. It 
contains the journals of the five sessions of the South Carolina 
Commons House of Assembly which was elected August 25- 
26, 1746, and finally adjourned for the last time on June 13, 

The period covered by this volume found South Carolina's 
Commons concerned with the problems of defense against 
the French and Indians growing out of the war known as 
King George's War in America. In addition to war, South 
Carolina at the time was in the midst of a serious depression, 
and problems of foreign trade, taxes, and debts were pressing 
ones for the delegates in Charles Town. 

Thirty-two bills were introduced or considered during the 
sessions of 1746-1747. Fourteen were approved. The first con- 
signment of indigo shipped from the colony to England left 
South Carolina about this time. One of the bills which Com- 
mons rejected would have made the new crop legal tender 
in payment of all debts. Most of the measures which became 
law had to do with public works, the militia system, reorgan- 
ization of the court system, and public health. 

This volume maintains the high standard established by 
earlier publications under the direction of Dr. Easterby. The 
South Carolina Archives Department is making a tremendous 
contribution to all persons interested in the colonial period 
of American history by the publication of these journals. The 
format is designed for easy use. The large print, the system 
of date lines at the top of each page, and the index all make 
it a pleasure to use these volumes. 

Daniel M. McFarland. 

Atlantic Christian College, 


102 The North Carolina Historical Review 

An American Soldier: The Life of John Laurens. By Sara 
Bertha Townsend. (Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Com- 
pany. 1958. Pp. xiii, 266. $5.00.) 

In this biography a North Carolina English teacher does 
her bit to rescue South Carolina's John Laurens from popular 
oblivion. Catching his spirit and divining his character, Miss 
Townsend tells Laurens' story well. Through the use of let- 
ters she portrays an interesting and generally well-liked per- 
sonality in the light of his family circle and of his wider rela- 
tionships as student in Switzerland and England, Washing- 
ton's aide in America, and Congress' special envoy in France. 

Laurens was rash and unpredictable on occasion— he never 
learned discretion. By instinct as well as by intellect he was 
brave, generous, and devoted to country, freedom, and justice. 
He served without concern for pay or office but with a strong 
sense of pride, honor, and duty. Needlessly he sacrificed his 
life in a skirmish on the Combahee, for him as honorable a 
field as Yorktown or Versailles. A South Carolinian, he was 
first an American, an attitude not yet common in his day and 
one still needed in ours. His ideas on slavery were too ad- 
vanced for most of his South Carolina contemporaries, but 
they were sincere and can bear reporting to their descend- 
ants. Miss Townsend, seeing from Laurens' point of view 
General Charles Lee's role in the war and Benjamin Frank- 
lin's conduct of diplomacy in France, may cause some readers 
to reflect further on these two reputations. She concludes 
also that John Laurens and his father, Henry Laurens, were 
South Carolina's most conspicuous sons in government dur- 
ing the Revolution and yet, in contrast to other heroes of the 
State, they were not then nor have they been given their due 
measure of recognition. 

The professional historian will find some minor errors, no 
index, and a disconcerting irregularity in the form of the 
notes but will recognize evidence of considerable diligence 
in research. An appendix of tributes, selections from letters, 
bibliographical materials, etc., together with a number of 

Book Reviews 103 

appropriate illustrations, including an end-paper map of the 
Battle of Yorktown, add to the book's effectiveness. 

Lawrence F. Brewster. 

East Carolina College, 


Messages of the Governors of Tennessee. Volume IV, 1845-1857. 
Edited by Robert H. White. (Nashville: The Tennessee His- 
torical Commission, 1957. Pp. x, 741. $4.00.) 

Doctor White's previous volume of Messages of the Gov- 
ernors of Tennessee, 1835-1845, covered the terms of three 
state executives, Newton Cannon, a Whig; James K. Polk, 
Democrat; and James C. Jones, Whig. His latest volume dem- 
onstrates that Tennesseans were just as unable to settle down 
to one political party in the years 1845 to 1857 as they had 
been during the preceding decade. State politics continued to 
be marked by egocentricism more than anything else, and 
legislation suffered accordingly. 

The governors during 1845 to 1857 were Aaron Venable 
Brown, a Democrat; Neill Smith Brown, Whig; William 
Trousdale, Democrat; William Browen Campbell, Whig; and 
Andrew Johnson, Democrat. Whigs seems to hold a slight 
majority in the state, but few campaigns were settled until 
all the votes were counted. The governors as a group were 
unblessed with split legislatures, thus it was largely acci- 
dental when significant or lasting legislation was enacted. 
Andrew Jackson's political legacy to his adopted state was 
indeed one of indecision! No wonder Tennesseans voted three 
times when they came to the point of trying to decide wheth- 
er or not to secede from the Union! Their chief political agree- 
ment in ante-bellum days seems to have been an agreement 
to disagree. 

However, certain trends were evident in regard to party 
interests of the period. Tennessee Whigs showed a deep con- 
cern in banking and railroad enterprises, demonstrating this 
by granting numerous charters to railroad and turnpike com- 
panies and by passing a so-called Free Banking Act in 1851, 

104 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the latter of which was repealed in 1857. Favoring railroads, 
turnpikes, and banking, they were similar to Whigs in other 
southern states and in Congress. Democrats, on the other 
hand, showed special interest in public education, care of the 
insane, and support of the penitentiary. A Democratic house 
of representatives also declared that "All gentlemen over the 
age of twenty-five years should be declared bachelors." 

Andrew Johnson's governorship was a pathetic one in many 
ways, even a foretaste of the fate which would be-devil him 
on the national level. In his first gubernatorial campaign he 
defeated a Whig, but wound up with a Democratic Senate 
and a Whig House, and the only really significant piece of 
legislation he could get out of the legislature was one favor- 
ing public education. In his second campaign he defeated a 
Know-Nothing, but was faced with a legislature which elect- 
ed Know-Nothings as speakers of both the House and Senate, 
and was defeated on every one of his major recommenda- 
tions to the legislature. He and the state solons could not even 
agree on when to celebrate Thanksgiving. Shades of Franklin 

Such was the political situation described by Dr. White. 
He has again given us an excellent narrative and documen- 
tary account of Tennessee politics. Once more he shows that 
one southern state did not practice a one-party political sys- 
tem in the ante-bellum period. And as is well-known, what 
he says of Tennessee can be said of most of the other states 
of the region for the same period. 

Weymouth T. Jordan. 

Florida State University, 


Conrade Webb of Hampstead. By William T. Hastings. (Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press. 1958. Pp. xiv, 

Every imaginative historical researcher is tempted at times 
to stray from the main path of his explorations into some in- 
triquing bypath. The vista down this path haunts him until 

Book Reviews 105 

he returns later to explore it. Be the results large or small, 
there is joy in the search and in its successful conclusion. 

Professor Hastings of the Brown University faculty came 
across the name of Conrade Webb in 1932 while preparing 
a centenary catalogue of the Brown University chapter of the 
Phi Beta Kappa Society. Webb was valedictorian of his class 
in 1798. He was the first Secretary of the Federal Adelphi 
Society, the local predecessor of Phi Beta Kappa. When the 
latter society was formed at Brown in 1831, Webb was elect- 
ed to Alumni Membership. 

Conrade Webb must have been a man of some importance, 
thought the author, to have been remembered and honored 
over thirty years after leaving Brown. Yet the only other clue 
to his identity was the inaccurate note, "or Richmond, Va.," 
someone had written after his name in the earliest historical 
catalogue of the College (1894). Long after Professor Hast- 
ings had completed his catalogue the name Conrade Webb 
"haunted" him. Many questions about the man intrigued him. 
Who was he? Why had he come to Brown? What happened 
to him after he returned to Virginia? Finally, Professor Hast- 
ings began the search which he described as "a fascinating, 
baffling, but in the end largely successful pastime of the last 
nine years." 

The result is a scholarly, well-documented, well-written 
sketch of Webb, his family, notes from a diary, life on his 
plantation, and his home— Hampstead in New Kent County- 
still one of the fine mansions of Tidewater Virginia. Illustra- 
tions and format are attractive. The author has opened up 
another vista into ante-bellum Virginia. 

Richard L. Morton. 

College of William and Mary, 

Williamsburg, Virginia. 

106 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The Life of John Smith, English Soldier. By Henry Wharton. 
[Translated from the Latin Manuscript with an Essay on 
Captain John Smith in Seventeenth-Century Literature, by 
Laura Polanyi Striker.] (Chapel Hill: University of North 
Carolina Press. 1957. Published for the Virginia Historical 
Society. Pp. 101. $4.00.) 

Henry Wharton, an English divine who died in 1695 at 
the age of thirty-one, won fame for his writings in the field of 
ecclesiastical history. A later English divine and historian, 
none other than Bishop Stubbs, described him as "this won- 
derful man" and credited him with "having done for the elu- 
cidation of the English Church history ( itself but one of the 
branches of study in which he was the most eminent scholar 
of his time) more than anyone before or since." Among the 
voluminous manuscripts Wharton left at his death was "The 
Life of John Smith, English Soldier," dated by the author in 
1685 and now published for the first time as a contribution 
by the Virginia Historical Society to the observance of the 
three hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of 

Wharton's biography of Smith is brief, running here from 
pages 37 to 92, and is divided into two parts. The first part 
deals with Smith's early and much debated adventures as 
a soldier of fortune, the second with his American career. For 
this second part Wharton seems to have depended wholly on 
Samuel Purchas; he evidently was not acquainted with Cap- 
tain Smith's own history of Virginia. The discussion of Vir- 
ginia's early history is of interest chiefly for the author's 
suggestion that Smith's difficulties with his colleagues owed 
much to his humble birth. In the account of Smith's earlier 
career the text contains information not found in other ac- 
counts, and Miss Striker argues persuasively the possibility 
that Wharton may have used a manuscript source that has 
since been lost. The work thus acquires importance for the 
bibliography of a significant and controversial career. It has 
interest also for its main theme, a theme of some popularity 
in Wharton's time— that modern man is capable of exploits 
as heroic as any of those credited to the ancients. 

On the question of why Wharton should have bothered to 
write the piece, Miss Striker suggests that the earlier and 

Book Reviews 107 

unfriendly account of Smith given by Thomas Fuller in his 
Worthies of England may have prompted an effort to defend 
Smith. To this she adds another interesting suggestion: the 
possibility that the answer lies in the inauguration of Sir 
James Smith as Lord Mayor of London in October 1684. She 
presents a convincing argument that this was the occasion 
of the publication of a broadside entitled A Congratulatory 
Poem upon the Noble Feast Made by the Ancient and Re- 
nouned Families of the Smiths, a broadside bibliographers 
have dated as early as 1635 and as late as 1680. In this verse 
the most controversial and renowned member of the Smith 
tribe was naturally not ignored. The editor suggests that 
Wharton was "aroused by the October festivity in 1684 to 
the mission of building up the hero of the commoners and 
the commoner hero." 

Still another possibility may be worth suggesting— that 
Wharton did not intend the essay to be a serious piece at all. 
There is something about the tone of the entire essay that 
prompts one reader, at least, to wonder if it may not have 
been written in the spirit of the recent festivities for the lord 
mayor. But this is a question that others will be more compe- 
tent to answer than the undersigned. 

Wesley Frank Craven. 

Princeton University, 

Princeton, New Jersey. 

We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution. By 
Forrest McDonald. (Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chi- 
cago Press. 1958. Introduction, footnotes, and index. Pp. x, 
436. $7.00.) 

Formerly, the Constitution was mentioned only with that 
reverential awe usually reserved for the Bible, but, for many 
years now, a popular— if not the popular— attitude has been 
that this document was a diabolically clever scheme of fifty- 
five, avaricious rich men in a monstrous conspiracy to exploit 
the common people. The latter view had its beginning with 
Charles A. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, a book so fresh, brilliant, and 

108 The North Carolina Historical Review 

provocative that it soon dominated the field of American con- 
stitutional history and a half century later has long been a 
classic. Yet, Beard was undoubtedly wrong— as Dr. McDon- 
ald, the executive secretary of the American History Research 
Center at Madison, Wisconsin, has thoroughly demonstrated! 
Beard reached his interpretation by a series of tentative con- 
clusions based on limited samplings of data, but indicated 
the exhaustive studies that would be necessary to verify his 
views. At last, Dr. McDonald, after endless research and 
75,000 miles of travel from state-to-state, has made the very 
verifications which Beard himself suggested— and found that 
Beard's interpretation was not justified. 

In a state-by-state survey the author examines the political 
factions and finds a broad representation of them in the Con- 
vention; scrutinizes the economic status and interest of each 
delegate and determines that these were quite diverse and 
did not represent a consolidated economic group with dom- 
inant personality interests; and, finally, analyzes the individ- 
ual votes at the Convention in terms of the members' econom- 
ic interest and shows that no economic grouping existed. In 
the same way he examines the ratification by the states and 
reveals, except in Rhode Island, an almost complete lack of 
economic causation as the determinative factor. In the two 
concluding chapters the author carefully apportions the ex- 
tent to which weight should be given economic factors in 
evaluating the Constitution and points historians to the fruit- 
ful study of the complex and varied forces at work in each 
state, rather than in the nation as a whole, in determining 
the real causation of the creation and adoption of the Con- 

Make no mistake about it, this is an important work on the 
Constitution— and one which requires a close scrutiny of the 
thousands of text-statements which heretofore rested so com- 
fortably upon a footnote to Beard. The author is dispassion- 
ate and objective, reasons closely, and writes well. It will 
teach many historians a considerable amount of new— and 
surprising— history! 

Dillard S. Gardner. 


Book Reviews 109 

The Journal of William Stephens, 1741-1743. Edited by E. Mer- 
ton Coulter. (Athens: University of Georgia Press. 1958. 
[Wormsloe Foundation Publications, Number Two.] Pp. xxxi, 
263. $5.00.) 

William Stephens was one of the most remarkable adminis- 
trators in American colonial history. Named Secretary of the 
Province of Georgia in 1737, he set out from England when 
he was over sixty years old to begin a new life without his 
family. He continued as Secretary until 1750, and in addition 
served as President from 1741 until the infirmities of age 
brought about his replacement ten years later. Throughout 
his tenure he kept a journal of daily comments on the events 
which transpired in Georgia, and he forwarded installments 
of this record to the Trustees in London at regular intervals. 
The portion of the journal running to the middle of 1741 was 
published in three volumes the next year, and for nearly two 
centuries it was not known that any additional parts remained 
in existence. Then in 1946 a continuation down through 1745 
came to light, and it is the first half of this newly discovered 
material which is printed in the volume under consideration. 

The journal includes entries for every day from October 
29, 1741, through July 31, 1743, with the exception of six 
weeks during September and October of 1742. It was written 
in Savannah, though it mentions the affairs of outlying settle- 
ments and of Stephens' own plantation, "Bewlie," twelve 
miles from town. It covers in detail a wide variety of topics: 
storms, accidents, epidemics, threats by the Spanish, Indian 
attacks, conspiracies by malcontents, marriages, deaths, the 
progress of vineyards and mulberry trees, and the great ad- 
vances made by German Swiss settlers. Comments are plain 
and outspoken, and even after Stephens learned the Trustees 
were putting his reports into print, he did not change the 
style of his entries. 

There are numbers of interesting items worth comment. In 
June, 1742, there is reference to the young people bathing in 
the river almost daily and the report that one Elliot drowned, 
probably because an alligator seized him and bit an arm off 
at the shoulder. There is mention of an early settler named 

110 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Paul Roviere, who brings to mind the Boston silversmith of 
similar name. Students of maritime history will be intrigued 
by the references to the use of "pettyaguas" as craft for 
coastal trade. Altogether, the volume provides fascinating 
glimpses of life in the early days of Georgia and shows how 
a capable official handled the problems facing him. 

William D. Hoyt, Jr. 
Rockport, Mass. 

The Rudolph Matas History of Medicine in Louisiana. Volume I. 
Edited by John Duffy. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Press. 1958. Pp. xvii, 522. $10.00.) 

This volume is organized on a chronological basis of three 
epochs: French Rule (1699-1768), Spanish Rule (1769- 
1803), and American Rule (only the first portion of which, 
1804-1825, is covered in this volume). Each epoch section 
deals with the same general topics: medical practices and 
practitioners, remedies (including herbs, mercurial medi- 
cines, bleeding, and other brutally "heroic" treatments ) , hos- 
pitals, sanitation (or, more accurately, lack of sanitation), 
epidemics, medical regulations, etc. 

In general the story is dominated by the somber record of 
frustration and tragedy. Constant frustration arose by reason 
of personnel conflicts between the older creole-French and 
the newer American physicians, also from the recurring trag- 
edy of epidemics brought on by unhealthy conditions, with 
which inadequate and often uninformed medical staffs were 
unable to cope. Generally well-meaning individuals, unor- 
ganized for collective action, seem constantly to have mud- 
dled through one health crisis after another. Intermittently, 
when conditions attained catastrophic proportions ( as in the 
recurring smallpox and yellow fever epidemics ) medical and 
polticial leaders set up workable public-health programs, but 
none of them proved permanent. Among the most successful 
leaders were Governor William Claiborne, Dr. John Watkins 
and the famous architect Benjamin Latrobe; all during the 
early eighteenth century. 

Book Keviews 111 

Professor Duffy depicts the development of medicine in 
Louisiana in detailed fashion, using the wealth of statistical 
data in the Matas collection. Despite an innate aversion to 
statistics, we found the quantity and quality of this data to 
be fascinating as well as highly informative. Among the un- 
forgettable glimpses of early medical practice derived there- 
from were the casualty figures concerning the transport of 
slaves from Africa, the death toll of General Wilkinson's 
troops at Terre au Boeuf in 1808, and the unforgivable record 
of American medical butchery in amputations performed on 
British soldiers after the battle of New Orleans in 1812. Inci- 
dentally, a British officer at this time wrote of his "ghastly 
feelings" at seeing "a basket nearly full of legs severed" by 
British military surgeons. Published lists of doctors' fees are 
less shocking; they included "trepanning," "operating for 
hare lip," "amputating a tongue," "Caesareans," "castration," 
"cupping," "extirpating cancer" (cheaper if not a breast op- 
eration), "removing foreign substances from any part of the 
body" ($10.00 and up), etc. Ever-present in the lists were 
separate prices for Negroes, lower by 20 to 50 per cent than 
for whites (the doctors' bids for large-scale plantation com- 
missions ) . Equally revealing are the medicines advertised in 
newspapers; they included "theriacs," "rubs," "syrups," 
"elixers," "anti-siphilities," "pectorals," "stomach bitters," 
"Balm of Gilead," and "odoriferous pastilles for giving an 
agreeable smell to chambers." 

There were various and distinctive classes of practitioners; 
at the top of the medical hierarchy came physicians and mili- 
tary surgeons; then midwives and pharmacists (both of them 
often highly esteemed and well paid ) , and the perhaps over- 
maligned irregulars, always called "quacks and charlatans." 
Occasionally a Negro slave performed services such as bleed- 
ing. Constantly we were impressed with the un-modem back- 
wardness of practices. Bleeding and purging were mainstays; 
patent medicines, chiefly herbal concoctions, prevailed until 
the vogue set in for mercurial calomel and other drugs far 
worse than the elixers and theriacs of medieval times. Regu- 
lations for practitioners, which regimented surgeons and 
pharmacists into lower rankings, were almost identical with 

112 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Frederick II's medical code in southern Italy in the thirteenth 
century. The volume could be entitled The MEDIEVAL 
Period of Louisiana Medicine, without misrepresenting the 

The entire undertaking, of which this is merely the first of 
a possible three-volume series, reflects great credit on the 
actual author, John Duffy (whom the title designates over- 
modestly as "editor"), and on the initiator of the program, 
Dr. Rudolph Matas, who as Chairman of the Louisiana Med- 
ical Society (1926 ff. ) accumulated both the source mate- 
rials and the financial resources which made it possible. The 
joint operation bids fair to produce one of the outstanding 
state histories of medicine and the leading one in the South. 

Loren C. MacKinney. 

The University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill. 

The South in Northern Eyes, 1831 to 1861. By Howard R. Floan. 
(Austin: University of Texas Press, 1958. Pp. xi, 198. $3.95.) 

The title of this book is considerably broader than its con- 
tent, hence somewhat misleading. The author has assembled 
the views of leading literary figures of New England and 
New York and supplemented them by brief references to the 
magazines of the two areas. It is, therefore, the view of a 
limited group, not that of northerners in general, that is pre- 

Floan finds that the attitudes of the New England literary 
figures toward the South were determined not by political 
affiliations and an understanding of actual conditions but 
were derived "from a hatred of slavery." The writers were not 
concerned with the truth of what they said about southern 
society but with the immorality of the peculiar institution. 
These men knew little of the South but, instead of making 
investigations of their own, accepted the distorted views pre- 
sented by Garrison and Phillips. Lowell's "writings about the 
South were so implicitly bound up with his opposition to 

Book Reviews 113 

slavery that the two can in no way be separated." Longfellow 
knew something of southerners but his "acceptance of aboli- 
tion literature" was wholly uncritical. Holmes and Dana were 
less susceptible to abolitionist propaganda. Holmes accepted 
the idea of "the superiority of the whites over the Negroes," 
and Dana was willing to admit that southern character was 
in some points superior to that of the North. Hawthorne's 
"mind was relatively free of the abolitionist image of the 
South" but he himself "had no vision of the South." Floan 
concludes: "After assembling every comment on the South 
which can be found in the writings of the major New Eng- 
land men of letters, one is forced to conclude that apart from 
the slavery question this group of writers had almost no 
awareness of the South and apparently no desire to learn 
more about it in order to understand it better." 

The New York writers had closer contacts with, and a bet- 
ter understanding of, the South than did the New England- 
ers. There were close economic ties between New York busi- 
nessmen and the South, and the New York daily papers gave 
a favorable view of southern society. Bryant, Melville, and 
Whitman knew the South in all its variety and particularity. 
Thus they were free from the New Englanders' tendency to 
accept abolition propaganda as the truth. Bryant with his 
comprehensive understanding, Melville with his weighing of 
evidence and critical evaluation, and Whitman with his sym- 
pathetic attitude developed a much more accurate picture 
of southern society than did the New England group. But 
the picture painted by the latter group found much more fer- 
tile soil in the abolitionist mind of the North, took root, grew 
into general acceptance, and has endured with amazing 
tenacity to the present. 

The author is critical of the abolitionist picture of the South 
painted by the New England writers and sympathetic with 
that painted by the New York group. Even so his general 
interpretations are sound and the book may have some influ- 
ence on a better understanding of the sectional conflict that 
eventuated in the American Civil War. 

Fletcher M. Green, 

The University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill. 

114 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Cities and Camps of the Confederate States. By Fitzgerald 
Ross. Edited by Richard Barksdale Harwell. (Urbana: The 
University of Illinois Press. 1958. Pp. xxii, 262. Introduction, 
illustrations, appendix, and index. $4.50.) 

This work, originally published in 1865, will be welcomed 
by all friends of the Confederacy whose collections lack the 
now rare original. Twenty years ago one would have won- 
dered why such a work should have been reprinted but with 
the present popularity of Confederate studies such a work is 
a valuable addition to the growing list of reprints. With a fine 
introduction and able editing this edition will be of greater 
value to the student than the original. 

Captain Ross was an Englishman serving in the Austrian 
Hussars. By running the blockade across the lower Potomac 
he entered the Confederacy in May, 1863. He overtook the 
Army of Northern Virginia at Chambersburg just before 
Gettysburg and lived with Longstreet's staff. With them he 
advanced to the second day's battle there. He and Colonel 
Fremantle, the next day, had only to select the best vantage 
point from which to watch the great charge there. North 
Carolinians may indeed think that he minimized the part of 
Pettigrew's men in the charge but his account furnishes a 
good example of how contracted a picture even a favorably 
placed eye-witness forms of such a vast panorama of battle. 
North Carolinians may, however, be pleased that Captain 
Ross, the Austrian Hussar, paid his highest tribute to the ap- 
pearance, uniform, and drill to the troops around Wilmington. 
Having witnessed a review with General Whiting and 
Colonel Lamb he wrote, "They were more uniformly dressed, 
too, than I had seen any Confederate troops before. The men 
—chiefly North Carolinians— are a fine-looking race, and went 
through their evolutions unexceptionably" (p. 187). 

Captain Ross has written a book which gives us many of 
the small details of life in the army and Confederacy which 
the writers of more pretentious memoirs, intent upon fighting 
the war, neglect. His description of Lee and Longstreet 
gravely conversing apart from their staffs through the long 
rainy night of July 4, 1863, is one such picture for which we 
will always be indebted to Captain Ross. 

Book Reviews 115 

The editor admits that Captain Ross had a great prejudice 
in favor of the South. How could it be otherwise? From Pres- 
ident Davis on down to the colored teamsters he received 
only the kindest and most polite treatment. Unintentionally 
and naturally, the whole South rolled out the red carpet of 
southern hospitality for this wandering Austrian, and he 
would have been an ingrate indeed if he had not been preju- 
diced in favor of his genial hosts. 

George K. Gelbach. 

Fork Union Military Academy, 

Fork Union, Virginia. 

Colonial America. By Oscar Theodore Barck, Jr. and Hugh 
Talmage Lefler. (New York: The Macmillan Company. 1958. 
Pp. viii, 767.) 

A recent tendency in textbooks of American history has 
been to hurry over the colonial period. It is clear from their 
preface that the two university professors who compiled the 

E resent work intended to make up for this deficiency. They 
ave succeeded admirably in bringing together a tremendous 
amount of valuable information. At that, certain things had 
to be omitted or treated in summary fashion. Only eighteen 
pages are allotted to the discovery and exploration of the 

The longest section of the book, about two hundred and 
sixty pages, is devoted to the beginnings of the English col- 
onies. Those in the Caribbean are happily included, while 
Dutch and Spanish foundations are brought into the picture 
with less success. Latin- American students may question the 
accuracy of blaming the Spaniards for attacks and encroach- 
ments when the Carolinians and Georgians moved into their 
territory ( 171, 227, and 239 ) . 

When the progress of the colonies has come to the year 
1760, the story of their development is interrupted to review 
the life of the colonists. Various topics too numerous even to 
catalog are treated in the hundred and fifty pages devoted 
to this survey. Involuntary workers, land tenure, agricultural 

116 The North Carolina Historical Review 

practice, industrial progress, colonial communications, relig- 
ions, educational beginnings, medical practices, and social 
usages constitute a few of the typical subjects. This is one of 
the most enlightening and interesting parts of the book. In 
some instances, however, the reader will long for a little more 
explanation. Was it the opposition of the woolen manufactur- 
ers or the lack of the cotton gin which was most important 
in the slow development of cotton raising ( 343 ) ? How early 
could it be said that "in every town and village there were 
stores and shops of every description" ( 365 ) ? What evidence 
is there that the "Great Awakening" increased missionary 
work among the Indians ( 398 ) ? Did the fact that John Urey 
was "a suspected Romish priest" have anything to do with 
the slave riots of 1741 in New York (306)? Aside from pau- 
pers, did others get an education in New England financed 
by "funds voted by town or colonial government" (401)? 
The limits of space supply a reason for leaving many such 
questions unanswered. 

The last two hundred pages of Colonial America expose 
the steps by which the colonies progressed in a spirit of self- 
sufficiency until the Declaration of Independence and the 
Revolution separated them from England. Remarkable clar- 
ity is shown in this summary which together with the adop- 
tion of the Constitution, "formulating the basic principles on 
which a strong republic could be constructed," (730) brings 
the book to a close. 

In this sort of a work, where so many things are topically 
treated, a good index is essential. Such a one has been pro- 
vided. Good maps are helpful. The three or four supplied are 
lost in the text and there is no indication how to find them. 
Students of American history should be very thankful to 
Professors Barck and Lefler for their fine work. 

R. N. Hamilton. 

Marquette University, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Book Reviews 117 

Political Ideas of the American Revolution. By Randolph G. 
Adams. Third edition, with an Introduction and Commentary 
by Merrill Jensen. (New York: Barnes & Noble Inc. 1958. Pp. 
vii, 216. Notes, bibliography, and index. Paperback edition, 
$1.50; cloth edition, $3.75.) 

Students of the American Revolution as well as of political 
theory will welcome this third edition of Randolph G. Adams' 
well-known work. It has been considered a valuable contri- 
bution to the knowledge of the Revolutionary era ever since 
its original publication in 1922. The publishers of this edition 
have rendered additional service by making it available both 
in an inexpensive paperback form (presumably to suit the 
pocketbooks of college students and professors) and in a 
cloth binding ( for the more affluent ) . 

The author concerns himself with the efforts of political 
thinkers both in America and England in the decade before 
Lexington to formulate a theory of imperial federation that 
could be practicably applied in the relationship between 
England and the thirteen colonies. He demonstrates that the 
leading American thinkers reached the conclusion that the 
colonies were self-governing commonwealths equal in status 
in the empire to England herself, not subject to parliamentary 
authority and united only under the crown. Thus American 
thinkers of the Revolutionary period arrived at a common- 
wealth theory of empire similar to that worked out by Britain 
in the twentieth century. In this their thought was far in 
advance of that of contemporary Britons, whose failure to 
understand this theory and unwillingness to apply it resulted 
in the Revolution and the establishment of complete Ameri- 
can independence. 

Adams was writing at the time that the League of Nations 
question was being so bitterly debated in the United States. 
His work leaves no doubt that he believed that in the political 
thought of the period from 1765 to 1775 and in the applica- 
tion of the commonwealth idea by Britain in the twentieth 
century could be discovered lessons for the guidance of those 
who were seeking to establish a workable international or- 
ganization to preserve the peace. Though these efforts to re- 
late the thought of the eighteenth-century to the twentieth- 

118 The North Carolina Historical Review 

century British Commonwealth and to the problem of inter- 
national organization may be disconcerting to the present day 
reader, this study remains an excellent presentation and anal- 
ysis of the political ideas of the leading statesmen and pub- 
licists of the Revolutionary era. 

This edition is prefaced with an introduction and commen- 
tary by Professor Merrill Jensen, in which he places Adams' 
work in its proper perspective through a discussion of the 
Anglo-American tradition of political thought prior to 1765 
and modifies certain of his assumptions and conclusions in 
the light of recent research. Together, the work of Adams and 
Jensen provide an illuminating and up-to-date coverage of 
the subject. 

Robert L. Ganyard. 

The University of Houston, 

Houston, Texas. 


On September 8 Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Director of 
the State Department of Archives and History, attended the 
Tryon Palace Commission hearing before the Advisory 
Budget Commission. Mr. D. Libby Ward of New Bern, a 
member of the Palace Commission, presented the following 
request for the 1959-1961 biennium: 

1959-1960 1960-1961 

Total Requirements $127,378 $128,245 

Less: Estimated Receipts 35,000 35,000 

General Fund Appropriation 92,378 93,245 

On September 16 Dr. Crittenden presented a slide-lecture to 
the Rotary Club in Goldsboro, and attended meetings of the 
Executive Committee of the Tryon Palace Commission in 
New Bern, September 28-30. On October 6 he spoke briefly 
on "Theodore Roosevelt, Pioneer in Conservation and Devel- 
opment," at a ceremony on the State Capitol Grounds cele- 
brating the centennial of the birth of Theodore Roosevelt 
(October 27, 1858). Mr. F. H. Claridge, State Forester, 
served as master of ceremonies; Dr. Albert G. Edwards, pas- 
tor of the First Presbyterian Church, Raleigh, gave the invo- 
cation; Mrs. A. M. Proctor of Durham, State Chairman of 
Conservation and Development of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution and North Carolina State Chairman of 
the Theodore Roosevelt Centennial Celebration, led the 
pledge of allegiance to the Flag; Mrs. William D. Holmes, 
Jr., State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, extended greetings; and Governor Luther H. Hodges 
planted the tree. On October 13 Dr. Crittenden met with the 
Sir Walter Raleigh Commission to make plans for raising 
sufficient funds to erect a suitable memorial for Sir Walter 
Raleigh in the city which bears his name. Plans were first 
begun more than a half-century ago under the direction of 
the late Julian S. Carr of Durham. At the present time more 
than $7,000 is in hand for the purpose. Dr. Crittenden made 


120 The North Carolina Historical Review 

a talk in New Orleans on October 31 to the North American 
Association of Historic Sites Public Officials (now The Asso- 
ciation of Historic Sites Administrators) on the topic, "His- 
toric Sites— A Few Problems and Pitfalls." While in New Or- 
leans he also attended the meeting of the National Trust 
for Historic Preservation of which he is a trustee. On Novem- 
ber 10 Dr. Crittenden attended a meeting in New Bern of a 
committee of the Tryon Palace Commission to make plans 
for the opening of the Palace to the public. A date was tenta- 
tively set for the end of March or the first part of April, 1959. 
From December 27 through December 31 Dr. Crittenden at- 
tended the sessions of the American Historical Association in 
Washington, D. C. While there he also attended meetings of 
the Council of the American Association for State and Local 
History and the Society of American Archivists' Committee 
on Fellows. 

Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, Museum Administrator, accompanied 
by Mrs. Madlin Futrell, Mrs. Barbara Shultz, Mr. Norman 
Larson, and Mr. John Ellington, attended the sessions of the 
Southeastern Museums Conference on October 16 in Win- 
ston-Salem. Mrs. Jordan, who is Chairman of the City of Ra- 
leigh's Andrew Johnson Memorial Commission, worked with 
members of the Andrew Johnson Sesquicentennial Celebra- 
tion Committee in arranging the program for the Andrew 
Johnson Day celebrated in Raleigh on October 31. A recep- 
tion was held at the Andrew Johnson Birthplace and was 
sponsored by the Caswell-Nash Chapter of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution. A special guest for the day was 
Mrs. Margaret Patterson Bartlett, great-granddaughter of 
Johnson, of Greeneville, Tennessee, who brought with her a 
number of artifacts from the Johnson home in Greeneville 
which were displayed in the State College Armory. These are 
at present in a special exhibit in the Hall of History. Mrs. 
Jordan also served as chairman making arrangements for the 
dinner held in the dining hall at State College at which time 
Mr. B. Frank Heintzleman, former Governor of Alaska, was 
the featured speaker. Throughout the day there was a con- 
tinuous showing at the Armory of a movie, "Tennessee John- 

Historical News 121 

son," starring Van Heflin. On November 4 Mrs. Jordan spoke 
at a meeting of the Tuesday Afternoon Book Club on "Tryon 
Palace/' On December 6 Mrs. Jordan attended a meeting of 
the Archaeological Society of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, 
and on December 8, accompanied by Mrs. Madlin Futrell, 
she went to Tryon Palace, New Bern, and lectured to the 
hostesses' class on period costumes. While there she met with 
the architect, Mr. William Graves Perry, and Mr. and Mrs. 
John A. Kellenberger, members of the Tryon Palace Commis- 
sion, to plan a layout for the proposed Palace museum. 

Mr. Norman Larson, Education Curator of the Hall of 
History staff, toured the State during the week of September 
14-19, in a survey to locate the oldest living North Carolinian. 
The contest was sponsored by the Charlotte branch office of 
the All-State Insurance Company and a television set was 
presented by the company to Mr. Fred Penny of Tryon, 
whose age was documented at 108 years. Mr. Larson used a 
tape recorder to transcribe the verbal histories and reminis- 
cences of the past 100 years as related by the people he in- 
terviewed and made both motion pictures and color slides 
which are presently being processed. A copy of the materials 
will be placed in the Library of Congress and in the State 
Archives. Mr. Larson, Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, and Mr. John 
Ellington went to Hillsboro on November 13 to assist with 
the installation of exhibits in the museum there. 

On December 13 the entire play, "The Uncommon Man," 
written by Dr. Jack Suberman of the Department of English, 
North Carolina State College, and produced through the co- 
operative efforts of the Hall of History and the Raleigh Little 
Theater Workshop, and sponsored by the North Carolina So- 
ciety for the Preservation of Antiquities, was given in the 
Little Theater. The play, written by Dr. Suberman for the 
Andrew Johnson Sesquicentennial, deals with Tohnson's life 
in North Carolina. A special guest for the performance was 
Mrs. Margaret Patterson Bartlett of Greeneville, Tennessee, 
great-granddaughter of Johnson. Mr. Norman Larson, of the 
State Department of Archives and History, directed the pro- 

122 The North Carolina Historical Review 

On October 16 Mr. W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superin- 
tendent, and Mr. R. Judson Mitchell, Mr. R. W. Sawyer, Mr. 
A. L. Honeycutt, Jr., and Mr. David A. Phelps, all of the 
Historic Sites Division, attended the Southeastern Museums 
Conference held at Old Salem in Winston-Salem. From Octo- 
ber 30 to November 2 Mr. Tarlton attended the Third An- 
nual Meeting of the Association of Historic Sites Adminis- 
trators at New Orleans and a part of the meetings of the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation. He was elected 
Secretary-Treasurer of the former organization for the next 
year. On November 7 he accompanied Dr. Christopher Crit- 
tenden to a meeting of the Brunswick County Historical So- 
ciety at Southport, where both appeared on a program deal- 
ing with the current archaeological work at Brunswick Town 
State Historic Site. Dr. E. Lawrence Lee, Professor of His- 
tory at The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina, was the main 
speaker of the evening. Mr. Stanley A. South, archaeologist 
in charge of the Brunswick Town project, showed artifacts 
from the site and also made a brief speech. On November 13 
in Goldsboro Mr. Tarlton and Mr. Sawyer represented the 
Department at the opening of sealed bids for the contract of 
the Aycock Birthplace Restoration. The successful bidder 
was the E. F. Taylor Company of Goldsboro with a bid of 
$11,480. Dr. David J. Rose of Goldsboro, Chairman of the 
Charles B. Aycock Memorial Commission, and other mem- 
bers of the commission were also present. Mr. Tarlton spoke 
on November 20 to the Charlotte Chapter of the Colonial 
Dames on North Carolina's historic sites. On November 25 
he visited Person's Ordinary at Littleton to inspect recent 
restoration work and to advise about further work. On De- 
cember 5 he attended the Southeastern Archaeological Con- 
ference at Chapel Hill and delivered a paper on "North Caro- 
lina's Historic Sites Program." 

The Town Creek Indian Mound, located near Mt. Gilead, 
reports the near completion of a new Indian structure mod- 
eled upon archaeological findings on the site. This building; 
is a priest's quarters of upright pole wall construction and 
pointed thatched roof. It is protected by a palisade wall of 
logs. Gradually through the reconstruction of sixteenth- 

Historical News 123 

century structures the early Indian village is being complet- 
ed. A few months ago a palisade wall containing a fortified 
entry was reconstructed along the river bank. 

Mr. Judson Mitchell, Historic Site Specialist at the Benton- 
ville Battleground near Newton Grove, is supervising further 
restoration of the old kitchen and slave quarters of the Har- 
per House which was used as a Union hospital during the 
Battle of Bentonville, March, 1865, and as a Confederate 
hospital just following the battle. Recently the Confederate 
Cemetery, where 360 Confederates killed during the battle 
were buried, has been cleaned off and landscaped. 

Alamance Battleground, under the supervision of Mr. A. L. 
Honey cutt, Jr., has been further landscaped and improved 
in recent months. Recent earth fill, accumulated as the result 
of erosion, around the stone outcropping which sheltered 
Regulator sharpshooters during the Battle of 1771, has also 
been removed. This famous feature of the Battlefield has 
thus been brought back to its original appearance. The next 
major improvement at Alamance will be the construction of a 
museum building during the coming year, which will house 
exhibits designed to interpret the battle more fully than is 
now possible. 

Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Head of the Division of Publications, 
attended the joint sessions of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association and the Western North Carolina 
Historical Association at Blue Ridge Assembly on August 29 
and 30. On October 10 he spoke to the Northampton County 
Historical Society at Jackson on the need for a history of that 
county; and on October 14 he spoke to the Ad Libitum Book 
Club in Raleigh on the publications program of the State De- 
partment of Archives and History. Mr. Corbitt addressed a 
small group in Sanford on October 20 and discussed the for- 
mation of a historical society in Lee County. On October 21 
he attended the Chatham County Historical Association 
meeting at which time charter membership certificates were 
distributed. From November 6 to November 8 he and Mr. 
H. G. Jones attended the meetings of the Southern Historical 
Association in Nashville, Tennessee, and on November 14 he 

124 The North Carolina Historical Review 

attended the meeting of the Historical Society of North Caro- 
lina at which time he was elected President for the coming 
year. On December 2 he appeared on a program on WMFY- 
TV and talked about the North Carolina Literary and His- 
torical Association and The North Carolina Historical Review. 

Mr. H. G. Jones, State Archivist, addressed the Chatham 
County Historical Society in the courthouse at Pittsboro on 
October 21 on the subject of early Chatham County history. 
On November 21 he spoke at a meeting of the Rockingham 
County Historical Society in Wentworth on "Rockingham 
County, 1810." 

Mr. Jones announces the transfer to the Archives of the 
first group of the private papers of the late J. Melville 
Broughton, Governor and United States Senator. The papers 
are being given by Mrs. Broughton and their use will be re- 
stricted for a number of years except with her permission. 

Since September Mr. Jones and Rear Admiral Alex M. 
Patterson ( Ret. ) , Public Records Examiner, have visited offi- 
cials in connection with public records in the following coun- 
ties: Anson, Bertie, Caswell, Chatham, Chowan, Craven, 
Cumberland, Duplin, Durham, Edgecombe, Forsyth, Gates, 
Guilford Harnett, Hertford, Johnston, Lenoir, Northampton, 
Onslow, Orange, Richmond, Robeson, Rockingham, Scot- 
land, Stokes, Wake, Wayne, and Wilson. In addition, Ad- 
miral Patterson has visited officials in the following counties: 
Beaufort, Bertie, Buncombe, Camden, Cherokee, Clay, Curri- 
tuck, Dare, Franklin, Graham, Granville, Greene, Haywood, 
Henderson, Hyde, Jackson, Jones, McDowell, Macon, Madi- 
son, Martin, Nash, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Perquimans, Pitt, 
Polk, Swain, Transylvania, Tyrrell, and Washington. 

Mrs. Rachel R. Robinson resigned as Archivist I on Janu- 
ary 9. She was succeeded on January 19 by Mrs. Lodosca R. 
Penny, Steno-Clerk II. 

A total of 721 persons registered for research in the Ar- 
chives Search Room during the quarter ending September 30. 
In addition, 751 were supplied information by mail, and the 
following quantities of reproductions were furnished: 779 

Historical News 125 

photostatic copies, 107 microfilm prints, 42 typed certified 
copies, and 1,197 feet of microfilm. These figures do not in- 
clude inquiries handled directly by the State Archivist. 

The loose Legislative Papers being preserved in the Ar- 
chives have been laminated through the year 1779, and at- 
tention has been turned to rehabilitating withdrawn marriage 
bonds dating prior to 1868. Some 16,00u pages of manuscripts 
were rehabilitated in the Archives Division during the 19^6- 
1958 biennium, and several thousand pages were laminated 
for counties, individuals, and institutions. 

The Roanoke Island Historical Association held its annual 
business session at a luncheon meeting in Raleigh on Decem- 
ber 2, and opened a week-long series of meetings held annu- 
ally by the various cultural societies throughout the State. 
Dr. Robert Lee Humber presided at the meeting at which 
time Mr. Richard E. Jordan, General Manager of "The Lost 
Colony," presented a report indicating a financial deficit for 
the production for the past season. Members and directors 
passed a resolution to appeal to the Council of State for an 
appropriation from the Contingency and Emergency Fund. 

Mr. Samuel Selden, who has accepted a position as Head 
of the Department of Drama, University of California at Los 
Angeles, resigned. Mr. George P. Geoghagan of Raleigh, Mr. 
George Ivey of Charlotte, and Dr. Bruce Whitaker of Chowan 
College were welcomed as new directors. Membership dues 
were increased from $3.00 to $5.00. 

The North Carolina Federation of Music Clubs opened 
its annual meeting at an afternoon session on December 2 
with Mrs. C. B. Jefferson of Chapel Hill, President, presiding. 
Mrs. E. E. Randolph of Raleigh, Mr. James Christian Pfohl 
of Jacksonville, Florida, the music students of Transylvania 
Music Camp, and the Duke Madrigal Singers conducted by 
Mrs. Eugenia Saville of Durham appeared on the afternoon 
program. Mrs. Jefferson also presided at the dinner meeting 
after which Mr. Arnold Hoffmann of Raleigh, Superintendent 
of Public School Music of the State Department of Public 
Instruction, introduced Lt. Governor Luther E. Barnhardt of 

126 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Concord who gave an address on "Music— An Acceleration to 
North Carolina's Progress." After the address Mr. Hunter 
Johnson, native of Harnett County and American composer, 
was introduced to the guests by Mrs. J. E. Pearson of Raleigh, 
his former teacher. 

Mr. Johnson has won the Prix de Rome and two Guggen- 
heim Fellowships. The southern premiere of his "Trio for 
Flute, Oboe and Piano" was played by the following musi- 
cians: Miss Myra Waterhouse of Raleigh, flute; Mr. Nels 
Leonard of Raleigh, oboe; and Mr. Loren Withers of Dur- 
ham, piano. Mr. Johnson's most recent award came last spring 
when he received a grant from the National Institute of Arts 
and Letters for "distinguished service to American creative 

On December 3 the thirty-second annual meeting of the 
North Carolina State Art Society opened with a business ses- 
sion devoted to reports and the election of directors. Direc- 
tors are Mrs. J. Melville Broughton of Raleigh, elected at 
this meeting; Mr. Egbert Davis of Winston- Salem, Dr. Clar- 
ence Poe, Raleigh, and Dr. Clemens Sommer of Chapel Hill, 
all of whom were re-elected. In the afternoon the Board of 
Directors elected the following officers: Dr. Robert Lee 
Humber of Greenville, President; Mr. Edwin Gill of Raleigh, 
Vice-President; and Mr. John Allcott of Chapel Hill, Mrs. 
Jacques Busbee of Seagrove, and Mrs. W. Frank Taylor, 
Goldsboro, all Vice-Presidents-at-Large. Governor Luther H. 
Hodges serves as Honorary President and the group will 
elect a treasurer at a later date. 

At the luncheon meeting Governor Hodges presented the 
Gari Melchers Gold Medal to Mr. James B. Byrnes, acting 
director of the North Carolina Museum of Art. The award 
given the State was made by the Artists' Fellowship, Inc., of 
New York and marks the first time in the 90-year history that 
this group has recognized a State. The Governor was pre- 
sented the award in New York in November in recognition 
of the "cultural leadership and foresight" of North Carolina 
in the establishment of the Museum of Art and the acquisi- 
tion of great works of art. The medal will be placed on per- 

Historical News 127 

manent exhibition, Mr. Byrnes stated. Dr. John Shirley, Dean 
of the Faculty at North Carolina State College, spoke at the 
luncheon meeting on "Russian Museums, Art, and Architec : 
ture," and Dr. Joseph Curtis Sloan, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Art at the University of North Carolina and Director 
of the Ackland Museum, spoke at the dinner meeting on 
"Art and Mother Nature." 

Dr. Robert Lee Humber, President of the Art Society, pre- 
sided at the evening meeting and announced the gift of a 
Medici sixteenth-century paneled room to the Museum of 
Art. The room, given in memory of Dr. William R. Valentiner 
by Dr. Armand Hammer of New York, originally came from 
the San Donato Palace in Florence, Italy. Dr. Humber also 
reported on the gift of the Kress Foundation which has not 
yet been received by the State. 

The following winners in the annual North Carolina Art- 
ists' Competition were announced: Anne Mercer Kesler, 
graduate student at the Woman's College, Greensboro, who 
also won the $300 scholarship offered by the North Carolina 
Federation of Women's Clubs, for her painting "Arena"; Mr. 
John Gordon, teacher at East Carolina College, Greenville, 
for his painting "Boodie at Table"; Maud Gatewood of Yan- 
ceyville, for her painting "Field's Edge"; and Mr. James Bum- 
gardner of Winston-Salem for his painting "Owl Watch." Mr. 
Robert A. Howard of Chapel Hill received an award for his 
sculpture "Landscape VI." The judges were Mr. Kenneth 
Donahue, Director of the Ringling Museum in Sarasota, 
Florida; Mr. Jewett Campbell, artist and teacher at Rich- 
mond Professional Institute (Virginia); and Mr. Edgar C. 
Schenck, Director of the Brooklyn Museum of Art. 

The eighteenth annual session of the North Carolina 
Society for the Preservation of Antiquities opened with a 
directors' meeting on December 4. Mrs. Ernest P. Ives of 
Southern Pines, President, presided at the business meeting. 
Reports on various restoration and preservation projects 
were made and Dr. E. Lawrence Lee, Jr., of The Citadel, 
Charleston, South Carolina, made a detailed report on Old 
Brunswick Town Historic Site. Mrs. Ives announced a gift 

128 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of $8,000 to be used-$4,000 each year for the next two 
years— to restore the Bennett House near Durham in which 
Johnston and Sherman signed the terms of agreement for the 
Confederate surrender. The donor of the gift was Mrs. 
Magruder Dent of Greenwich, Conn., and Southern Pines, 
who made it in memory of Joshua L. and Frederick L. Bailey 
"who for 65 years, without written contracts, under William 
A. Erwin and Kemp P. Lewis, sold the output of Erwin 
Mills." Dr. Lenox D. Baker, Professor of Orthopedic Sur- 
gery at Duke University and Chairman of the Bennett House 
Restoration Committee, gave a brief report on the activities 
of his committee. The society extended a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Edward Benjamin of New Orleans, La., and Greensboro 
for his offer of the site of the David Caldwell log college, 
one of the earliest schools in the State. The society also voted 
to establish within the North Carolina Federation of Women's 
Clubs an award to be presented annually to the club which 
does the greatest work in historical restoration and pre- 
servation. The award will be a check for $50 and a certificate 
of merit and will be presented for the first time in 1959. The 
following officers of the society were re-elected: Mrs. Charles 
A. Cannon of Concord, Honorary President; Mrs. Ives, 
President; Mr. Edmund T. Harding of Washington, Vice- 
President; and Mrs. Ernest A. Branch of Raleigh, Secretary. 

Dr. Richard H. Howland of Washington, D. C, President 
of the National Trust for Historic Preservation spoke at the 
luncheon meeting on "The Future of Our Past." At the 
evening meeting Mr. Harding presented the Cannon Cup 
Awards to the following: Governor Luther H. Hodges, Mr. 
and Mrs. Gettys Guille of Salisbury, Mr. and Mrs. William 
D. Campbell of Southern Pines and New York, Mr. James 
G. W. MacClamroch of Greensboro, and Mr. D. Hiden 
Ramsey of Asheville. 

A highlight of the meeting was the presentation of the 
first act of the play, "The Uncommon Man," by Dr. Jack 
Suberman of North Carolina State College, which was the 
society's tribute to Andrew Johnson, seventeenth President 
of the United States. Produced by members of the Raleigh 
Little Theater, the play celebrated the sesquicentennial of 

Historical News 129 

Johnson's birth in Raleigh in 1808. A reception for members 
and guests, with life members and officers receiving, con- 
cluded the program. 

The Fifty-eighth annual meeting of the North Carolina 
Literary and Historical Association, Inc., opened with a 
morning session on December 4 with Mr. Herbert OKeef 
of Raleigh presiding. Col. Hugh Dortch of Goldsboro, Chair- 
man of the North Carolina Committee Planning the Centen- 
nial Observance of the War Between the States, spoke on 
plans proposed for the observance. Dr. Robert Lee Humber 
of Greenville spoke on "The Sir Walter Raleigh Memorial/' 
and Mr. Julian Scheer of Charlotte spoke on "Tweetsie." Dr. 
James Purcell of Davidson reviewed North Carolina fiction 
for the year 1957-1958, and Dr. Marvin L. Skaggs of Greens- 
boro presented the R. D. W. Connor Award to Dr. H. H. 
Cunningham of Elon College for his article, "Edmund Burke 
Haywood and Raleigh's Confederate Hospitals." This award 
is made annually for the best article on a North Carolina 
subject published in The North Carolina Historical Review. 

Dr. Leslie Syron of Raleigh, President of the North Caro- 
lina Division of the American Association of University 
Women, presented the AAUW Award for Juvenile Literature 
to Mrs. Ina B. Forbus of Durham for her book, The Secret 
Circle. Mrs. Gilbert T. Stephenson of Pendleton presented 
the Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award to Mr. Paul Bartlett of 
Charlotte for his volume, Moods and Memories. Mr. OKeef 
presented the American Association for State and Local 
History Award of Merit to the Junior Historian Clubs of 
Goldsboro Junior High School for excellence in the field of 
history. It was received by Mr. Borden Parker, President of 
the student body and by Mrs. C. W. Twiford, Advisor. Mrs. 
D. S. Coltrane, Chairman of the Membership Committee of 
the Association, announced the winners of the membership 
contest. Mrs. Charles F. Phillips of Thomasville (District 
12), who secured 19 new memberships and 15 renewals, 
and Mrs. H. M. MacKethan of Fayetteville (District 7), 
who obtained 18 new memberships and eight renewals. 

130 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Officers elected at the morning meeting were Mr. Richard 
Walser of Raleigh, President; Mr. John Fries Blair of Wins- 
ton-Salem, Mrs. E. R. MacKethan of Fayetteville, and Mr. 
Glenn Tucker of Flat Rock, all Vice-Presidents; and Dr. 
Christopher Crittenden, Secretary-Treasurer. Mrs. R. O. 
Everett of Durham and Dr. Blackwell P. Robinson of Greens- 
boro were elected to the Executive Committee of the As- 

Mrs. Wilma Dykeman Stokely of Asheville presided at 
the Luncheon meeting at which time Mr. Roy Parker, Jr., 
of Ahoskie reviewed North Carolina non-fiction books for 
1957-1958. Mr. Paul Green of Chapel Hill presented eight 
honorary life memberships in the Association to Mrs. Jacques 
Busbee of Seagrove, Mr. B. S. Colburn of Biltmore Forest, 
Mr. D. L. Corbitt of Raleigh, Dr. J. G. De Roulhac Hamil- 
ton, Dr. Archibald Henderson, and Dr. R. B. House, all of 
Chapel Hill, Dr. W. C. Jackson of Greensboro, and Dr. 
Clarence Poe of Raleigh. 

Dr. D. J. Whitener of Boone, President of the Association, 
delivered the presidential address, "Education for the People," 
at the dinner meeting at which Mr. Henry Belk of Goldsboro 
presided. Dr. Whitener presided at the evening session held 
in the Memorial Auditorium with former President Harry S. 
Truman of Independence, Missouri, as the featured speaker. 
President Truman delivered an address, "The Most Mistreat- 
ed of Presidents,'' dealing with the life of Andrew Johnson. 
Governor Luther H. Hodges who introduced President Tru- 
man also presented the Literary and Historical Association's 
Corporate Citizenship Award to Mr. D. A. Rawley, President 
of the High Point Enterprise. This award is given annually 
to the corporation which in the opinion of the judges has 
rendered "the greatest service to the literary, historical, and 
general cultural advancement of their community and/or 
of the State of North Carolina." Mrs. Preston B. Wilkes, Jr., 
of Charlotte, Governor of the Society of the Mayflower Des- 
cendants in the State of North Carolina presented the May- 
flower Cup to Mr. Ben Dixon MacNeill of Hatteras for his 
book, The Hatterasman, which was judged the best work of 
non-fiction published in the State during the period of com- 

Historical News 131 

petition. Miss Clara Booth Byrd of Greensboro, President of 
the Historical Book Club, Inc., presented the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Award for the best work of fiction published during 
the past year to Miss Betty Smith of Chapel Hill for her book, 
Maggie-Now. Both the Central Carolina Colony of the So- 
ciety of Mayflower Descendants and the Historical Book Club 
held a breakfast meeting on December 6 in honor of the 
winners of the two awards. 

The forty-seventh annual session of the North Carolina 
Folklore Society was held on the afternoon of December 5, 
with Mrs. Betty Vaiden Williams of Raleigh, President, 
presiding. Theme of the program was "Our Scottish-Ameri- 
can Heritage." Mr. Donald MacDonald of Charlotte made a 
brief introductory talk and acted as master of ceremonies. 
Groups performing traditional Scottish folk dances were the 
Queen City's own Scottish Dancers of Charlotte, the Fayette- 
ville Senior High School Dancers, and the Benhaven Scot- 
tish Dancers of Olivia. Authentic plaids were worn by all 
members of the groups and some of the women wore the 
"arasaidh," or traditional female Highland dress. The Fayette- 
ville group composed of twenty-four girls were led by Mrs. 
William A. McMillan, Jr., and Mrs. Hubert Black (a native 
of Edinburgh) and performed Scottish reels. Scottish songs 
were sung in Gaelic by Mr. Philip Kennedy of Charlotte and 
Mrs. Williams sang several Scottish- American folksongs in- 
eluding "Charlie is My Darlin'." Misses Ann Wheedon and 
Gwyn Campbell danced the traditional sword dance and a 
Highland fling accompanied by Pipe Major Jack Smith, a 
native of Ayr, Scotland, and now a resident of Winston- 
Salem. Scottish country dances were performed by the 
Queen City's troupe which was composed of four male and 
four female dancers and directed by Miss Ann Southerland. 

New officers elected at the business session were Mr. 
Donald MacDonald, President; Mr. Norman C. Larson of 
Raleigh, First Vice-President; Mrs. Earl H. Hartsell of Chapel 
Hill, re-elected Second Vice-President; and Dr. Arthur Pal- 
mer Hudson of Chapel Hill, re-elected Secretary-Treasurer. 
Dr. Hudson presented a report and financial statement at the 
end of the business meeting. 

132 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The North Carolina Symphony Society held an evening 
meeting of the Executive Committee on the evening of 
December 5. The committee is composed of the following 
officers elected at the annual summer meeting: Mr. M. Elliot 
Carroll of Durham, elected President for a two-year term 
(July 1, 1958 to June 30, 1960); Governor Luther H. Hodges 
and Dr. Charles F. Carroll of Raleigh, members ex officio; 
Dr. Benjamin F. Swalin of Chapel Hill, Director; Mr. Lester 
C. Gifford of Hickory, Mr. James McClure Clarke of Ashe- 
ville, Mr. Voit Gilmore of Southern Pines, and Mr. Jan P. 
Schinhan of Chapel Hill, all Vice-Presidents; Mr. John Adams 
of Chapel Hill, Secretary; Mr. William R. Cherry of Chapel 
Hill, Treasurer; and Mrs. Vera N. Campbell of Chapel Hill, 
Assistant Treasurer. 

On December 6 the North Carolina Society of County and 
Local Historians held its annual meeting with Mrs. Taft 
Bass of Clinton, President, presiding. Mr. Malcolm Fowler of 
Lillington reported on the historical tours sponsored by the 
society during the past year and Dr. W. P. Jacocks of Chapel 
Hill announced the establishment of a new award to be 
known as the Peace Award. It was donated by Mrs. Willie 
Parker Peace of Henderson and is in the form of a large 
silver cup topped by the Lamp of Wisdom, and will have the 
names of the winners and their works engraved upon it. The 
first Peace Award will be made in 1959 and will be given 
every two years for the best county or local history pub- 
lished in a two-year period by a North Carolinian. Mr. 
Phillips Russell of Chapel Hill presented the Smithwick 
Award to Mr. F. C. Salisbury of Morehead City for a series 
of articles in the Carteret County News on old English 
survival in North Carolina speech. This award is made an- 
nually for the best newspaper article on a historical subject. 
The Hodges Cup, awarded annually to the high school stu- 
dent writing and publishing the best article on a historical 
subiect, was presented to Mr. David C. McElmore, Jr., of 
Garland, for his article on William Rufus King, North Caro- 
lina's only Vice-President of the United States, which was 
published in The Sampsonian. Miss Annette Holmes of Bow- 

Historical News 133 

den received an award of merit as runner-up. The Hodges 
Cup presentations were made by Mrs. Bernadette Hoyle of 
Smithfield. Highlight of the session was a talk by Mr. Robert 
K. Peterson of Washington, D. C, on "Confederate Research 
in the National Archives." At the luncheon meeting of the 
society Miss Mary Louise Medley of Wadesboro exhibited a 
rare volume on Anson County. Principal speaker at the 
luncheon meeting was Mr. Judson Mitchell of the State De- 
partment of Archives and History and Historic Site Superin- 
tendent of the Bentonville Battleground, who gave a slide- 
lecture on the battleground. Bentonville Battleground is the 
site of the largest battle ever fought on North Carolina soil- 
March 19-21, 1865. 

The annual meeting of the North Carolina Poetry Society 
was held on December 6 with Mrs. L. E. Skeen of Charlotte, 
President, presiding. Mr. Paul Bartlett of Charlotte, winner 
of the 1958 Roanoke-Chowan Poetry Award, read from his 
winning volume, Moods and Memories. Also reading from 
their respective volumes were Mr. Sneed Ogburn of Char- 
lotte from Whatsover Things Are Lovely and Mr. James Lar- 
kin Pearson of Guilford College, Poet Laureate of North 
Carolina, from his recent unpublished work. Mr. Richard 
Walser of Raleigh outlined plans for the meeting of the 
Society in 1959. 

On the afternoon of December 5 Governor and Mrs. Luther 
H. Hodges were hosts at a reception at the Governor's 
Mansion to the members of the several societies and organi- 
zations. President and Mrs. Harry S. Truman of Indepen- 
dence, Missouri, and Mr. and Mrs. E. C. Daniel, Sr., of 
Zebulon assisted in receiving. 

Dr. Fletcher M. Green, Chairman of the Department of 
History at the University of North Carolina reports the 
following news items: Dr. Hugh T. Lefler read a paper on 
"Some Problems in Teaching and Writing State History" 
at the meeting of the Southern Historical Association in 
Nashville, Tennessee, on November 7, and on November 14 

134 The North Carolina Historical Review 

he delivered the presidential address at the meeting of the 
Historical Society of North Carolina on the subject "R. D. W. 
Connor, Historian and Archivist." Dr. Cecil Johnson partici- 
pated in an organizational meeting of the North Carolina 
Conference of Academic Deans in Durham on December 
5. Dr. George B. Tindall published "The Economics of the 
New South" in the November ( 1958 ) issue of Current His- 
tory, and Dr. James L. Godfrey published "The Emergence of 
Ghana" in Commonwealth Perspectives published by the 
Duke University Press. Dr. Green participated in the Gettys- 
burg College Civil War Conference at Gettysburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, November 16-18, and published an article "The South 
and Its History" in the November (1958) issue of Current 

Miss Frances Acomb has been promoted to Associate 
Professor of History at Duke University and Mr. Winfred 
Bernhard, formerly of Columbia University, has been ap- 
pointed Instructor in American History. This past summer 
Dr. Joel Colton, Dr. William B. Hamilton, and Dr. Harold 
T. Parker spent several months doing research in Europe. 
Dr. Richard Watson and Dr. Theodore Ropp are both on 
sabbatical leave— Dr. Watson to continue his research on the 
career of Senator Furnifold M. Simmons, and Dr. Ropp to 
make a comparative study of military conscription in the 
Commonwealth countries. Dr. Ropp has visited Canada and 
is travelling on a Social Science Research Council Grant to 
New Zealand, Australia, the Union of South Africa, Great 
Britain, and Ireland. 

Dr. Frontis W. Johnston became Acting Dean of the Fac- 
ulty of Davidson College on October 1. 

Dr. Norris Preyer has been promoted to Professor of His- 
tory and Social Science at Queen's College. He spent last 
summer at Harvard University doing research and attended 
the November 6-8 meeting of the Southern Historical As- 
sociation in Nashville, Tennessee. 

Historical News 135 

Miss Jean Smitherman of Salem College was an official 
delegate to the Phi Alpha Theta ( honorary historical fraterni- 
ty) Convention at Williamsburg, Virginia, on December 28, 
and read a paper on the New Deal policies at one of the 

The Historical Society of North Carolina met in Chapel 
Hill on November 14 with the following persons reading 
papers: Mr. David Stick of Kill Devil Hills, Dr. Blackwell 
P. Robinson of Greensboro, and Dr. Hugh T. Lefler of Chapel 
Hill. Officers for the coming year were elected as follows: 
Mr. D. L. Corbitt of Raleigh, President; Dr. Cecil Johnson 
of Chapel Hill, Vice-President; and Dr. Marvin L. Skaggs 
of Greensboro was re-elected Secretary-Treasurer. Mr. Rich- 
ard Walser of Raleigh and Mr. William S. Powell of Chapel 
Hill were elected as members of the Executive Council and 
Miss Louise Hall of Duke University, Dr. Ina W. Van Nop- 
pen of Appalachian State Teachers College, and Dr. Robert 
C. Durden of Duke University were elected new members 
of the Society. 

The Wake County Historical Society held its fall meeting 
on November 18 in the Assembly Room of the State De- 
partment of Archives and History in the Education Building 
in Raleigh. Mr. William A. Parker, President, presided and 
Mrs. R. Bruce Carter, Secretary, read the minutes of the 
annual meeting. Reports were made by the chairmen of 
the various committees after which Mr. John R. Jordan, Jr., 
Program Chairman, introduced Mr. Jonathan Daniels, Editor 
of The News and Observer, who talked about his recent 
novel, Prince of Carpetbaggers, which is a biography of 
General Milton Littlefield. 

The North Carolina Society of County and Local His- 
storians sponsored a tour of New Hanover County on October 
19 with the following places of interest visited: Thalian Hall; 
St James Church and Parish, established in 1729; Bellamy 
House; Harris-Boney House, 1850; Orton Plantation and 
gardens; Old Brunswick Town State Historic Site; Clarendon 

136 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Plantation; Burgwin-Wright House; Dudley Mansion, home 
of Governor Edward B. Dudley; Anderson House; St. John's 
Tavern, the corner stone of which was laid in 1804; and a 
number of other sites. A picnic lunch was shared by those 
attending the tour. 

The October 1 issue of the Historical Foundation News, 
the quarterly publication of the Presbyterian and Reformed 
Church, Inc., has articles on recent acquisitions of the 
foundation, the appointment of Mr. Irwin Belk of Charlotte 
as a member of the Executive Committee of the Historical 
Foundation, and efforts by the foundation to secure bio- 
graphical sketches of Presbyterians to be catalogued and to 
acquire copies of all published sermons by ministers of the 
Presbyterian Church. 

The Gaston County Historical Bulletin, official organ of 
the Gaston County Historical Society, had the following 
articles in the September issue: a report on the value of 
cemetery markers in genealogical research with a number 
of excerpts from a compilation by Mrs. M. B. Wales; a story 
of the 6,000 Federal troops which were stationed at the 
Clemmer homes; some facts about the life of Vincent Morris, 
early settler; and a short article about the Moore family. 
In the October issue of the same publication there were 
articles dealing with Catawba Springs as a resort in the 
early 1800's; the Ebeneezer Methodist Church; the early 
history of the town of Belmont; a continuation of the story 
of the Moore family; and a letter written by Col. W. G. 
Morris from Camp Lee at New Bern during the Civil War. 

The Carteret County Historical Society held its fall meet- 
ing in Beaufort on October 25 with the President, Mr. F. C. 
Salisbury, presiding. Mrs. T. T. Potter, retiring Secretary, 
gave a report on the activities of the society for the past 
year. A prize is to be awarded by the society in 1959 in each 
of the five county high schools for the best paper submitted 
either by an English or a history student dealing with the 
county's history. Miss Ethel Whitehurst presented a paper, 

Historical News 137 

"The Phanthom of the Burning Ship," and related a number 
of legends dealing with the county. Mr. A. D. Ennett was 
appointed to arrange a joint meeting with the Onslow County 
Historical Society to be held at Fort Macon on April 25, 
1959, the ninety-seventh anniversary of the battle. Officers 
elected were Mr. Salisbury, President; Mrs. E. G. Phillips, 
Secretary; Mrs. Luther Hamilton, Sr., Treasurer; and Miss 
Amy Muse, Curator. The following are to serve as vice- 
presidents for the coming year: Mr. J. S. MacCormack, 
Atlantic; Mr. Van Potter, Beaufort; Mrs. Lucile A. Smith, 
Morehead City; Mrs. Sally Dudley, Newport, and Mrs. J. 
R. Gibson, Cedar Point. Three new members joined the 
society at this meeting. 

The Lee County Historical Society was organized on 
October 20 with Mr. Paul J. Barringer, Jr., serving as tem- 
porary chairman of the group. Mrs. CM. Reeves, Jr., will 
serve as temporary secretary and the following persons will 
serve on a committee to submit a constitution and by laws: 
Mr. Ralph Monger, Chairman, and Mrs. J. A. Overton and 
Mr. E. M. Underwood, Sr. Miss Edna Byerly will be in 
charge of publicity, and the group voted to establish mem- 
bership dues of $1.00 per year. 

On November 11 the city library of Lumberton received 
a gift of books from the American Legion Post 42, Lumber- 
ton, which were placed on the Kate Britt Biggs Research 
Shelf. Mrs. Biggs was largely responsible for the money in- 
vested in the volumes as she presented a $100 prize which 
she won in 1957 in the Legion's national history contest. 
Most of the books are North Caroliniana or are related to 
Robeson County. Since 1924 the Legion and Ladies Auxiliary 
have sponsored the town library which has grown slowly. An 
appeal was made to the public and in addition to the books 
selected and placed on the research shelf, a number of vol- 
umes have been contributed by individuals as gifts and 
memorials. The library will accept donations of books, parti- 
cularly those relating to North Carolina, for the Kate Britt 
Biggs Research Shelf. Books should be mailed to the Lum- 
berton Public Library, Lumberton. 

138 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Senator B. Everett Jordan recently notified Dr. Christopher 
Crittenden, Director of the State Department of Archives 
and History, of a memorandum which he received from the 
Library of Congress concerning the distribution of surplus 
duplicate books which are available for free distribution to 
educational institutions and public agencies, including li- 
braries. The books are miscellaneous in character and can 
be obtained only through authorized persons. The Library of 
Congress will ship selected items but cannot pay shipping 
charges. Detailed information may be secured from the Ex- 
change and Gift Division, Room 2010, Library of Congress, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

The Journal of Southern History, Volume XXIV, Number 
2 (May, 1958), had an article, "A Southern Progressive Looks 
at the New Deal," by Mr. E. David Cronon dealing with the 
career of Josephus Daniels in the Franklin D. Roosevelt 
administration. In the same issue Mr. Herbert J. Doherty, 
Jr., has an article, "Alexander J. McKelway: Preacher to 
Progressive," which deals with McKelway's crusade against 
child labor which began while he was editor of the Presby- 
terian Standard in Charlotte. In the section, "Notes and Doc- 
uments," of the Journal Mr. J. R. Pole has a statistical report 
entitled "Election Statistics in North Carolina, to 1861." 

The Department has received a copy of the Autobiography 
of Elder C. B. Hassell (1809-1880) from the Martin County 
Historical Society. The 24-page pamphlet which was pub- 
lished in Williamston (1958) by permission of the great- 
granddaughter of Hassell, Mrs. William R. Glover, is the 
first publication sponsored by the county society. The booklet 
will be useful to genealogists and members of the Hassell 
family and its related branches as mention is made of many 
names that are well known in both Martin and Halifax 
counties, where Hassell lived. The autobiography ends on 
December 26, 1840, and is produced exactly as it was writ- 
ten which allows the reader to share HasseU's hopes and 
fears as well as his business experiences. It presents, although 
it was not intended as such, an excellent picture of the 

Historical News 139 

economic condition in eastern North Carolina in the first 
half of the 1800's. 

Books received for review during the last quarter are: 
Evelyn M. Acomb, The Revolutionary Journal of Baron hud- 
wig Von Closen, 1780-1783 (Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American 
History and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia, 1958); Wil- 
liam M. Armstrong, E. L. Godkin and American Foreign 
Policy, 1865-1900 (New York: Bookman Associates, Inc., 
1958); Glenn Tucker, High Tide at Gettysburg: The Cam- 
paign in Pennsylvania (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs- 
Merrill Company, Inc., 1958); David Stick, The Outer Banks 
of North Carolina, 1584-1958 ( Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press, 1958 ) ; Wesley Frank Craven and James 
Lea Cate, The Army Air Forces in World War II, Volume 
Seven: Services Around the World (Chicago, 111.: The Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, 1958); William S. Hoffmann, 
Andrew Jackson and North Carolina Politics (Chapel Hill: 
The University of North Carolina Press, 1958); Richard S. 
Brownlee, Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy: Guerrilla War- 
fare in the West, 1861-1865 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State 
University Press, 1958); Ted R. Worley, The Camp, The 
Bivouac, and The Battle Field. . . . (Little Rock: Arkansas 
Southern Press, 1958 ) ; Clarence Edwin Carter, The Territor- 
ial Papers of the United States, Volume XXIII, The Territory 
of Florida, 1824-1828 (Washington: The National Archives, 
1958); Spencer Bidwell King, Jr., Ebb Tide, as seen through 
the Diary of Josephine Clay Habersham, 1863 (Athens: Uni- 
versity of Georgia Press, 1958); William B. Hesseltine and 
Donald R. McNeil, In Support of Clio: Essays in Memory 
of Herbert A. Kellar (Madison: State Historical Society of 
Wisconsin, 1958); Richard Walser, Nags Head and Bertie: 
Two Novels by George Higby Throop (Charlotte: Heritage 
House, 1958); J. Harry Bennett, Jr., Bondsman and Bishops: 
Slavery and Apprenticeship of the Codrington Plantations of 
Barbados, 1710-1838 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University 
of California Press, 1958); Carl N. Degler, Out of Our Past: 
The Forces that Shaped Modern America (New York: Har- 

140 The North Carolina Historical Review 

per and Brothers, 1959); Mody C. Boatright, Robert B. 
Downs, and John T. Flannagan, The Family Saga and Other 
Phases of American Folklore (Urbana: University of Illinois 
Press, 1958); Donald M. McCorkle, Regiment Band of the 
Twenty-Sixth North Carolina (Winston-Salem: The Morav- 
ian Music Foundation, Inc., 1958); Clarence S. Brigham, 
Fifty Years of Collecting Americana for the Library of the 
American Antiquarian Society, 1908-1958 (Worcester, Mass.: 
The American Antiquarian Society, 1958); Bell Irvin Wiley 
and Lucy E. Fay, "This Infernal War': The Confederate 
Letters of Sgt. Edwin H. Fay (Austin: University of Texas 
Press, 1958); Mary Lindsay Thornton, A Bibliography of 
North Carolina, 1589-1956 (Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press, 1958); Thomas P. de Graff enried, 
1191-1956: Seven Hundred and Sixty-Five Years. The de 
Graffenried Family Scrap Book (Charlottesville: The Uni- 
versity of Virginia Press, 1958); Rosamond Randall Bierne 
and John Henry Scarff, William Buckland, 1734-1774, Archi- 
tect of Virginia and Maryland (Baltimore: The Maryland 
Historical Society, 1958); Alexander McDonald Walker, New 
Hanover County Court Minutes, 1738-1769 (Bethesda, 
Maryland, Privately Printed, 1958 ) ; George Ruble Woolfolk, 
The Cotton Regency: The Northern Merchants and Re- 
construction, 1865-1880 (New York: Bookman Associates, 
Inc., 1958); S. Huntington Hobbs, Jr., North Carolina: An 
Economic and Social Profile (Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press, 1958); and Jonathan Daniels, Prince 
of Carpetbaggers (Philadelphia and New York: J. B. Lip- 
pincott Company, 1958 ) . 



North Carolina State Library 


APRIL 1959 

Volume XXXVI 

Number 2 

Published Quarterly By 
State Department of Archives and History 

Corner of Edenton and Salisbury Streets 
Raleigh, N. C. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
David Leroy Corbitt, Managing Editor 


Frontis Withers Johnston Hugh Talmage Lefler 

George Myers Stephens 



McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins Josh L. Horne 

Gertrude Sprague Carraway William Thomas Laprade 

Fletcher M. Green Herschell V. Rose 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 

This review was established in January, 1924, as a medium of publication 
and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institu- 
tions by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The 
regular price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, 
receive this publication without further payment. Back numbers may be 
procured at the regular price of $3.00 per volume, or $.75 per number. 

COVER — "Tweetsie," one of several engines of the name, which 
operated commercially on the narrow gauge track of the Eastern 
Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad until 1940. 
"Tweetsie" now runs as a tourist attraction. This photograph is 
used through the courtesy of the North Carolina State News 
Bureau. For a story on "Tweetsie" see pages 168 to 172. 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI April, 1959 Number 2 



OF EDUCATION, 1831-1834 141 

William Gordon Kornegay 


Christopher Crittenden 




Hugh Dortch 


Julian Scheer 

1957-1958 173 

James S. Purcell 

FICTION, 1957-1958 _179 

Roy Parker, Jr. 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 



D. J. Whitener 



Harry S. Truman 



Wilfred W. Black 


William S. Powell 


Stick's The Outer Banks of North Carolina — By Daniel 
Miles McFarland ; Thornton's A Bibliography of North 
Carolina, 1589-1956 — By H. G. Jones; Acomb's The 
Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig von Closen, 
1780-1783— By Robert F. Durden; Boykin's The Negro 
in North Carolina Prior to 1861 — By John Hope Frank- 
lin; Tucker's High Tide at Gettysburg — By John G. 
Barrett; McCorkle's Regiment Band of the Twenty- 
Sixth North Carolina — By Ava L. Honeycutt, Jr.; 
King's Ebb Tide as Seen Through the Diary of Jose- 
phine Clay Habersham, 1863 — By Horace W. Raper; 
Gammage's The Camp, the Bivouac, and the Battle Field 
— By Marshall W. Fishwick; Brownlee's Gray Ghosts 
of the Confederacy: Guerrilla Warfare in the West, 
1861-1865 — By N. C. Hughes, Jr.; Daniels' Prince of 
Carpetbaggers — By Dewey W. Grantham, Jr. ; Wool- 
folk's The Cotton Regency: The Northern Merchants 
and Reconstruction, 1865-1880 — By Henry T. Shanks; 
Hobbs' North Carolina: An Economic and Social Profile 
— By Carl F. Cannon, Jr.; Carter's State Regulation 
of Commercial Motor Carriers in North Carolina — By 
Henry S. Stroupe ; de Graff enried's The de Graff enried 
Family Scrap Book: 1191-1956, Seven Hundred and 
Sixty-Five Years — By Gertrude S. Carraway; and 
Parker's Alder mans in America — By James W. Patton. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI April, 1959 Number 2 

EDUCATION, 1831-1834 

By William Gordon Kornegay * 

The educational scene of early ante-bellum North Carolina 
cannot be depicted as one of great activity. Although the 
cause of education found its champions in such men as 
Archibald D. Murphey and Joseph Caldwell, large numbers 
of the populace were apathetic to popular education. 

One of the first efforts to provide effective State support 
for public education was the creation of a small school fund 
by the legislature in 1825. Educational legislation aimed at 
utilizing this school fund was introduced into the legislature 
on several occasions and although it was defeated, it was 
indicative of a growing interest. It was a result of this interest 
and the need for uniting the educational forces of the State 
into a workable body that meetings of teachers and friends 
of education were held in the early eighteen thirties. 

In July, 1830, an anonymous writer who called himself 
"Paedophilus" proposed an annual meeting of North Carolina 
teachers for the purpose of interchanging views on subjects 
connected with the teaching profession. In his article ad- 
dressed to the "friends of Education and of the cause of Lit- 
erature in North-Carolina," he noted that several teachers 
had suggested annual meetings for consultation and "discus- 
sion of subjects connected with education and the advance- 
ment of knowledge." As North Carolina was a State with a 
scattered population and with no large towns, teachers were 

* Dr. William Gordon Kornegay is an Assistant Professor of Education 
at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 


142 The North Carolina Historical Review 

unable to share the experiences of others in their profession. 
The only way they could compensate for this situation was to 

. . . consent occasionally to leave their respective charges, and 
repair to some pre-appointed rendezvous, whither they can carry 
for free discussion, all the subjects of inquiry, doubt and diffi- 
culty which have occurred in the course of their experience. 1 

Paedophilus proposed that all persons interested should 
meet in Raleigh on December 15, 1830. Some of the specific 
matters that should be discussed at such a meeting were 

. . . the best modes of discipline and tuition, the best books and 
editions of books, grammatical questions, as well as the pro- 
motion of professional acquaintance & friendship. . . . 2 

The date suggested for meeting was during the session of 
the legislature. Inasmuch as nothing more was said about 
the meeting, the date passed with no attention being paid to 
it. 3 

During this same period (1830-1831) several States had 
held literary and educational conventions. One in the State 
of Tennessee caused comment in North Carolina newspapers. 
Taking note of these activities, the Register noted on May 12, 

A number of Gentlemen, desirous of promoting the general 
Education of the People of this State, are solicitous of again 
calling the attention of the friends of Education, and of Teachers 
generally, to this subject, and for this purpose, propose to hold 
a Convention at Chapel Hill, on the day before the ensuing Com- 
mencement of our University. 

In the announcement of the meeting in Chapel Hill it was 
noted that the North Carolina Legislature in 1825 had created 
a fund for the establishment of common schools throughout 
the State. It was felt the proposed meeting of teachers and 
friends of education might be able to work out some plan for 
the use of this fund. 

1 Raleigh Register and North-Carolina Gazette, July 19, 1830, hereinafter 
cited as Raleigh Register. 

2 Raleigh Register, July 19, 1830. 

3 Raleigh Register, May 12, 1831. 



'■S a. 

03 « 

w e 

"♦■* -x 


O - 

w e 





g . 



S +s 

« a 

0) w 


-1 a> 


' rt cS 




3 03 



s «> 



0) Ph 




• h-5 


05 n' 
00 P-t 



O -P 



o3 03 





f-l cc 

o3 irH 

<D ~ 

Pi* - - 



3 ^ 

O 3 

U o 




S 5 

oS © 


o * 

. 3 

S O 




o £ 

GG ^ 


S3 t-< 

S ° 






a; 53 

X Fh 

H e8 


North Carolina Institute of Education 143 

The following week North Carolina newspapers advertised: 

A Convention 
Of Teachers and Friends of General Education 

It is proposed, by a number of persons who feel interested in 
the subject, to hold a Convention of Teachers and Friends of 
General Education, in this State, at Chapel Hill, on the day before 
the ensuing commencement of our University, for the purpose 
of mutual consultation, and the discussion of subjects connected 
with Education and the advancement of knowledge. 

It is hoped that the Teachers throughout the State, and others 
friendly to Learning, will attend this meeting for the purpose 
above stated, and for taking into consideration the expediency of 
organizing a permanent Council, or Senatus Academicus, who 
shall meet periodically for the aforementioned objects. 4 

On June 22 and 23, 1831, a group of teachers and friends of 
education, reported as "numerous and highly respectable," 
met on the University campus. They organized themselves 
into a society which they named the North Carolina Institute 
of Education, elected officers, 5 and adopted a constitution. 6 
The constitution stated the objectives of the society as "to 
diffuse knowledge on the subject of education, and by every 
proper means to improve the condition of common schools 
and other literary institutions in our state.'' Membership was 
opened to all interested in the subject. Provision was made 
for annual meetings during commencement week and the 
duties of officers were presented. These officers were en- 
trusted with the 

. . . general interests of the Institute, with authority to devise 
and execute such measures as may promote its objects. It shall 
be their duty to point out some suitable person to deliver an 
address before the society, at each annual meeting; to select 

4 Raleigh Register, May 19, 1831. 

6 President, Simmons J. Baker; Vice-Presidents, William McPheeters, Rev. 
William M. Green, Frederick Nash; Recording Secretary, Dr. Walter A. 
Norwood; Corresponding Secretary, William J. Bingham; Executive Com- 
mittee, Professors Elisha Mitchell, William Hooper, and James A. Phillips. 
North Carolina Institute of Education, Minutes 1831-32. Filed with Student 
Records, 1866-68, in University of North Carolina Archives, Southern His- 
torical Collection, University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, here- 
inafter cited as Institute of Education, Minutes. 

6 One hundred-thirty men signed the Constitution. For a complete list of 
signers see list on page 151. 

144 The North Carolina Historical Review 

competent persons to deliver lectures on such subjects connected 
with education, as they may deem expedient and useful; to col- 
lect such facts as may promote the general objects of the Insti- 
tute, and to provide suitable accomodations for the meeting. They 
shall have power to fill all vacancies in their own body from 
among the members, and make by-laws for their own govern- 
ment. 7 

It was a distinguished group which attended this first In- 
stitute. Several, such as T. L. Clingman (later Brigadier Gen- 
eral in the Confederate Army ) , were students at the Univer- 
sity at the time. The President, Simmons J. Baker of Martin 
County, was a University graduate of 1825 and a prominent 
Edinburgh-educated physician in his county. 8 Of the three 
Vice-Presidents, William McPheeters operated an academy 
in Raleigh; Reverend William M. Green was rector of St. 
Matthews Church in Hillsboro and was destined to be the 
first Episcopal Bishop of Mississippi; 9 and Frederick Nash 
was to become Chief Justice of the North Carolina Supreme 
Court. Other officers included William J. Bingham, Head- 
master of the famous Bingham School at Hillsboro, and often 
referred to in the public press as the "Napoleon of School- 
masters." 10 Elisha Mitchell, William Hooper, and James 
Phillips were professors at the University. Other important 
public figures present included Governor Montford Stokes, 
University President Joseph Caldwell, James Iredell, John 
Branch, John Bragg, John Owen, Will A. Graham, David L. 
Swain, S. I. Ives, D. M. Barringer, Lewis Williams, Hugh 
McQueen, William Gaston, W. J. Mhoon, Dennis Heartt, 
J. R. J. Daniel, John Giles, and Richard H. Battle. 11 

The meeting was applauded in the public press. The Reg- 
ister commented that it was "useful in awakening an interest 
in behalf of Common Schools— in leading Teachers to inves- 
tigate more attentively the theory of Education, and in en- 

7 Institute of Education, Minutes. 

8 General Alumni Association, Alumni History of the University of North 
Carolina (Durham: Christian and King, 1924), 30. 

9 Nash K. Burger, "The Rt. Rev. William Mercer Green," Journal of 
Mississippi History, XII (January, 1950), 3-27. 

10 Samuel A. Ashe, Biographical History of North Carolina (Greensboro: 
Charles L. Van Noppen, 8 volumes, 1905-1917), VI, 71, hereinafter cited as 
Ashe, Biographical History. 

11 Institute of Education, Minutes. 

North Carolina Institute of Education 145 

lightening and regulating public sentiment on this important 
subject." They noted it was a small beginning but hoped that 
the "maturity of [its] . . . fruit" would correspond to the 
"promise of [its] . . . blossom." 12 

The highlight of the opening session of the second meeting 
of the Institute which convened in Chapel Hill on June 19, 
1832, was an address by Alfred Moore, a prominent lawyer, 
legislator, and planter. He said the purposes of the Institute 
were in the highest interests of the State and "its complete 
success must be the anxious wish of every patriot." Even 
should the Institute fail, 

Good will have been done in making the friends of Education 
known to each other, in the interchange of thought and opinion, 
and in the opportunities which will have been afforded of form- 
ing a just estimate of the talent, acquirement, and capability of 
usefulness of the literary portion of our population. 13 

Moore probably expressed the viewpoint of thoughtful 
friends of education that two major obstacles faced popular 
education in North Carolina. One was the "summary, hasty, 
and indeed petulant mode" with which the General Assembly 
treated educational matters, but even more deleterious was 
the condition of the public mind. He, also, felt the populace's 
idea of education was primitive: 

To be able to read, to write and to cipher, is with them, a 
finished education. Nay, I have, upon more than one occasion, 
heard a man called a scholar, who read with difficulty ; who wrote 
in a manner, barely sufficient to free him from the suspicion of 
being skilled in hiero-glyphics ; and whose arithmetical knowl- 
edge only allowed of his putting a few simple numbers together, 
with a chance of being occasionally right. To Colleges, they have 
a decided hostility, and are fixed in the belief that they are solely 
designed for the education of the sons of rich men, that they may 
be enabled to deceive and oppress everybody else. 14 

Turning his attention to other topics, Moore gave his ap- 
probation to the township plan of school organization in New 

13 Raleigh Register, July 7, 1831. 

13 Alfred Moore, An Address Delivered Before the North Carolina Institute 
of Education At Their Annual Meeting (New Bern: John I. Pasteur, 1832), 
16, hereinafter cited as Moore, Address. 

M Moore, Address. 

146 The North Carolina Historical Review 

England and recommended it for the State. In concluding his 
speech he made a curricular observation on the classical 
languages, noting that they were wasteful if used only to 
collect a "parcel of words" but were most helpful if used in 
refining tastes and enlarging thought. 15 

Noteworthy at the second day's session were the presen- 
tation of two lectures and the appointment of a committee 
(William Gaston, Frederick Nash, David L. Swain) to me- 
morialize the legislature on the subject of popular education. 
Professor Hooper, in the first lecture, enumerated the "im- 
perfections of our primary schools." Such imperfections, he 
felt, were caused by indulgent parents, as well as poor teach- 
ers who neglected teaching the common rudiments of an 
English education. Too many young men, he noted, were 
being sent to college "deplorably deficient in orthography and 
penmanship," as well as the classical course which was slowly 
being watered down ("One teacher clips off a little here, an- 
other a little there"). 16 

As he turned to teaching techniques, he spoke in a manner 
that might have become a professor in a normal school: 

There is often discoverable in the teacher, a lamentable want 
of animation and vivacity of manner, a want of spirit and energy 
in conducting business. If instruction is imparted with spirit 
and life, it will be received with spirit and life. If the master 
keeps wide awake, his pupils will also. But if he be listless, 
languid, speaking scarcely loud enough to be heard, and allowing 
them to answer in the same style, why the whole school will be 
pervaded by the same listless, hum-drum, careless manner, which 
sickens a spectator just to witness it for one hour. 

Hooper believed the teacher should make use of oral 
lectures "in a spirited and entertaining manner." He should 
ask questions to keep alive attention and "make memory re- 
sponsible for what it has received." His call for visual aids 
would have pleased the modern educator. If the day's lesson 
is on Caesar's campaigns in Gaul, the teacher should have 

16 Moore, Address. 

"William Hooper, A Lecture on the Imperfections of Our Primary 
Schools and the Best Method of Correcting Them (New Bern: John I. Pas- 
teur, 1832), 28, hereinafter cited as Hooper, Lecture. 

North Carolina Institute of Education 147 

the assistance of "all necessary apparatus, maps, globes, plans 
of towns and sieges, military engines. . . . " 17 

Hooper's views on schoolhouse construction were not so 
prophetic of the future. In describing his ideal classroom, he 
justifiably insisted on a good stove, but suggested that stu- 
dents should sit with their backs to the master, "this arrange- 
ment answering the same end as blind bridles upon carriage 
horses, that they cannot see the danger from behind, but 
being in momentary expectation of it, will be always on the 
alert." He also wanted a room for solitary confinement behind 
the school where the delinquent student could ( during play 
hours ) "repent of his offences in solitary meditation. . . . " 18 

In his conclusion Professor Hooper made a plea (which 
was a presentiment of educational meetings yet to be held ) 
for the establishment of seminaries for the education of 
schoolmasters. 19 

In the final lecture Henry S. Ellenwood of Hillsboro spoke 
on "elocution, particularly with reference to the art of read- 
ing." Not only was reading being neglected, he felt, but when 
it was taught, incorrect methods were used. He feared chil- 
dren were being permitted "to be their own instructors, with- 
out much interference on the part of teachers." 20 It is inter- 
esting to note that the methodology of reading was an early 
concern of educational groups in North Carolina. 

Although the proceedings of the 1833 meeting of the In- 
stitute are missing, it is known that it as well as the com- 
mencement was well attended: 

Another overflowing Commencement furnishes evidence that 
a new spirit is awakening in favor of the University, and that 
the Addresses annually delivered, by the distinguished gentle- 
men who accept the appointments and invitations of the Literary 
Societies and of the Institute of Education, have an attraction 
which it was not foreseen would attach to them. The houses of 
the village were thronged and crowded until they would hold 

17 Hooper, Lecture. 
M Hooper, Lecture. 

19 Hooper, Lecture. 

20 Henry S. Ellenwood, A Lecture on Elocution, Particularly With Refer- 
ence to the Art of Reading (New Bern: John I. Pasteur, 1832), 16. 

148 The North Carolina Historical Review 

no more. . . . Among the visitors were Gov. Swain, and Ex- 
Governors, Owen, Iredell and Branch. 21 

The main addresses of the Institute are extant. The first 
was by Joseph Alston Hill, a successful young lawyer of 
Wilmington, who spoke on June twenty-sixth, the day before 
the commencement. Ashe has described him as "probably the 
most eloquent orator that the State of North Carolina has 
produced/' 22 Notable in his address other than the usual 
generalities on the importance of a good education were 
views held by him in regard to grouping and discipline- 
views that hearkened to the twentieth century. He expressed 
concern over the difficulty schools had in adjusting to the 
"individual peculiarities of mind and character" of the stu- 
dents. He decried that "boys of unequal capacities, and of 
minds in different degrees matured" were put together in the 
same classroom and the slow students were made to keep 
pace with the "swift." "The teacher, consulting the pupil's 
capacity and disposition, should adapt the plan of instruction 
to the intellectual and moral dimensions of the learner." 23 

As to discipline, he pointed out that pupils were not "un- 
frequently sacrificed to the dogma" of a teacher "who, ad- 
hering rigidly to some favourite scheme of education, . . . 
[refused] the slightest relaxation of his rule of discipline." 
He further noted that the "birchen sceptre" was a poor source 
of inspiration for learning but appeared to be unrivalled in 
the art of teaching. Corporal punishment, if it had to be part 
of school discipline, should be used only as a last resort. An 
affection should exist between teacher and pupil: 

It is the glory of Socrates, that when condemned to die, his 
disciples crowded around him, eager to testify their affection, 
prompt to deplore his misfortune and to soothe his grief. It may 
be questioned, whether, should one of our modern teachers be 
condemned to drink the hemlock, his disciples would make as 
forward a display of their sympathies; the revengeful urchins 
would I doubt, be apt to applaud the justice of the sentence, and 

21 Raleigh Register, July 2, 1833. 

22 Ashe, Biographical History, IV, 183. 

33 Joseph Alston Hill, Address Delivered at Chapel Hill before the North 
Carolina Institute of Education (Chapel Hill: I. C. Partridge, 1833), 16, 
hereinafter cited as Hill, Address. 

North Carolina Institute of Education 149 

consider the infusion of hemlock, a fair return for the unmerci- 
ful doses of birch or chinquepin, administered to themselves. 24 

In other lectures, James D. Johnson spoke of lyceums, and 
Walker Anderson, an Adjunct Professor of Natural Philoso- 
phy and Astronomy at the University, brought the attention 
of the Institute again to the question of rewards and punish- 
ments. His views appear liberal in an age when schoolmas- 
ters were considered "harsh." He was particularly concerned 
over the harmful effect of punishment on the female student 
which he felt the school should be preparing for the gentle, 
"love-inspiring offices of her station." A stern discipline and a 
competitive system for rewards was all right for the male stu- 
dent who in life must struggle for pre-eminence, but to the 
female "it matters not with how much or how little fidelity 
the mothers and wives around her fulfill their duties." Ac- 
cordingly, he noted, a "certain standard of excellence in 
scholarship and propriety of deportment" should be set by 
the school for the female, and she should be judged according 
to how "she reaches or falls short of that standard." 25 

In August following the third Institute, Walter A. Nor- 
wood, the Institute's treasurer advertised 26 that the funds 
of the Institute had been exhausted by the publications of 
the previous year and urged those indebted to the Institute 
to forward the amount as soon as possible to Chapel Hill. He 
stated that the membership was not sufficient to cover the 
expenses of publications for the present year and urged "per- 
sons friendly to the objects of the Institute" to become mem- 
bers by sending the treasurer an annual contribution of one 

The 1834 meeting of the Institute was only briefly noted 
by the Chapel Hill Harbinger: 

On Wednesday forenoon a meeting of the "North Carolina 
Institute" was held. And in the afternoon, the members of the 
Institute, and audience generally were entertained by an Address 

24 Hill, Address. 

26 Walker Anderson, Lecture on the Subject of "Exciting Emulation In 
Schools by the Use of Reward and Punishments" (Chapel Hill: I. C. 
Partridge, 1834) , 12. 

28 Raleigh Register, August 20, 1833. 

150 The North Carolina Historical Review 

from Professor Mitchell on the subject of common schools, in 
which there was much profitable matter seasoned by several 
touches of his peculiar humor. 27 

Professor Mitchell in this main address 28 called for the 
establishment of a system of common schools in North Caro- 
lina. He said the people of the State should not "lie upon 
their backs and rail at the legislature for not sending a school- 
master to educate their children" but rather "apply their own 
shoulders to the wheel." He favored a strong local support of 
schools as opposed to a State supported system and pointed 
out the good start Massachusetts had made with its sys- 
tem. He believed that schools could be maintained most 
economically with the "eagle eye of private interest watching 
over it." 

He proposed a wide use of "females" as schoolmistresses. 
A great waste of resources in the State were those " 'brown- 
corn-fed nymphs'— young females, born in humble circum- 
stances; without property, and whose honest industry is the 
only fund to which they can look for a maintenance." These 
young ladies could make more money and serve the State 
better as school teachers than as farm or factory workers. 

Mitchell alluded to a visit of General Jackson's in the North 
where he was greeted by thousands of factory girls and add- 
ed, "Should he favor North Carolina with a visit, I would 
have him welcomed at the Virginia line by a mile of school- 
mistresses, each with a dictionary and spelling-book under 
her arm. . . ." 

With the 1834 meeting, the Institute appears to have 
become dormant but in the four years of its existence, it 
perhaps focused the attention of the most distinguished 
scholars and politicians in the State on educational problems. 
In introducing the subject of common schools before such an 
influential forum as that afforded at annual University com- 
mencements, it no doubt contributed its share to the move- 
ment which resulted in the establishment of public schools 
in the State at the end of the decade. 

27 Reprinted in the Star (Raleigh), July 3, 1834. 

28 Elisha Mitchell, A Lecture on the Subject of Common Schools Deliv- 
ered Before the North Carolina Institute of Education (Chapel Hill: I. C. 
Partridge, 1834), 12. 

North Carolina Institute of Education 


List of Persons Subscribing to the Constitution of the 
North Carolina Institute of Education, 1831 

Frederick Nash 
Wm. M. Green 
Wm. C. Hooper 
Jno. Scott 
Jas. Grant 
Benj. M. Smith 
Dennis Heartt 
Simmons J. Baker 
Elisha Mitchell 
W. J. Bingham 
Henry G. Smith 
J. Warnock 
Franklin L. Smith 
Jno. L. Hargrove 
Jno. H. Parker 
Wm. H. Spear 
Thos. W. Harris 
Jno. H. Haughton 
Wm. H. Robards 
Richd. H. Smith 
Michl W. Holt 
Saml. S. Biddle 
H. S. Ellenwood 
Jas. M. Neal 
J. B. Shepard 
Ruf. M. Rosebrough 
H. W. Miller 
Jno. Witherspoon 
Giles Mebane 
W. A. Norwood 
Jno. Owen 
James Webb 
A. Moore 
Wm. Gaston 
Wm. Polk 
Thomas S. Ashe 
W. H. Hardin 
James D. Johnson 
D. L. Swain 
Jos. B. Skinner 
Henry A. Rowland 
J. Haughton 
Will E. Anderson 

Jos. H. Saunders 
V. M. Murphey 
Hamilton C. Graham 
Jas. G. Campbell 
D. W. Henderson 
Robt. A. Ezell 
Jas. Moorhead Wright 
Henry Yarbrough 
James W. Osborne 
Michael Hoke 
Nath G. McCain 
R. W. Saunders 
M. Stokes 
Jos. Caldwell 
William McPheeters 
Saml. S. Downing 
W. J. Mhoon 
Jos. B. G. Roulhac 
Jacob Thomson 
D. B. Hooper 
Samuel Graham 
Hugh Waddell 
Lewis (?) Bond 
William Bethell 
Carleton Walker 
Cadr. Jones 
Jas. G. Hall 
George W. Morrow 
Is. Croom 
J. W. Phillips 
Wm. Martin Crenshaw 
John F. Burton 
John Burgwyn 
Jno. Branch 
Ja. Iredell 
Jos. A. Hill 
John W. Huske 
Hugh McQueen 
John Giles 
D. Rainey 
Edgar (?) Jones 
John L. Kirkland 
Geo. W. Mordecai 


The North Carolina Historical Review 

Walker Anderson 
A. J. Hill 
T. L. Clingman 
Jno. Bragg 
Jas. H. Norwood 
Saml. I. Price 
Nelson B. Hughes 
Richard H. Battle 
John H. Parker 
Jn. W. Norwood 
Wm. H. Owen 
Edwrd. D. Hill 
Will A. Graham 
Wm. F. Strudwick 
Lewis Williams 
Geo. McNeill 
J. Yarbrough 
Jesse Rankin 
Robt. G. Allison 
Jno. M. Sledman 
Jos. A. Hill 
Rev. Saml. Price 

Nelson B. Hughes 
D. S. Russel 
George Hooper 
Edwarl J. Hall 
W. P. Gunn 
W. M. Norwood 
D. M. Barringer 
S. L. Ives 
P. B. Wiley 
Jos. Little John 
T. Settle 
J. R. J. Daniel 
Thomas L. Hoskins 
Simeon Colton 
K. P. Williss 
John I. Lockhart 
Saml. Ruffin 
Paul C. Cameron 
Ben Sumner 
Ja. Cook 
Jno. A. Downey 
Michael Osborne 29 

29 These signatures are affixed to the Constitution as found in Institute of 
Education, Minutes, 1831-1832. 




By Christopher Crittenden 

Now and then, in various fields of endeavor, it is well to 
stop and, as it were, to take a look at ourselves— to take stock 
of what we have accomplished, what we have failed to ac- 
complish, and what we may perhaps hope to achieve in the 
future. It is this kind of look in the field of history and histori- 
cal activities in North Carolina that I propose for us to take 

The North Carolina Historical Review for January, 1927, 
included Dr. J. G. deRoulhac Hamilton's article, "The Pres- 
ervation of North Carolina History," in which the author un- 
dertook to tell what had been accomplished in the historical 
field in our State up to that date. The present account seeks 
to bring the story up to date, as well as to touch on certain 
areas that Dr. Hamilton did not cover. 

Since the beginning of the century we seem to have made 
remarkable progress in this field. In general, our people today 
are probably showing more interest and activity in their his- 
tory than ever before. Let us consider different phases of the 
subject and see what has actually been accomplished. 

In the field of official archives, the valuable series of records 
of the various State departments and agencies are for the 
most part preserved either in the agency of origin or in the 
State Archives. Thanks to the fine work in which the late 
R. D. W. Connor pioneered, we do not have the bad situation 
that yet exists in some of our States where valuable and irre- 
placeable official records are rotting or mildewing, or being 
chewed up by insects in closets, attics, or basements, or on 
trash heaps. Within the past half dozen years, in addition to 
transferring valuable records to the State Archives, we have 

* Dr. Christopher Crittenden is Director of the State Department of 
Archives and History. This paper was delivered as his presidential address 
to the Historical Society of North Carolina at Wake Forest College, 
Winston-Salem, November 1, 1957. 


154 The North Carolina Historical Review 

developed a program of records administration that involves 
writing an administrative history of each State agency, mak- 
ing an inventory of its records, and providing for every series 
of records of the agency by fixing schedules for either per- 
manent preservation by the agency, or immediate disposal, 
or microfilming and disposal, or disposal after a stated period 
of time ( usually after transfer to our State Records Center ) , 
or immediate or eventual transfer of records to the State 

Our county records are likewise better preserved than for- 
merly. Many of the older, valuable series have been trans- 
ferred to the State Archives, and others have been micro- 
filmed, with microfilm copies being placed in the Archives. 
Many of our counties are caring for their records better than 
they did a few decades ago. A program of records adminis- 
tration for our one hundred counties is being developed, with 
schedules for the various series of records. 

The official records of our municipalities in general are not 
as valuable for historical research as are the records of our 
State agencies and counties. Thus the municipal records have 
not received as much attention, but we are undertaking to 
work out a program of records administration in this field also. 

In the realm of private and unofficial manuscripts we can 
hardly be accused of lagging behind. At the University of 
North Carolina is the large and valuable Southern Historical 
Collection, including materials not merely from North Caro- 
lina but from the entire South. At Duke University is the 
extensive manuscript collection relating to the Methodists, 
North Carolina, the South, the rest of the Nation, and even 
certain foreign countries. The State Archives include the 
private and unofficial papers of many persons prominent in 
North Carolina history. At Salem are the methodically kept 
and well-preserved Archives of the Moravians. At Montreat 
is the extensive and valuable collection relating to the South- 
ern Presbyterians. The Methodists have begun a similar col- 
lection at Lake Junaluska. The Guilford College Library 
preserves many Quaker records. In the Wake Forest College 
Library is a large Baptist collection. Atlantic Christian Col- 
lege has assembled materials relating to the Disciples of 

History and Historical Activities 155 

Christ. In addition, there are several smaller public manu- 
script collections in our State. 

Likewise, in the field of libraries we have come a long way. 
Both Duke University and the University of North Carolina 
have built up very large collections in the realm of history, 
and some of our colleges have useful collections in special 
fields. In public libraries, our State Library has worthwhile 
research collections, and some of our county and municipal 
libraries have likewise acquired research materials of value, 
especially for their own local areas. 

In historical research, it would appear that we are doing 
our share. The archives, manuscript collections, and libraries 
listed above are extensively and intensively used by research- 
ers. These consist of faculty members from universities and 
colleges in our own State, elsewhere in the South, and 
throughout the Nation. Many of them are graduate students. 
In addition, there are other researchers— writers of historical 
fiction, writers of newspaper and magazine articles, amateur 
writers of county history, and still others. And of course we 
always have with us those engaged in genealogical research, 
who make use particularly of official State and county records. 

In historical publication, we likewise seem to be accom- 
plishing a great deal. To a large degree our publications are 
based on research in the sources indicated above. Our two 
university presses, our State Department of Archives and 
History, and our commercial publishers ( of which several are 
now doing good work in the historical field) issue annually 
dozens of historical volumes. In magazines, we have The 
North Carolina Historical Review, together with The North 
Carolina Historical and Genealogical Quarterly (mainly 
genealogical) and The State magazine (of a popular type, 
now containing less historical material than formerly). Our 
newspapers carry many feature articles as well as items of 
spot news relating to history. 

In radio and television we have experimented with his- 
torical topics, especially recently over WUNC-TV. Of course 
we receive from outside our borders many chain radio and 
TV programs of a historical nature. 

156 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In the teaching of history, we require a certain amount of 
this subject at varying levels in our elementary and high 
schools. All of our colleges and universities give courses in 
history taught by professionally trained experts. Our two 
universities include two of the leading graduate schools in 
the entire Nation, and each is strong in the field of history. 
Courses are given in various periods and aspects of history, 
and a great deal of attention is devoted to southern and North 
Carolina history. 

One significant development of the past quarter century 
has been our achievement in the historical drama. This began, 
as we all recall, with Paul Green's "The Lost Colony" at Fort 
Raleigh in 1937— a new and original achievement in the his- 
torical field which the author dubbed a "symphonic drama" 
but which the public insists on calling a "pageant." So effec- 
tive and so successful was this venture that it has been copied 
many times in North Carolina, elsewhere in the South, and 
indeed throughout the Nation. Even the proud Old Dominion 
has followed our lead in this respect. 

In the development of historical museums we have built 
up in Raleigh our State Hall of History, which undertakes to 
tell the story of North Carolina's past in its various periods 
and phases. A number of local museums of merit have been 
established, such as the Wachovia Museum in Salem, which 
portrays the history of the Moravians, and the Rowan Mu- 
seum in Salisbury, which is undertaking to cover the history 
of that county. We have a number of special museums, such 
as those maintained by the National Park Service at Guilford 
Courthouse and Fort Raleigh, which do a splendid job in 
covering a well-defined, limited field. Another museum of this 
specialized type is that of the Cherokee Indian, at Cherokee. 

There is more interest in preserving our historic sites than 
ever before. This activity is being conducted by individuals 
( as in the case of Bandon Plantation, maintained by Mr. and 
Mrs. John Fletcher); the patriotic societies (as with "The 
Cornwallis House," maintained by the Colonial Dames ) ; the 
counties (for instance, the reconstructed home of Nathaniel 
Macon, kept up by Warren County); and the municipalities 
(for example, the Andrew Johnson Birthplace, maintained 

History and Historical Activities 157 

by the City of Raleigh ) . The United States Government takes 
care of several historic sites within our borders (such as 
Moores Creek National Military Park). 

The State Government within recent years has entered 
into this program on a broad scale. Some of this activity, of 
course, is conducted by special commissions, as in the case 
of the Tryon Palace Commission, which, as all of us know, is 
restoring the Colonial Capitol of North Carolina. Two State 
agencies that are engaged to a limited degree are the State 
Department of Conservation and Development, which main- 
tains Fort Macon and Pettigrew State Parks, and the High- 
way Department, which is responsible for the erection and 
maintenance of some 800 historical markers and also for 
maintaining a few historic areas ( such as the site of the Ben- 
nett Place ) . Most of this work that is done by the State, how- 
ever, is handled by the Department of Archives and History, 
which was assigned the full function by the General Assembly 
of 1955. The Department maintains some sites directly (as 
Town Creek Indian Mound and Alamance Battleground). 
It is responsible for certain sites that are acquired by the 
State but leased to unofficial organizations for maintenance 
(as the James Iredell House in Edenton and the House in 
the Horseshoe in Moore County). The Department also 
handles certain funds appropriated by the General Assembly 
for various properties to which the State does not acquire 
title ( for example, Historic Halifax ) . 

What unofficial organizations are engaged in historical 
activity in our midst? A part is played by certain national 
and regional groups such as the American Historical Associa- 
tion, the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, the Society 
of American Archivists, the American Association for State 
and Local History, and the Southern Historical Association. 
From time to time many of us serve as officers and on com- 
mittees, participate in programs, perhaps engage in extra- 
curricular divertissements, and otherwise take part in the 
activities of these organizations. 

Of State organizations we have quite a few. We have, of 
course, the Historical Society of North Carolina, dating back 
to Governor Swain and recently revived— an organization 

158 The North Carolina Historical Review 

limited to seventy-five members who, to be eligible for mem- 
bership, must have made substantial contributions to the 
field of history. We have our North Carolina Literary and 
Historical Association, established in 1900, straddling the 
areas of literature and history, with a broad and growing 
membership of some 1,200, the program of which has recently 
been expanded. Our North Carolina Society of County and 
Local Historians is a grass roots organization whose chief 
function is to conduct tours of our various counties. Our 
North Carolina Society for the Preservation of Antiquities is 
both a social and a historic preservation organization. We 
have a number of patriotic societies, both state-wide and 
local, with their feet more or less in the historical field. 

Certain special organizations exist and function, each for a 
specialized and limited purpose. Such organizations are the 
Roanoke Island Historical Association, whose sole function 
is to produce "The Lost Colony," and the Cherokee Histori- 
cal Association, which handles "Unto These Hills." Covering 
a part of our State is the Western North Carolina Historical 
Association, a very active and useful organization. Of county 
and other local historical societies we now have some half a 
hundred— far more than ever before. 

We have now undertaken to present a bird's-eye view of 
the total situation. Perhaps it will be in order if, as a sequel, 
we attempt to do a little evaluating— to try to see what we 
have done and what we have failed to do. In attempting this, 
of course we enter into the area of opinion and judgment. 
What follows is merely one man's opinion, and could be 
wrong. Here are my own comments, for whatever they may 
or may not be worth: 

In our official archives program, if I may be pardoned for 
saying so, North Carolina seems to rank among the half dozen 
leading States of the Nation. Recognized as among the best 
is our work in records administration and public archives, 
both State and local. More needs to be done with our coun- 
ties and municipalities. I am glad to report that our State De- 
partment of Archives and History can now undertake to 
render this service through a new employee, a Public Records 
Examiner, authorized by the last General Assembly. 

History and Historical Activities 159 

In private and unofficial manuscript collections, we appear 
to rank at or near the top. Rare indeed is the significant col- 
lection of private manuscripts that is not being tracked down 
by one of our depositories— and sometimes, I have heard, 
there is more than one tracker after the same collection. 
There may be certain weaknesses in this program that need 
to be corrected. Some of our universities and colleges (in- 
cluding certain State institutions ) do not have adequate pro- 
grams for handling their own records. Many of our business 
organizations probably do not conduct suitable programs of 
records administration and do not adequately preserve their 

We have strong research libraries. Many of our local libra- 
ries perhaps are not doing as good a job as they might of 
preserving the sources of local history— newspapers, for in- 
stance. (In this connection, it probably would be unwise for 
most of our local libraries to undertake to preserve manu- 
scripts. These should go in most instances to larger deposi- 
tories that are equipped to handle them.) 

We may not be suitably preserving the source materials, 
both printed and manuscript, in certain special fields. For 
example, there are several institutions each of which pre- 
serves a good collection for a certain religious group, but are 
adequate collections being made for some minority groups, 
such as our Episcopalians and Jews? There would seem to be 
a good opportunity to preserve the records of our minority 
racial groups. Probably very useful collections could be built 
up for such elements in our population as the Germans, 
Scotch-Irish, and the Scottish Highlanders. There would ap- 
pear to be a very fine opportunity to establish a special collec- 
tion on the history of the Negro in our State. 

In research, always more could be done— new and addi- 
tional topics that need to be explored are forever turning 
up, or old subjects need to be re-examined. But on the whole 
we seem to be holding our own well in comparison with 
other States. 

In publishing we likewise apparently are doing well. We 
are publishing source materials and secondary works and 
articles. We now have good general histories of our State, 

160 The North Carolina Historical Review 

including an excellent one-volume history. One question: 
Should we seek to establish a popular historical magazine 
such as American Heritage or Virginia Cavalcade? Almost 
undoubtedly such a publication would arouse a great deal 
of interest, but at the present time the cost would seem to be 

In the teaching of history, I wonder whether in the schools 
our subject has gotten mixed up with the "social studies" and 
with other very broad and generalized topics to such an ex- 
tent that it has largely lost its meaning. Are we getting our 
young people to learn enough facts? As I travel around the 
State I am impressed by how little factual information on the 
history of North Carolina has been acquired by both our 
school children and our college students. I realize, of course, 
that we run here into questions of educational theory— 
whether progressive education is a good thing, for example— 
and I am sure you do not want me at this point to attempt a 
discussion of such involved problems. I do feel, however, 
that we are not teaching our young people enough of the 
facts of our State history. 

Radio and TV would appear to be somewhat in the ques- 
tionable sphere. Our Department of Archives and History 
has experimented with these, but we still don't know quite 
what the answers are. One thing we have learned is that a 
tremendous amount of time is ordinarily required fo _ : the 
preparation of such programs. Are they worth it? Are thev 
merely ephemeral? Are they used once and then gone forever? 
In this connection we run into the problems of recording, 
slide programs, motion pictures, and other audio-visual aids. 
There would seem to be possibilities along these lines, but 
they have not yet been fully worked out. 

In historical museums, we have come a long wav, but we 
can even do more. The chief need of our State Hall of History, 
and indeed of the entire Department of Archives and History, 
is for a new building so that ample services can be rendered 
to all the people of our State. There are excellent opportuni- 
ties for additional special museums, and it would be a fins 
thing if every county could have its own local museum. 

History and Historical Activities 161 

As for historic sites, there are undoubtedly fine possibili- 
ties. In this connection we probably should bear in mind the 
need of preserving the typical— such as a pre-machine-age 
crossroads village, a tobacco barn, or a Victorian town house 
(like those yet remaining on Blount Street in Raleigh), but 
there are undoubtedly limits. It would seem that the State 
government should maintain only sites of state-wide histori- 
cal significance, only a few dozen at the most. In addition, 
there would appear to be a future for local restoration pro- 
grams, such as the very fine one at Old Salem. 

Of organizations of state-wide scope, we seem to have 
enough, at least for the present. The great need seems to be 
for a larger number of local organizations— at least one in 
every county— and we are moving rapidly in this direction. 

In conclusion, since 1900 we in North Carolina have come 
a long way on the road of developing and expanding our his- 
torical program and activities. But there is always more to be 
done. Of chief significance, our people still are not adequately 
informed regarding their history. I feel, and feel strongly, 
that it is our duty and responsibility to make use of every 
practicable device and method we can think of, every weapon 
in our armor, in order to encourage, stimulate, and assist our 
people to comprehend and appreciate their past, the heritage 
that is theirs. 




DECEMBER 5, 1958 


Culminating in an address by President Harry S. Truman, 
delivered in the Raleigh City Auditorium to some 3,000 per- 
sons, the fifty-eighth annual session of the North Carolina 
Literary and Historical Association drew the largest attend- 
ance and was the best publicized for many a year— probably 
for all time. The year 1958 marked the one hundred fiftieth 
anniversary of the birth of Andrew Johnson in the City of 
Raleigh, and the Association and allied societies featured this 
sesquicentennial in their meetings. Not merely in size but 
also in quality it was felt that the various meetings compared 
favorably with those of other years. 

With the exception of the talk by Dr. Robert Lee Humber, 
"Sir Walter Raleigh Memorial" (for which no copy was pre- 
pared), we are glad to include in the pages that follow all 
the papers that were presented at all the Association's meet- 





By Hugh Dortch 

In a little more than two years we will reach the centennial 
of the greatest struggle in which our nation ever engaged. 
The United States Government has established a Commission 
to co-ordinate activities in this commemorative field, and 
many of the States, including our sister Commonwealth of 
Virginia, have already set up committees or commissions for 
the purpose. It seems fitting and proper that our own State of 
North Carolina and our people participate in this commemo- 

In the very beginning, in order to clarify what we propose 
to do— and also what we do not propose to do— let me quote 
from an address by a distinguished southern historian, Dr. 
Bell Irvin Wiley of Emory University, a member of The Na- 
tional Commission, delivered to that Commission earlier 
this year. 

I should like to stress the point that the Civil War Centennial 
Commission hopes earnestly to avoid any sort of activity that 
will tend to revive the bitterness and hatred engendered by the 
conflict of a century ago. Rather, we want to commemorate the 
greatness demonstrated by both sides in that momentous strug- 
gle. The Civil War was a time of supreme greatness for both 
North and South — and for the American Nation. Never before 
nor since have Americans been called on to make such enormous 
sacrifices as in the terrible years, 1861 to 1865. The cost is tragi- 
cally told in terms of human lives. 

On the Southern side about 258,000 soldiers made the supreme 
sacrifice; of these, 94,000 died of hostile bullets and 164,000 
from other causes. On the Union side, deaths aggregated 360,222 ; 
of these, 110,070 were battle casualities and 250,112 were deaths 
from other causes. More than twice as many men, North and 
South, died of disease as perished from enemy bullets. The aggre- 

* Colonel Hugh Dortch of Goldsboro is a practicing attorney and is 
Chairman of the Civil War Centennial Committee, North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association. 


164 The North Carolina Historical Review 

gate in soldier deaths on both sides in the Civil War was 618,000. 
Deaths of American service men in all other wars, beginning 
with the American Revolution and coming on down through the 
Korean Conflict, totaled only 606,000. 

But deaths of men who donned the uniform were only a part 
of the sacrifice. The deprivation, anxiety, loneliness, and sorrow 
of the folk at home, and especially of the lowly women left to 
care for large families during the absence of their menfolk, were 
so tremendous as hardly to be comprehensible to people of our 

These enormous sacrifices were made by the people of both 
sections with a fortitude and heroism that was nothing short of 
magnificent. The exemplary conduct of our forebears in this 
costly struggle should inspire in us the profoundest admiration 
and pride. 

It is this sacrifice and heroism of Americans, North and South, 
that we Americans of today, their descendants, seek to commemo- 
rate. There is no desire on the part of the Commission, as I in- 
terpret its motivation, to give to the commemoration any 
sectional or partisan character. The War was America's greatest 
experience and the Centennial commemoration of it should be 
an American activity, an American ceremonial, recognizing the 
sincerity of both contestants and glorying in the greatness that 
they demonstrated in supporting their respective causes. 

Along these same lines, the National Commission has em- 
phasized that through these local observances will arise "A 
new study of American patriotism— a study which should 
give us a deeper understanding of the immense reserves of 
bravery, of sacrifice and of idealism which lie in the Ameri- 
can character." They propose that in commemorating the 
Centennial of the War that "We do not want simply to string 
together a series of holidays, reviving here the exultation of 
victory and there the sadness of defeat. Rather, the Centen- 
nial must give us a new understanding of the way in which 
Americans built from sacrifice and suffering an enduring 
nation and a lasting peace." 

In keeping with these suggestions of State and local par- 
ticipation and evaluating the part that North Carolina played 
in this War, giving more men to the Confederate cause and 
suffering more losses than any other State, The North Caro- 
lina Literary and Historical Association has formed a com- 
mittee made up of fifty-five citizens representing every sec- 

North Carolina's Commemoration of the War 165 

tion of the State. The first meeting of this North Carolina 
Civil War Centennial Committee was held in Raleigh on 
October 10. Colonel Hugh Dortch, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee, presided. The background and purposes of the Cen- 
tennial observance were given by Dr. Christopher Critten- 
den, Director of the State Department of Archives and His- 
tory. Members of the Committee were introduced. It was 
pointed out at this time that the State of Virginia has already 
enacted a bill authorizing a Centennial Commission and that 
$25,000 per year has been appropriated for this purpose. 

A resolution was unanimously adopted by the Committee, 
as follows: 

Whereas, that War was the greatest test our country ever 
faced, built of the heroism and endurance that were drawn from 
men and women of both sections by devotion to principles valued 
more than life itself, and the loss, the gain, and the experience 
itself are a common National possession, and 

Whereas, our ancestors, having fought to the limit of endur- 
ance for four years, when the fighting ended closed ranks and 
ever since have stood firmly together, fighting side by side, when 
occasion has demanded, and 

Whereas, it is just and right that the people of the State of 
North Carolina, remembering the valor and sacrifice of its sons, 
who fought and died for principles which they believed eternal, 
and the sons of other states who also made the supreme sacrifice 
for their convictions, should commemorate the one hundredth 
anniversary of The War Between The States, and 

Whereas, A National Commission has been established to plan 
for and conduct appropriate programs in connection with the 
approaching Centennial of the many important events of the 
Civil War, and 

Whereas, many States of the Union have established agencies 
to conduct such programs, and 

Whereas, the Congress of the United States has appropriated 
$100,000 annually, the State of Virginia $25,000 annually, and 
other states have made comparable appropriations for this 
purpose, and 

Whereas, the State of North Carolina contributed more men 
to the Southern cause, and suffered heavier losses, than did any 
other State. 

Now therefore, Be It Resolved by the Civil War Centennial 
Committee of The North Carolina Literary and Historical Asso- 
ciation : 

166 The North Carolina Historical Review 

1. That it is fitting and proper that the State of North Caro- 
lina and its people participate fully in the proposed Civil War 
Centennial Programs. 

2. That the General Assembly of North Carolina is hereby 
respectfully requested to authorize the appointment of a state- 
wide commission for this purpose. 

3. That the General Assembly is respectfully requested to 
make an appropriation toward this end of $25,000 annually for 
the 1959-1961 biennium. 

Adopted at a meeting in the city of Raleigh, October 10, 1958. 

An Executive Committee was elected and includes the 
following: Colonel Hugh Dortch, Chairman, Goldsboro; Mr. 
Billy Britt, Smithfield; Mrs. D. S. Coltrane, Raleigh; Mr. Paul 
Green, Chapel Hill; Dr. Robert Lee Humber, Greenville; Mrs. 
Ernest Ives, Southern Pines; Mr. Hector McLean, Lumber- 
ton; Mr. McDaniel Lewis, Greensboro; Mr. Herb O'Keef, 
Raleigh; and Mr. J. R. Peacock, High Point. 

Now, in a practical and definite way, how do we suggest 
that the State of North Carolina commemorate this Cen- 

1. By locating and preserving valuable documents. We should 
make every effort to bring to light manuscripts, diaries, photo- 
graphs, and other records contributing to the true history of the 
War, and to see that such records are placed in fireproof de- 
positories where they will be permanently preserved. 

2. By encouraging and sponsoring research and publication. 
We should foster and support research that will result in new 
volumes of documents and secondary works on North Carolina's 
part in the War. A specific project that we should encourage is 
the completion of the great work, A History of North Carolina in 
The War Between the States, better known by a short title Bethel 
to Sharpsburg, by that fine scholar, Dr. Daniel Harvey Hill. Dr. 
Hill lived only to carry the work the first year and a quarter, and 
by all means it ought to be finished in order to recount in full 
detail North Carolina's contribution to the Southern cause. We 
should likewise encourage research and publication of special 
works on the history of various military units, campaign or 
battle histories, and our State on the home front, including in- 
dustry, transportation, agriculture, and various other aspects of 
the everyday life of our people at home. 

3. By developing promotion and publicity. We should make 
full use of the press, radio, television, motion pictures, and other 

North Carolina's Commemoration of the War 167 

means of communication in order to inform our people and the 
entire Nation of North Carolina's great contribution. We should 
encourage local historical societies, patriotic organizations, and 
other groups to engage in activities in this field. 

4. By arranging Memorial observances. We should plan and 
prepare to commemorate campaigns and battles in our State and 
also to hold state-wide commemorative ceremonies to observe 
significant anniversaries. We should undertake, where appropri- 
ate, to produce fitting dramas, both indoor and outdoor. Our State 
has been the leader in the entire Nation in this kind of observ- 
ance. Certainly we should expect to make a success of this during 
the forthcoming Centennial. 

The purpose of all this is twofold: 

1. To make our people conscious of their great and noble 
history, to see that they are cognizant of the heritage that is 

2. To obtain for our State its share of the tremendous tourist 
business that will develop in connection with these observances. 
We do not wish in any way to cheapen or commercialize the 
commemoration but it has been proved by The Lost Colony, Unto 
These Hills, and other similar performances that a high standard 
of drama and patriotism can be maintained, while at the same 
time large numbers of tourists can be attracted. 

Other States are going to take part in this commemoration. 
If we in North Carolina should fail suitably to do so, we 
would be missing a great and golden opportunity— golden in 
more ways than one. 

As a matter of fact, many communities and groups in our 
State in any event are going to participate in one way or an- 
other. The proposed State Commission will seek to plan and 
co-ordinate these activities. 

This in brief, is what your Committee is seeking to do. 
Your Committee feels that our State has a great and wonder- 
ful opportunity in this field. It is hoped that full advantage 
will be taken of this opportunity. 

By Julian Scheer * 

There are few writers or historians I know— and I consider 
myself neither— who enjoy the chore of speechmaking, no 
matter how informal. Those who do enjoy it— the frightening 
process of looking at watches, rustling notes, sipping of water 
—appear to be either recent graduates of the new American 
craze, the toastmasters clubs, or for money or to help book 
sales. I have not had time to study the fine art of speech- 
making at a toastmasters club; I am not getting paid; and I 
doubt seriously if anyone here will rush to Alfred Williams 
to purchase a copy of Tweetsie, The Blue Ridge Stem- 
winder ($2.95, Heritage House) or Choo Choo: The Char- 
lie Justice Story ($3.95, Bentley). I am afraid I have no 
Lolita on the bookstore shelves this Christmas. 

I am frank to admit that I am out-of-place before this 
group, a group which not only writes but, God forgive, 

My position, using the term loosely, on The Charlotte 
News ( Charlotte, 5 cents ) has resulted in my being required 
to do much of this kind of thing but I still can't get used to 
it. I omitted one facet of the chores of speechmaking: ego. 
And when Dr. Crittenden invited me to speak, I could not 
say no, especially since he spent at least $1.35 on a long 
distance telephone call to Blowing Rock. I do think I should 
add here that, while satisfied at the moment with the task 
ahead and ready to face it bravely, 20 minutes seems quite 
a limitation if I am to "tell all about Tweetsie." 

To the task, then: I should like to break this 20 minutes, or 
the 18/4 minutes v/hich are left, into three parts: (1) What 
is Tweetsie? (2) How do you write a history of Tweetsie? 
and (3) Why Tweetsie today? 

The act of the Tennessee State Legislature which gave 
birth nearly a century ago to the East Tennessee and West- 
ern North Carolina, and subsequently to Tweetsie, was 

* Mr. Julian Scheer is a columnist for The Charlotte News, Charlotte. 


"Tweetsie" 169 

fathered purely by commercial considerations. And so long 
as these considerations were served by the narrow gauge 
railroad, it prospered. 

But to the mountain people of Carolina and Tennessee, 
people isolated for generations from the world beyond the 
footwalks of the hills, Tweetsie grew up with the region as 
a natural thing that went hand in hand with what God had 
planned. Few of these people had even seen a train. 

When the road was chartered, the westernmost Carolina 
tracks were those of the Western North Carolina Railroad, 
but its iron went only as far as the Head of the Road in the 
Piedmont hills a few miles west of Salisbury, still miles from 
the mountain country. 

On the Tennessee side of the Appalachians, connecting 
railroads made a system along a line strung from Bristol in 
Virginia through Knoxville, down to Chattanooga in Tennes- 
see; but the great mountains were not breached east and 

The discovery of magnetic iron ore in the mountains of 
North Carolina and the great railroad boom which followed 
the Civil War brought Tweetsie to the Blue Ridge. The ter- 
rain was as rugged as any in eastern America, and the ore had 
to be hauled out economically to be of any real value. 

In 1866, the Tennessee State Legislature granted a charter 
to the East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad 
"for the purpose of constructing a Railroad from the East 
Tennessee and Virginia Railroad, commencing at either Car- 
ter or Johnson Depots on said road, running by way of Eliz- 
abethton, Doe River Cove and Crab Orchard to the North 
Carolina line near the Cranberry Iron Works." 

The charter bound the company to begin work in two 
years and to complete the work in five— but times were 
hard. The railroad underwent several changes of ownership 
and name and by the time the line was five miles long it was 
already in receivership. Finally, Ario Pardee, a Philadelphia 
business man, bought the line; and he had some stock in the 
Cranberry Iron and Coal Company which had been organ- 
ized to take the rich ore from the Cranberry mines. 

170 The North Carolina Historical Review 

After a tangle of legal difficulties, the work on the line 
began in earnest in 1879 under the work of a young engineer 
named Col. Thomas E. Matson. His men, working with prim- 
itive tools, swung into the task ahead. They moved slowly 
eastward through the frowning walls of the Blue Ridge, the 
Doe River Gorge— chipping out the first of five tunnels— and 
moved toward Cranberry. From Cranberry to Hampton the 
bed rose 1,500 feet at one point. 

Fifteen years after the charter had first been granted— 
and a million dollars worth later— the road was completed 
from Johnson City, Tennessee, to Cranberry, North Caro- 
lina. Eventually the lure of timber brought the line— after 
the purchase of the old Linville River Railroad— to its ulti- 
mate terminus of Boone. 

In 1916 Tweetsie had become a 66-mile railroad from 
Johnson City, Tennessee to Boone. And here the legend de- 
velops, for Tweetsie brought civilization to the hills. 

Tweetsie was not just one engine, as many believe. It was 
at least 12 during her long career. The East Tennessee and 
Western North Carolina— which was known affectionately 
as "Eat 'Taters and Wear No Clothes" or "Exquisite Trains 
and What Nice Conductors"— carried five to six freights a 
day and three passenger trains on fairly regular schedules. 
Tweetsie moved over these hazardous tracks at rates varying 
from five miles an hour to the unheard of speed of 40. 

Tweetsie's huffing and puffing, winding and dipping, tun- 
neling through the hills became a part of a new way of life, 
for the little train brought magazines and newspapers, doc- 
tors, preachers, teachers, and old time drummers to the 
region. For a half a century— until floods in 1940 wiped out 
half the line and she was ultimately abandoned in 1950— 
the narrow gauge engines, all called Tweetsie, and miniature 
coaches tweeted past farms and homes, as pleasant and un- 
hurried conductors rattled off romantic names like Watauga 
Point, Sycamore Shoals, Pardee Point, Roan Mountain, Cran- 
berry, Minneapolis, Montezuma, Shulls Mills and Boone. 

The authors of the little book on Tweetsie, Miss Elizabeth 
McDonald Black of Queens College, Charlotte, and myself, 
found that Tweetsie, while her impact was great, had no 

North Carolina State Neivs Bureau Photo 

The mountain people often came out to greet "Tweetsie" on her run from Johnson 
City, Tennessee, to Boone, North Carolina. "Tweetsie" always stopped when she was 
flagged down. 


colorful history as the Union Pacific which opened the west 
or the mighty New York Central which sped up the Mohawk 
Valley. I 

Ours had to be told, we thought, in spiritual values. We 
decided that more important than carloadings was the re- 
sponse of the people of the region to the railroad. We tackled 
what I consider a rather unique historical problem. 

We used a fictionalized folk approach and have tried to 
tell the story of the train in the spirit and vernacular of the 
people of the hills. What did Tweetsie mean to them? Why 
did they love the train? How did the train change their way 
of life? We found we could tell the story of the significance 
it had on the lives of these isolated people. 

The story of Tweetsie, I felt, had to be told in terms like 

A woman flagging down a train and an engineer yelling, 
"Hurry up and get on." 

"Get on?" the woman said, "I just want the time of day." 

Or the story of the train the day it jumped the track. While 
the crew was awaiting wrecker help from Johnson City, a 
woman "confessed" the crime. The train had killed her pig, 
she said, and she was sick and tired of awaiting her claim. So 
she greased the tracks with lard from the very same pig— 
and would do so until the ET&WNC paid her off. Needless 
to say, the claim check arrived shortly. 

And there is the story about a certain house on the top of 
a hill. The train crews stopped there frequently, telling in- 
quisitive passengers that they ran up the hill to get a drink 
of cool mountain water. 

The truth: the area's prettiest gal lived there. 

And Tweetsie today? Grover C. Robbins, Jr., a young vis- 
ionary and a successful businessman, was reared within the 
sound of Tweetsie's shrill whistle. He, too, missed it when it 
left the hills. Forever he seemed to be stumbling into it— for 
there was always talk, it seemed, of the beloved little train. 

Robbins decided to bring the train back to the hills. It had 
an unsuccessful and frightening experience in Virginia by 
promoters there who were washed away by Hurricane Hazel. 

172 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Gene Autry, the Hollywood cowboy, had an option to buy. 
Robbins bought Autry's option and shipped the train to 
Blowing Rock two years ago. 

I sat with Grover one day this fall and tried to find out 
why. Surely, he saw— while many laughed— the commercial 
value it could have as a tourist attraction. Surely, there was 
sentiment attached to his move. But Grover put it to me 
simply and plainly. 

"I am a timberman," he said. "All my life I have been cut- 
ting down trees— taking something away that was meant to 
be. I saw in Tweetsie an opportunity to give— to give back 
to the people who loved her, just as a man would love a 
tree— something dear. This I have done." 

By James S. Purcell * 

This electrifying title is not deliberately misleading. I 
frankly admit that I will not reveal the winners, I will not 
give any faint clues or misdirections, I will not defend the 
actions of the Board of Award. I will say that I do not know 
who the winners are. For a few minutes I will talk about the 
twenty-one books in the designated categories— ten fiction, 
seven poetry, four juvenile— published in the twelve months 
ending June 30, 1958. While I do bespeak your attention, I 
will understand if you simply listen with unbated breath. 

The line-up is imposing. I use the term made popular in 
television but, judging from the prominence of the West as 
fictional locale, "round-up" would be more appropriate. In 
the line-up there are crimes aplenty. There are, of course, 
the sins of the boudoir. There is theft— ranging from a five- 
dollar gold piece (the "golden penny" of The Secret Circle), 
and "the poor widow's sheep" of Tall in the Sight of God, to 
the entire Modesty Valley, stolen from the Indians, in the 
same book, and the decommissioned Liberty ship from the 
flotilla at Wilmington in The Eye of a Gentle Night. There is 
homicidal violence— from the delightful garroting of the Eng- 
lish language in Dave Morrah's Alice in Wunderbarland to 
the simple murders of human beings in Tall in the Sight of 
God, Pillar of Cloud, Dawn at Midnight, The Eye of a Gentle 
Night, and the carnage of War Country. But in the end it is 
demonstrated that crime does not pay, except perhaps in the 
matter of Ajax Arvane and his fertile valley and certainly in 
the matter of Dave Morrah's mayhem on the language. Wit- 
ness the final paragraph of "Rip Von Winkler": 

Finaller das upwoken ist gecomen. Der noggen ben splitten mit 
achen. Das beard ben reachen der knees. Der shooter ist ober- 

* Dr. James S. Purcell is a Professor of English at Davidson College, 
Davidson. Dr. Purcell reviewed the books eligible for the Sir Walter 
Raleigh Award for fiction, the Roanoke-Chowan Award for poetry, and 
the American Association of University Women Award for juvenile 


174 The North Carolina Historical Review 

crusten mit rusten, and der pooch ben missen. Mit ein flashen, 
Rip ist recallen der drinken und der elfers. Rip ist also recallen 
der frau, mit shudderen. Ist das Winkler returnen? Himmel, 
nien! Rip ben finden das jug und repeaten der gulpen und der 
outengepassen ! 

Another southerner, a great writer, who, like some of the 
authors we are now considering, deserves to be better known, 
Ellen Glasgow, has tendered an assurance and a warning to 
southern writers. 

The race that inherits a heroic legend must have accumulated 
an inexhaustible resource of joy, beauty, laughter, and tragic 
passion. To discard this rich inheritance in the pursuit of the 
standard utilitarian style is, for the Southern novelist, pure 
folly. 1 

Many of the North Carolina writers of this past year have 
recognized this heritage, a rich one indeed. Robert A. Bowen 
in Tall in the Sight of God realistically, but sensitively, takes 
the Arvanes from Ajax and the 1771 Battle of Alamance to 
the mountains and the great-grandson Robin, the "spittin' 
image of ol' Ajax," and his career as a captain in the Confed- 
erate Army and the leader in rebuilding Modesty Valley 
after the War. This novel, quickened with often-earthy de- 
tail, is a valuable addition to the literature of the southern 
Highlander. Manly Wade Wellman in his Lights Over Skele- 
ton Ridge has made another addition to the mountain lore as 
well as to his own impressive list of titles. The North Carolina 
mountain region of the present day is graphically treated as 
Mr. Wellman tells of the mine workings supposedly done by 
"Ancients" and the mysterious lights on what he calls Skel- 
eton Ridge. 

Across the State, W. Frank Landing returns to the Civil 
War past and makes use of his native area of seaboard North 
Carolina in telling the story of the construction and battles 
of the Rebel ram "Albemarle" in War Cry of the South. Hal 
Floyd in The Eye of a Gentle Night (shades of F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald! ) stays on the seaboard, Wilmington and Southport, 

1 Ellen Glasgow, A Certain Measure (New York, 1938), 142-143. 

Belle-Lettres in North Carolina 175 

but comes to the present time for his detail-laden account of 
crime and sex in the Cape Fear region. 

A large part of the juvenile literature ( possibly three of the 
four entries ) is laid in the State. Swamp Life: An Almanac is 
a narrative of the wild creatures in a small swamp along the 
banks of Little Fiery Gizzard Creek, near Pine Bluff, as seen 
through the perceptive eyes of Glen Bounds and revealed 
through his deft words and drawings. There is sensitivity but 
no sentimentality; one section is headed: "Everyone Has To 
Eat and Some Must Eat Their Neighbors." Nina Payne Long 
in My Talking Parakeet and Other Stories for Children re- 
membered her own not-always-happy childhood in Piedmont 
North Carolina— a childhood of watermelon slicing and brush 
arbor preaching as well as a disappointing Christmas. While 
the childhood that Ina B. Forbus presents in The Secret Circle 
is the eternal land of fantasy, the true-to-life details of the 
inhabitants of Crickety Creek reveal, to me at least, rural 
North Carolina of a generation ago. 

Not all of the writers under our scrutiny concerned them- 
selves with the Carolina scene. And in the eyes of the Board 
of Award they did not need to; in the scoring of the com- 
peting book "Relevance to North Carolina and her people" 
accounted for only ten points out of a possible hundred, 
Donald R. Morris, in Warm Bodies, recalled fifteen years of 
Navy life as he bounced through several months as a lieu- 
tenant on an LST in peace time. There were side trips, by 
bus, to the ancestral home of the land-based heroine in Little 
Hominy. "It's in North Carolina. Not far from Big Hominy," 
as the harrassed telephone operator discovered. Query: Does 
Lt. Morris get his ten points? Betty Smith does not get hers. 
In Maggie-Now she lovingly reviewed her Irish heritage from 
County Kilkenny to Brooklyn. She does deserve her accumu- 
lation of points for "Universality of appeal." 

Other authors found literary resources in the far West, a 
popular setting. Jackson Burgess in Pillar of Cloud wrote of a 
westward trek made iust before the Civil War, a journey 
suspensively alive with a forest fire and psychological ten- 
sions. Just after the Civil War, a rancher-squatter conflict in 
the Arizona Territory set the stage for the action in Gray 

176 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Harris's Dawn at Midnight. William O. Turner has captured 
the turbulence of the Northwest, the territory of Washington 
in 1855, in his War Country. Glenn Rounds, in his other entry 
in juvenile literature, Whitey and the Wild Horse, shows that 
he is as much at home on his home on the range in Montana 
as he is in the Sandhills swamp. 

Two of the poets in our group used North Carolina themes. 
Edith Deaderick Erskine wrote several "ballads" of the moun- 
tains. One tells of a mountain boy who "lived up Reems Creek 

Oh, Zeb Vance fished for mountain trout, 
He waded in the streams, 
He drove his mule to plow the fields 
The while he dreamed his dreams. 
("Mountain Days") 

Another North Carolinian was given tribute in Mrs. Erskine's 
lines— Thomas Wolfe. 

His mind was an infinite chalice 
Upheld for the last drop of wine. 

("Infinite Chalice") 

Opal Winstead's collection, Daughter of Saul and Other 
Poems, with its strong Biblical themes includes several poems 
of regional significance. They are the measured "Carolina 
Work Song," "Gray Street" ( the scene of a quiet tragedy in a 
textile town ) , and this four-line vignette, "A Certain Southern 

Magnolia blossoms, opulent and cold 
Adorn decaying grandeur as of old; 
And tired beauty is laid out in state, 
Stiffly unbending like the public's Great. 

Much of the poetry submitted transcended the regional. 
Some of it is inspirational, even philosophical, in tone: John 
Calvin Hauenstein's Poems of Renewal, Milton Wynn King's 
Anvil Knells, and some of Paul Bartlett's Moods and Memo- 
ries. Johnnie Lee Marks's rhythmical exercises, Peep Holes, 

Belle-Lettres in North Carolina 177 

are directed to the child's "wise simplicity," as the author 
aptly puts it. Wyche Reiter Hart's romantic lyricism, sug- 
gested by the title of her volume, The Golden Falcon, is 
openly expressed in "To a Reader": 

They tell me that the days are gone 

When romance ruled both men and art; 
That now the modern idiom 

Is what's required to jolt the heart! 

And yet I'm sure I'm not the lone 
Romantic lost in modern time, 
So for those other misplaced souls 
I try to write romantic rhyme ! 

At the other extreme there is the hardness of idea and symbol 
in Mrs. Erskine's "Old Harlot" with the "symbols of ruin" 
which would win recognition from the most dedicated ad- 
herents to the "New Poetry": 

She groped beside her chair for a tomato can, 
Its picture showing nature's rich fruition. 
Down inside she skillfully spat blood. 

In between are some of Paul Bartlett's sonnets in which the 
strong idea is encased in the traditional form. "Cold War" is 
a good example: 

Now is the tautened interval of waiting, 
The dark, the heavy hour of huddling fear — 
The herd-cohesion when the storm is near. 

Now is the season of insensate hating, 

Of foe-revilement and of self -inflating, 

When reason flees the scorn of folly's sneer, 
And tawdry work, so showily sincere, 

Is wived with drab intent in mongrel mating. 

Man now with man has come to grips at last, 
Not armed with spear or musket, as of yore, 

But with a new device whose thunder-blast 
Shall tally brasiered millions to its score . . . 

The age of lethal littleness is past; 
The day of meager murder is no more. 

178 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Another literary annal of North Carolina has been consid- 
ered; another chapter has been added to the Kulturgeschichte 
of the State. Some of the twenty authors of 1958 are worthy 
descendants of another author, John Lawson, Gentleman, 
Surveyor-General of North Carolina, who, just two hundred 
and fifty years ago, was writing his book, A New Voyage to 
Carolina . . . published in London in 1709. Lawson, who 
almost certainly fulfilled the three-year residence rule of eli- 
gibility for an award, assured the Lords Proprietors of the 
colony, to whom his book was dedicated: 

I here present your Lordships with a Description of your own 
Country, for the most part, in her Natural Dress, and therefore 
less vitiated with Fraud and Luxury. A Country, whose Inhabit- 
ants may enjoy a Life of the Greatest Ease, and Satisfaction, 
and pass away their Hours in solid Contentment. 



By Roy Parker, Jr.* 

Come to the theater, a mountain crafts school, the public 
welfare office. Meet carpetbaggers and governors, doctors in 
Confederate gray, in Union blue, in modern white. Listen to 
mountain folks and Outer Bankers, Reformation philosophers 
and Confederate cavaliers. Go with Tar Heels to Iran, Scot- 
land County, Pasquotank, Northampton. Know of Plato's 
thought, God's power, a horse, two steamboats, a dean of 

Choose any, choose all. You may have them in the list of 
Mayflower Cup entries for 1958. Here are 32 volumes, great 
and small, from well known publishers and obscure ones, too. 
I read them all. There should be an award for the most dili- 
gent North Carolina bookreader of 1958. I read them in an 
easy chair, in the office, between baby feedings, and before 
banquets. It was an experience as broadening as it was re- 
warding. It proved several things: 

First, that North Carolina writers in 1958 produced, with 
great skill, a corpus librorum that transcends State lines in its 

Second, at the same time these writers added hefty beef 
to the already-solid body of literature pertaining directly to 
North Carolina. Seventeen titles concern themselves solely 
with North Carolina and North Carolinians. 

Third, it was a year when old pros turned on the steam. 
LeGette Blythe came forth with two, so did Manley Wade 
Wellman. Burke Davis, Jonathan Daniels, Paul Green, and 
Bill Sharpe are in the list. Old pro Ben Dixon McNeill came 
out of self-imposed exile to join the throng. 

Fourth, people were the favorite subject of North Carolina 
writers of nonaction in 1958. Twenty-four titles dealt mainly 

* Mr. Roy Parker, Jr., was Editor of The Herald (Ahoskie), published 
twice a week; the Ledger-Advance (Windsor), The Northampton County 
News (Jackson), and The Index (Gatesville), all weeklies. He is now a 
special correspondent for The News and Observer (Raleigh). 

[ 179] 

180 The North Carolina Historical Review 

with people, in biography, autobiography, reminiscent essay, 
anecdote, or the like. Thirteen were directly autobiographical 
or biographical. 

Fifth, and finally, the Mayflower List in 1958 proved again 
that North Carolina has a stable of established writing talent 
unmatched for training, class, and performance by thorough- 
breds under any other colors. This group— and some exciting 
newcomers— proved in 1958 that the State is not slacking off 
in its modern-day literary tradition, a tradition that is adding 
work of importance and artistic worth to the nation's library 

I must tell you that I started this review with the idea that 
I could in no wise allow personal preference to influence the 
hard heart of my reviewing competence. I perhaps failed in 
this. You can draw your own conclusions as I tell you— book 
by book— of the Mayflower field for 1958. 

Let us set sail on a sea of books! 

North Carolina and nothing more. That was the subject 
of two North Carolinians who added to the shelves in 1958. 

Beth Crabtree of Raleigh and the State Department of 
Archives and History gave us North Carolina Governors. This 
is a thin little volume packed to the covers with information 
unobtainable in such easy form anywhere else in the world. 
It is the latest in the Department's excellent series of publica- 
tions about our State. Public school history teachers through- 
out North Carolina can attest that this book will be a best- 

Raleigh's Bill Sharpe, wide-ranging editor of The State 
magazine, produced volume number two of his series, A New 
Geography of North Carolina. Scholars scoff at Sharpe's un- 
fettered mixture of fact and fiction about North Carolina 
places and people. But his geographies are North Carolina's 
own, and we love them. This one includes reprints of maga- 
zine articles dealing with 25 counties. 

John Parris of Sylva knows and loves his mountains. He 
also can spin words with the saltiness of a Blue Ridge story- 
teller. Combining knowledge, love, and talent, he gives us 
My Mountains, My People. This, too, is a collection of re- 
printed columns. The writer is a regular columnist for The 

North Carolina Non-Fiction 181 

Citizen-Times of Asheville. His articles are valuable because 
Parris strives to save in print the immense body of word-of- 
mouth mountain lore. Further, in style they are perfect jour- 
nalism—clear, cutting, concise, and crisp. 

The much-neglected field of North Carolina biography 
received a distinguished shot in the arm from Professor Black- 
well Robinson of Greensboro. His William R. Davie is a 
definitive work about a man known but vaguely to thousands 
of present-day Tar Heels. 

In his day, Davie stood above the North Carolina scene as 
a mountain over the plain. He was Revolutionary War hero, 
politician, diplomat, and educational leader. But, in recent 
times, his name has become little more than an engraving on 
various statues and plaques. He is also the subject of a 
charming tale about the founding of the University of North 
Carolina. We all know the story of Mr. Davie's sleep under 
the poplar tree on New Hope Chapel Hill. Blackwell Robin- 
son says the story is only legend. 

So be it. Otherwise, the life of Davie is all here. It is a 
biography as important to North Carolina literature in 1958 
as its subject was to North Carolina 150 years ago. 

Two workhorses of the North Carolina literary stable 
poured four books into Mayflower competition this year. And 
what a range of subject! An unmatched dean of women, an 
unbeatable racehorse, two steamboats (one beatable), and 
a fine lady of the hills. All have their stories told by two 
pensmen whose talent is great and whose industry is obvious. 

Manley Wade Wellman wrote of Sir Archie, racehorse, and 
the "Robert E. Lee" and the "Natchez," steamboats. The Life 
and Times of Sir Archie and Fastest On The River tell stories 
of immensely colorful sidelights to American history. 

Sir Archie of Mowfield Plantation in Northampton County, 
and the "Lee" and "Natchez" of the Mississippi, won fame 
and fortune in exciting competition. Wellman's books about 
them win our approval for strict attention to scholarly detail, 
but more for the zestful pace of narrative. 

Two Tar Heel ladies who have left their imprint of char- 
acter and skill on hundreds of others were the subjects of 
books by workhorse LeGette Blythe of Huntersville. 

182 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Yes M'am, Miss Gee is the warm, candid, reminiscense of 
the first and only dean of women Converse College ever had. 
Then, in Gift From The Hills, another whose influence ex- 
tends widely and deeply into many other lives tells her story 
with revealing modesty. North Carolina can take pride in 
Miss Mary Wilson Gee of Converse and Miss Lucy Morgan 
of Penland School of Handicrafts. Readers of North Carolina 
books can say "well done" to LeGette Blythe's ability to 
listen and record. 

The State's windswept Outer Banks have their chronicler 
in Ben Dixon McNeill of Buxton-on-Hatteras. The Hatteras- 
man is a story told with love and gusto, depth and breadth. 
The lonely sands and bright seas are here. Even more impor- 
tant, the people are here, in all their color and character. Ben 
Dixon McNeill writes of his neighbors and his neighborhood. 
His book stands as ruggedly and honestly upon the literary 
stage as Bankers stand before the Atlantic's gale. The book 
is published by a North Carolina publisher— John Fries Blair 
of Winston-Salem. 

Burke Davis of Greensboro knows the Civil War. Out of 
this knapsack of martial lore, he comes up this year with 
Jeb Stuart: The Last Cavalier. Jeb's tactics, and his antics, 
added hope, and frustration, to the Confederate cause. It is 
all here in a lusty biography of the Southland's great cavalrv 
leader. Davis's narrative charges ahead with all the verve of 
a Stuart raid. His subject, never a dull one, comes more alive 
because of the careful research which under girds the prose. 

Another intriguing account, this one about a momentous 
battle of ideas, is the biography by Dr. Clyde Manschreck of 
Melancthon: The Quiet Reformer. Modern education and 
theology owe a debt to this sixteenth-centurv scholar of Wit- 
tenburg. He provided a solid magazine of philosophic ammu- 
nition for the burning war of the spirit waged by Martin 
Luther. This is a story of how cloistered professors— using 
magnificent minds and powerful words— shaped a revolution 
that spread to every humble hearth. It is a story that thrills 
those who believe that reasonable battles on quieter fields 
may yet take the place of the carnage of war. Melancthon's 
biographer is a professor at Duke University. 

North Carolina Non-Fiction 183 

When Jonathan Daniels of Raleigh turns his truth-beam on 
the foggy shades of history, you can be sure the light will 
dazzle the beholder. 

This he does in Prince of Carpetbaggers. Equally lighted 
up, of course, are various nefarious careers of an infamous 
period in North Carolina's past. The checkered tale told here 
is that of General Milton S. Littlefield, rascal, of Raleigh and 
other points. Even more so, it is the story of some homegrown 
fellows who might have borne the title, if history had not 
been saccharine. This is an important historical work about 
the Reconstruction Period. Thankfully, it is written in a style 
as bright as the period was dark. 

Fascinating always is the man who has sought the philo- 
sophical basis of his life's work, found it, and lived by it. Sam 
Selden of Chapel Hill has done this. He has written it down 
in Man in His Theater. This book rolls back the curtain on a 
keen mind and throws an intellectual spotlight that is helpful 
to the amateur theater-lover. 

A penetrating light has been cast into another specialized 
field— that of public welfare— by Dr. Alan Keith-Lucas of 
Chapel Hill in Decisions About People in Need. He searches 
with unflagging scholarship and a sweeping knowledge about 
this vital service of government. His conclusions should be 
helpful to welfare workers and to laymen in any attempt to 
reconcile the demands of love and justice in administering a 
program that must have both. 

What can one say, adequately, about Lucy Phillips Rus- 
sell's A Rare Pattern? She is a person who, in a long life, has 
drawn unto herself all that is good in this business of living. 
Out of this life of seemingly humdrum events, she has been 
able to distill universal truth. She has used an immense 
talent to make her life of everyday activity the basis for a 
work of literary art. This book is an important historical work, 
an intimate eye-witness account of Reconstruction life in 
Chapel Hill. Most of all, however, it is a spiritual essay, vital 
with character and truth, transcending the historical account. 
A rare pattern, indeed. 

Then comes Paul Green of Chapel Hill. He sets us down 
and tells us, in gorgeous prose, of a life with a different tempo, 

184 The North Carolina Historical Review 

spent equally well. Drama and The Weather is a collection of 
short pieces. There is never a dull moment. There are mo- 
ments of high glee, of somber reflection, of intense feeling. 
In them, the dramatist-philosopher plumbs his mind, electric 
with thought and belief, to give us insights into the forces 
which move him. As the critics would say: a solid hit. 

Medicine was the field for three North Carolina writers in 
1958. Dr. H. H. Cunningham of Elon College produced 
Doctors in Gray, the story of the Confederate medical serv- 
ice. John M. Gibson wrote of a Soldier in White. Dr. Otis 
Marshall of Asheville gave us Memoirs of a GP. 

Dr. Cunningham added to the mountain of material on the 
civil conflict of 1861-1865 with a scholarly book that could 
take a prize for its cleancut writing. The story of Confederate 
military medicine is here in all its triumph and tragedy, told 
with ordered skill. 

John Gibson, Librarian of the State Board of Health, has 
researched deeply for his biography of George M. Sternberg, 
Surgeon-General of the United States Army during the 
Spanish-American War and a leading bacteriologist. The re- 
sult: a definitive, lucidly- written account of an important 
life in American medical history. 

Dr. Marshall had a different purpose, of course. His small 
book is a remembrance, written with rambling unconcern 
for dates and hours. But here is warmth and character in the 
personal story of what a general practitioner saw and felt in 
50 years of practice. 

Three Tar Heel writers of 1958 took to foreign fields for 
their subjects. 

Wilmington schoolteacher Pollock Irwin wrote of A Tar 
Heel in Iran. His book is based on a journal he kept while 
serving as a tutor in the Middle East in 1931-1934. These are 
personalized glimpses of a way of life as far removed from 
ours as Cape Fear is from the Euphrates. Incidentally, this 
book is published by a new North Carolina house, Heritage 
House of Charlotte. 

John Ehle of Chapel Hill tells the story of a life which has 
roamed from Poland to Algeria, Indo-China to Bangkok in his 
book, The Survivor. Ehle's subject is a former member of the 

North Carolina Non-Fiction 185 

ill-famed SS army of Nazi Germany. Eddie Hukov's postwar 
adventures include service in the Foreign Legion, war in 
Indo-China, and exile as a deserter in Bangkok. The author 
admits he was fascinated with Hukov's story as it unfolded in 
personal letters. Readers will have the same feeling as they 
read a talented storyteller's re-creation of Hukov's Odyssey. 

In Great Khans and Comrades, a former government offi- 
cial gives his unique opinion about how to stop the Russian 
menace. Robert N. Golding served as a special representative 
in the Economic Cooperation Agency. He now makes his 
home in Tryon. 

Mr. Jesse F. Pugh of Old Trap in Camden County brings 
us back home with 300 Years Along The Pasquotank. His 
volume is a model for historical writing on the local level. 
This beautifully-appointed book is a collection of biographi- 
cal sketches about significant lives in the history of Camden 
County. The book meets all the technical requirements of a 
perfect historical work, and is written in a crisp style that 
moves much faster than the sluggish Pasquotank. 

John Laurens, who died as a young man in the service of 
his young nation's battle for independence, is the subject of 
a loving biography by Sara Bertha Townsend in An American 
Soldier: The Life of John Laurens. The youthful South Caro- 
linian left an indelible mark on American history in his brief, 
but important, service to General George Washington. His 
biographer has produced a work based mainly on the well- 
written letters of Laurens. 

A searching new valuation of Plato's philosophical system 
is Dr. R. E. Cushman's 1958 contribution. Tnerapeia is a 
modern scholar's expert, thought-provoking commentary on 
the mountain of intelligence put down centuries ago by one 
of mankind's greatest minds. Dr. Cushman is Professor of 
Theology at Duke University. 

Dr. J. A. Redhead, pastor of First Presbyterian Church of 
Greensboro, provides a useful and helpful plan for seeking 
God's power in Letting God Help You. This is a small volume 
with a big practical message. 

The life story of a famous and beloved Baptist pastor of 
western North Carolina is told in Canaan In Carolina by 

186 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Wyan Washburn of Boiling Springs. In a busy lifetime, the 
Rev. John William Suttle served 37 churches. His biography 
is a chronicle of service to the Kingdom of God by a man who 
gave unselfishly and devotedly and who had wide influence 
on the lives of thousands. 

The Old Testament, Its Intent and Content is a helpful 
addition to the list of Bible commentaries. Dr. Griffith A. 
Hamlin of Goldsboro provides a tool that will be of use to 
scholars, ministers, and laymen. 

Stories of Two Lands by Mary Rebecca Powers of Wagram 
is 81 pages, paperbound, privately printed. It is subtitled: 
A Heritage of Love, Bringing to Life a Romance of Two 
Lands, Scotland and America, With History, Music, Folklore, 
War, Garden Parties and Wedding Bells. A long title, a sweet 
book. It is filled with what my profession would call "person- 
al journalism," unabashed ramblings about life in past and 
present. The scene is mostly Scotland County. 

Waldron Baily's Autobiography is another unabashed vol- 
ume. It is published posthumously by his daughter. These 
anecdotes from the life of a western North Carolina politician 
and sometime-author include never-before-heard tales about 
the great and near-great in Tar Heel politics. 

The colorful life of an ancient congregation of the Disciples 
of Christ is told in Kentucky's Fox Creek by Charles Cross- 
field Ware of Wilson. This little book is a treasure house of 
lore about the Fox Creek Disciples Church and of a pastor 
who was an ancestor of the author. 

Finally, the gentleman scrivener is with us this year in the 
person of Samuel T. Peace of Henderson. His book is Me and 
Old Kate. The author has been banker, business executive, 
and farmer. His little pieces read as after-dinner tales told 
by an articulate, witty, eastern North Carolina gentleman. 

And with that, we arrive back at harbor. The voyage has 
been a varied one. The sea of books has had many moods. The 
trip was imminently worth it. We have seen great sights, 
heard great sounds. North Carolinians who venture into the 
waters of the 1958 Mayflower Cup sea will, I think, agree 
that it was a good year, for writers and for readers. 


By D. J. Whitener* 

A subtitle for this paper could well be "An Introduction to 
the History of Universal Education in North Carolina, 1900- 

In 1900 North Carolina was nearing the end of a stirring 
internal political revolution, and on the threshold of three 
decades of unparalleled progress. No part of that progress 
was more significant than that in public education. 

The history of the public schools during the three decades 
preceding 1900 was characterized by timid and divided lead- 
ership, shocking illiteracy, and general backwardness. Before 
that the Civil War had crippled in this State the best ante- 
bellum public school system in the South and one of the best 
in the entire nation. Reconstruction wrecked it. 1 

The cornerstones of the new Republican Party's educa- 
tional system were written into the Constitution of 1868 and 
the School Law of 1869. 2 The Constitution commanded the 
General Assembly at its first session to "provide by taxation 
or otherwise for a general and uniform system of public 
schools wherein tuition shall be free of charge to all children 
of the state between the ages of 6 and 21 years." 3 To finance 
these schools for at least four months each year, both State 
and local taxes were authorized. 

* Dr. D. J. Whitener is Dean of Appalachian State Teachers College, 
Boone. This paper was his presidential address, delivered to the North 
Carolina Literary and Historical Association in Raleigh on December 5, 1958. 

1 D. J. Whitener, "Public Education in North Carolina During Reconstruc- 
tion, 1865-1876," Fletcher Melvin Green (ed.), Essays in Southern History 
(Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1949), 66-90, here- 
inafter cited as Whitener, "Public Education During Reconstruction"; 
Edgar Wallace Knight, The Public School in North Carolina (Boston, 1916), 
84-104, hereinafter cited as Knight, Public School; Marcus Cicero Stephens 
Noble, The Public Schools in North Carolina (Chapel Hill, 1930), 97-123. 

2 Journal of the Constitution Convention of 1868, 341; The Constitution 
of 1868, Article IX; Legislative Documents of North Carolina, 1868-1869, 
No. 1; Public Laws of North Carolina, 1868-1869, Chapter 184, 458-477; 
Reports of the North Carolina Superintendents of Public Instruction, 1868- 
1869, hereinafter cited as Reports of Superintendents; Weekly Sentinel 

(Raleigh), March 19, April 9, 1868; Daily Sentinel (Raleigh), July 17, 
1868; Weekly North-Carolina Standard (Raleigh), March 3, April 3, 5, 9, 

3 Constitution of the State of North Carolina, Article IX, Section 2. 


188 The North Carolina Historical Review 

How the enlightened and progressive system, so hopefully 
started by Governor William W. Holden and his party, was 
destroyed cannot be discussed in this brief paper. Suffice it 
to say that the law regarding State taxes for education was 
amended so that these taxes were not only collected but also 
spent within the respective county. This enabled the wealth- 
ier counties to profit at the loss of the poorer counties. 4 The 
system became in effect a county instead of a State system. 
The poverty of the people and a narrow interpretation of the 
Constitution by the State Supreme Court, stifled local taxes. 5 

The rise of the town graded school was more encouraging 
for some people. Beginning with Greensboro during the 
1870's, thirty towns had been granted, by 1900, special char- 
ters by the Legislature for the control of their schools. 6 The 
charter gave a town the legal privilege of levying a tax on 
both private and corporate property for schools. As a result, 
the revenue from the most productive property in the State 
was used for local education. This movement was continued 
and then extended even to the rural districts. 

The history of public education in 1900 reveals that North 
Carolina had made distressingly little progress during the 
past 30 years. Of the 660,000 children of school age at that 
time only about two out of three were enrolled and a little 
less than half of those enrolled attended regularly. 7 In the 23 
counties in which cotton mills were located, many of the 

4 Whitener, "Public Education During Reconstruction," 85-86; Public 
Laws of North Carolina, 1870-1871, Chapter 237, Section 5, 387-388. 

5 Paul B. Betters (ed.), State Centralization in North Carolina (Wash- 
ington: The Brookings Institution, 1932), 21-22, hereinafter cited as Betters, 
State Centralization in North Carolina; Charles L. Coon, "School Support 
and Our North Carolina Courts, 1868-1926," The North Carolina Historical 
Review, III (July, 1926), 399-438; D. J. Whitener, North Carolina History 
(Oklahoma City: The Harlow Publishing Corporation, 1958), 189, herein- 
after as Whitener, North Carolina History. 

6 Private Laws of North Carolina, 1874-1875, Chapter 15, 428; Betters, 
State Centralization in North Carolina, 44; Charles L. Coon, "The Begin- 
nings of the North Carolina City Schools, 1867-1887," South Atlantic Quar- 
terly, XII (July, 1913) ; Reports of Superintendents, 1900-1902, lvii, lix-lxi. 

7 Reports of Superintendents, 1900-1902, xii, lx, lxi, 33-337; see also 
R. D. W. Connor, North Carolina, Rebuilding an Ancient Commonwealth 
(Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 4 volumes, 1929), II, 642, herein- 
after cited as Connor, North Carolina; Knight, Public School, 294-327; 
Josephus Daniels, Editor in Politics (Chapel Hill, The University of North 
Carolina Press, 1941), 323; see also Luther Lafayette Gobbel, Church-State 
Relationship in Education in North Carolina Since 1876 (Durham: Duke 
University Press, 1938), 142-143, 151, 168-169; State Normal Magazine, 
VI (April, 1902), 285-289. 

Education for the People 189 

children under 14 years of age worked in the mills and did 
not even enroll in school. 8 The total amount spent for public 
education was $950,000. 9 But propitious signs of a better day 
were in evidence. 

The most important harbinger of the new era was Gov- 
ernor Charles B. Aycock, elected in 1900. So important were 
his contributions that he has been acclaimed, with scarcely 
a dissenting voice, North Carolina's Educational Governor. 10 
What did Aycock contribute to public education? No his- 
torian, except a few part-time ones, has claimed that Aycock 
is the architect of our present school system. He visualized 
and spoke for an elementary school supported largely by 
local taxes on property, taught for four months in the year in 
a house to which the children could walk daily. Aycock is 
the Educational Governor because he used his position of 
leadership to sell, or at least popularize, belief in education 
for all people. In the second place, he defined more adequate- 
ly the purposes of government. Up to this time, leaders of 
industry, taxpayers generally, and even teachers had said 
that the best government was the one that governed least. 
They meant that low taxes made a people prosperous. Aycock 
challenged this belief in regard to education. He told the 
taxpayers, especially the wealthy owners of industry, that 
this was a false theory. He told them that taxes for education 
were a splendid investment. An educated people meant bet- 
ter industry, more productive workers, and more prosperity 
for everyone, he said. In this way he stimulated the move 
ment already begun for local taxes. Without the acceptance 
of this new philosophy of what government should do, many 
of the changes which followed would likely have failed. 11 

8 Reports of Superintendents, 1900-1902, 1. 

9 Knight, Public Schools, 315. 

10 R. D. W. Connor and Clarence Poe, Life and Speeches of Charles B. 
Aycock (New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1912), see contents, 
hereinafter cited as Connor and Poe, Charles B. Aycock; Whitener, North 
Carolina History, 217-218; Joseph Flake Steelman, "The Progressive Era 
in North Carolina, 1884-1917" (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of 
North Carolina, 1955), 485-525, hereinafter cited as Steelman, "Progressive 
Era in North Carolina"; see also Helen G. Edmonds, The Negro and Fusion 
Politics in North Carolina, 1894-1901 (Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press, 1951), passim. 

11 Charles William Dabney, Universal Education in the South (Chapel 
Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2 volumes, 1936), II, 336- 
347; Connor, North Carolina, II, 463-481. 

190 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Aycock's very last speech, made in 1912, has been entitled 
the "Universal Education Speech/' In this magnificent pro- 
nouncement of educational philosophy, he spoke eloquently 
for the education of all children, without regard to race, 
family, wealth or social position, without regard to geo- 
graphic location, or the ability to achieve top rank on a 
test. 12 

Taxation for the support of public schools lies at the heart 
of the history of the movement for universal education. Even 
before Aycock's term of office, a law had been passed in 
1899 which authorized $100,000 to be spent out of the State 
Treasury for public education. 13 More significant was the 
law in 1901 sponsored by Representative R. N. Simms of 
Wake County which provided for an additional $100,000. 14 
The Morning Post (Raleigh) reported that it was passed 
unanimously amid loud cheering. 15 The law of 1901 so en- 
thusiastically enacted marked the beginning of a new princi- 
ple of support for the public schools called equalization. The 
money appropriated was to be distributed in inverse ratio 
to the value of taxable property in a county. By 1913, the 
State Equalization Fund had been increased to $250,000, and 
by 1921 to $832,250. 16 Meanwhile, strong opposition arose to 
the principle of equalization. 

The pressure from the strictly rural counties for more 
State money to help support their schools led to the charge 
that the "pauper counties" were trying to live off their more 
provident neighboring counties. These people said that ed- 
ucation was a local matter and that the State equalization 
fund was an encouragement of an evil practice. By 1912 the 
"pauper county'' issue had reached its height. 

^Connor and Poe, Charles B. Aycock, 316-324. 

13 Public Laws of North Carolina, Chapter 637, 1889. This bill was intro- 
duced by Representative John B. Holmes, Democrat of north Iredell County; 
Landmark (Statesville), January 26, 1900; Betters, State Centralization in 
North Carolina, 23; Samuel Hunter Thompson, "The Legislative Develop- 
ment of Public School Support in North Carolina" (unpublished Ph.D. 
thesis, The University of North Carolina, 1936), hereinafter cited as 
Thompson, "Legislative Development of Public School Support. " 

14 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1901, Chapter 543, Section 3. 

15 The Morning Post (Raleigh), March 3, 9, 1901; see also Reports of 
Superintendents, 1900-1902, 1. 

16 Reports of Superintendents, 1920-1922, 10. 

Education for the People 191 

The Charlotte Observer, December 24, 1912, published an 
article with these headlines: 'Pauper Counties' Have a 
Champion. State Must Go Forward in Public Schools De- 
velopment. Policy of Equality. Wake's Tax Record ... If 
Fair Calculation is Made Issue Will Be At an End." A few 
days later The News and Observer had headlines for the same 
article: "Are There Any Pauper Counties? Answer To The 
Talk That Some Counties are Paupers. State Owes Equal 
Chance. Professor [B. B.] Dougherty Hopes to See the Day 
Come When the State is Maintained by Taxes from In- 

" 17 


There are many prophetic statements in this article, but 
time will allow for the quotation of only two. Mr. Dougherty 
said, "While we would not press the view here, there could 
be produced an abundance of argument to justify putting all 
of the educational money in the State Treasury and appro- 
priating it in such a way as to give every child an equal 
chance. North Carolina is a unit. County lines should not 
interfere with the education of our children. No state can 
be great if even part of her children are neglected. In spend- 
ing money for education, we must consider the need, not the 
source from which the money comes." Again he said, "An in- 
creased school term is coming . . . raise the tax level and 
give the people what they need and want, a six month 
term." 18 The article did not advocate that schools should 
be supported entirely from income taxes. 

Even before this time, the State had added the high school 
grades to the school system. In 1907 the rural High School 
Law was enacted. 19 Up to this time, the rural boys and girls 
might attend a church-supported or private school or acad- 
emy or attend one of the town special charter schools. As a 
rule the town authorities did not welcome the rural children, 
because they were poorly prepared and over aged. The 
town children had been going to school for nine to ten months 

17 The News and Observer (Raleigh), January 21, 1913, hereinafter cited 
as The News and Observer. 

18 The Charlotte Observer, December 24, 1912; The News and Observer, 
January 21, 1913. 

19 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1907, Chapter 820, Section 10; Reports 
of Superintendents, 1906-1907, 8; see also Reports of Superintendents, 
1922, 24-29; The News and Observer, March 8, 1907. 

192 The North Carolina Historical Review 

during the year; the country children, about four months or 

The rural high school movement was received with en- 
thusiasm. Within the first year 157 high schools were estab- 
lished in 81 counties and almost 4,000 rural boys and girls 
enrolled. Superintendent J. Y. Joyner said, "This is, to my 
mind, the most distinctive and significant educational prog- 
ress of the period, and perhaps of this decade." 20 

In 1917 the excitement about World War I did not stop 
the movement for a six-month school term. The campaign 
for a Constitutional Amendment was led by Professor C. C. 
Wright, County Superintendent of Wilkes County. 21 Under 
a flood of petitions from every corner of the State, the Gen- 
eral Assembly passed a law to submit a constitutional amend- 
ment for a six-month school term to the people at the next 
general election. 22 In the November election, 1918, 123,062 
people voted for the amendment and 20,096 against. 23 Thus 
the majority for the amendment was more than six to one. 

Before the six-month school term was added to the Con- 
stitution there was begun a movement which profoundly af- 
fected the history of the State. This was the movement of 
consolidating small rural school districts into larger units, 
and the beginning of transporting school children at public 

The causes for the policy regarding school consolidation 
are to be found in the rural foundation of the State, as well 
as in the general educational awakening of the period. The 
prosperity of the war years and the availability of automobiles 
and better roads brought rural people and town people to- 
gether as neighbors. The country store closed its doors and 
the rural families stopped work at noon on Saturday and 
"motored" to town. The father talked with his friends in the 

20 Reports of Superintendents, 1906-1907, 8. 

21 Interviews of the author with the late Dr. B. B. Dougherty, who helped 
Mr. Wright organize the campaign; Steelman, "Progressive Era in North 
Carolina," 517; see also The News and Observer, March 8, 1917. 

22 Legislative Papers, 1917 ; Steelman, "Progressive Era in North Caro- 
lina," 520. 

23 Reports of Superintendents, 1917-1918, 10; Thompson, "Legislative 
Development of Public School Support," 400. 

Education for the People 193 

park during summer and around a potbellied stove in the 
hardware or grocery store during the winter, while the 
mother and children shopped, window or actual, and then 
went to see William S. Hart and Pearl White at the picture 

The altered relations of the country and town had a far- 
reaching influence on the history of education. Rural people 
were quick to sense the cultural advantages of town boys and 
girls. Out of a feeling of inferiority mothers and fathers of 
the rural children, and most of them were rural, sought to 
remedy their embarrassment through education. Thus was 
begun the most heroic movement toward universal education 
in the history of the State. 

The school consolidation movement be^an during; the war 
years and reached its peak during the first half of the 1920's. 
Elections were held to combine small school districts into a 
consolidated unit and to vote a thirtv cent tax on farm prop- 
erty to help t>ay for a new school building- lengthen the school 
term to eight months, and provide for high school instruc- 
tion. 24 Soon beautiful educational shrines were found through- 
out the length and breadth of the State, as North Carolina 
led the nation in building strictly rural union schools. If 
questions were raised about the wisdom of local taxation 
based on declining farm income, these questions went un- 

A concomitant of consolidation was the transportation of 
school children at public expense. 25 Within a very short time 
North Carolina had a larger number of children riding 
to and from school each day than did any other State in the 
American union. 26 

24 Reports of Superintendents, 1920-1923, 7-8, 21-23: Reports of Super- 
intendents, 1922-1924, 20-46: Reports of Superintendents, 1928-1930, 21. 
The movement for State aid in the building of schoolhouses is not mentioned 
in this article, but it is a dramatic story in itself. See Reports of Superin- 
tendents, 1900-1933: also see State School Facts. II (August 15, 1926, No. 
23) : IV (May 1. 1928, No. 16) ; VIII (June, 1932, No. 9). 

25 Reports of Superintendents. 1928-1930, 21. 

28 Claude F. Gaddv, "School Transportation," North Carolina Education, 
February, 1936, 231; State School Facts, IV (Julv 15, 1928, No. 21): V, 
(April 15, 1929, No. 13) ; X (February, 1938, No. 5) ; VI (November, 1941. 
No. 2). 

194 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Another significant movement for universal education was 
the adoption of a State salary schedule for teachers. 27 Al- 
ways the county educational officials jealously guarded their 
prerogative to issue certificates to teachers. Teachers were 
then employed on the basis of a bargain with the local com- 
mitteemen. In 1907 the High School Law provided that the 
State should set up the standards for high school teachers. 
In 1922 the State took complete control of certificates and 
authorized salaries in terms of certificates held. The worth- 
whileness of this step has been demonstrated many times. 
Not the least of the advantages was the partial freeing of 
the teachers from local political control. 

The decade of the 1920's saw major contributions to the 
history of education. This was a period of declining farm 
prices and farm income. On the other hand, the decade was 
one of growth of industry and prosperity in the towns. Far- 
mers were finding it more difficult each year to make a 
living, pay their debts and taxes, and send their children to 
school. The rural counties and rural districts turned success- 
fully to the Legislature for more and more equalization 
money. 28 By 1927 the Equalization Fund had grown to $3,- 

The General Assembly of 1929 was faced with critical 
economic and educational issues, although the members had 
been elected a full year before the beginning of the depres- 
sion. The decline in farm income and the burdens of local 
ad valorem taxes to support consolidated schools had brought 
a crisis. 29 Either the State would have to furnish more money 
to operate the schools or the terms would have to be shorten- 
ed. A temporary answer to these problems was the School 
Law of 1929. 30 This law increased the Equalization Fund for 
the six-month term and authorized a Special Tax Reduction 

27 Reports of Superintendents, 1920-1922 viii, 30; see also James E. Hill- 
man, "Teacher Certification," North Carolina Education, February, 1936, 
206, 280. 

28 Reports of Superintendents, 1924-1926, 9-46; Betters, State Centraliza- 
tion in North Carolina, 31-39, 43-46; Clyde A. Erwin, "State Supported 
School System." North Carolina Education, February, 1936, 234, hereinafter 
cited as Erwin, "State Supported School System." 

29 Reports of Superintendents, 1928-1929, 8-9. 

30 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1929, Chapter 245. 

Education for the People 195 

Fund to aid the rural districts to finance their extended terms 
of two months. 

Not since 1869 had there been such widespread misunder- 
standing of a constructive school law. The author of the law, 
the champion of the so-called "pauper counties," lived long 
enough to hear himself acclaimed later as one of the leading 
educational statesmen in North Carolina. 

The wise provisions of the School Law of 1929 were but 
portents of what was to follow. When the Legislature of 
1931 assembled, the members were met by more than 4,000 
angry farmers demanding that their local ad valorem taxes 
largely for schools be removed. 31 The great depression, begin- 
ning in November, 1929, had deepened hard times for the 
farmers and started a chain reaction which was destined to 
bankrupt many industries and townspeople as well. Many 
members of the Legislature were quite willing to take the 
tax off land, a relief which the farmers demanded, but they 
were unwilling to pass the burden to their town constituency. 
After the longest session in the history of the State, the Legis- 
lature enacted the MacLean School Law of 1931. 32 Under this 
law the State assumed complete financial support for the 
school term of six months but kept the equalization principle 
for the extended terms of two months in the rural districts. A 
sales tax was authorized, although a property tax was re- 
tained. Governor O. Max Gardner, writing the next year for 
the Saturday Evening Post, said the General Assembly of 
1931 reversed the policy of equalization of thirty years, and 
"boldly stepped up and embraced the principle of State 
responsibility for the constitutional school term." 33 Thus 
it was that local education, which had been inadequate in 
1869 and a failure in 1900, was nearing bankruptcy in 1931. 
Just as the School Law of 1929 was not far-reaching enough, 
so the School Law of 1931 proved to be inadequate. 

The General Assembly of 1933 was in session when Presi- 
dent Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered all banks closed. What 

31 Reports of Superintendents, 1930-1932, 8-9; Betters, State Centraliza- 
tion in North Carolina, 46. 

32 Public Laws of North Carolina, 1931, Chapter 10. 

38 Saturday Evening Post, January 2, 1932, 74, quoted in Betters, State 
Centralization in North Carolina, 3. 

196 The North Carolina Historical Review 

should be done regarding schools? There were those who 
said that the only sensible thing to do was to close them for 
two years. Other said that the school term should be reduced 
to the constitutional term of six months. In the meanwhile 
a group of people who counseled delay gained the ascend- 
ency. They wrote the School Law of 1933. 34 

The School Law of 1933 sharply curtailed expenses, re- 
duced all school terms to eight months, abolished special and 
local taxes for education, and organized the county and old 
special charter districts into county and city administrative 
units. The same law abolished all ad valorem taxes, county 
and city, for education, and authorized taxes other than ad 
valorem for the support of the public schools. There were 
those who questioned the wisdom of abolishing all property 
taxes for public education. Be that as it may, as a result of 
adversity North Carolina had taken another long stride to 
achieve a "general and uniform system of public education." 

In conclusion, no one should claim that educational op- 
portunities in North Carolina in 1933 were equal or universal 
for all the children. It can be said, however, that tremendous 
progress had been made during the past three decades to- 
ward giving every child an equal chance, and that the founda- 
tion had been laid for the present school system. North 
Carolina had led the nation in rural consolidation of schools, 
in the transportation of school children, and in State support 
for education. 

Finally, as a result of good roads and excellent rural 
schools, industry continues to locate in the country, the 
laborers in these enterprises are widely scattered and inde- 
pendent of control, and there is an absence of ghost towns 
in this State. The educational leaders of the period from 1900 
to 1933, who planned to give every boy and girl an equal 
educational chance, and every tax payer equal treatment, 
are, in a very real sense, the architects of the present-day 
greatness of North Carolina. 

"Erwin, "State Supported School System," 234-236, 264, 268; Reports of 
Superintendents, 1932-1934, 13-16. 


By Harry S. Truman* 

We are celebrating the one hundred-fiftieth anniversary 
of the birth of Andrew Johnson. All of the encyclopedias and 
the Dictionary of American Biography list December 29, 
1808, as his birthday. Lloyd Paul Stryker in his definitive 
biography— and the best biography of Johnson I have seen— 
says that Andrew Johnson was born on December 8, 1808. 
So you see, even in birth he was a controversial figure. 

He was born in this great State of North Carolina, right 
here in this lovely City of Raleigh. Your city was named for 
a man who lost his head on the block, because he was too 
loyal to his Queen. As happens in many, many cases succes- 
sors do not remember or appreciate the things for which 
predecessors made rewards. James I thought that he was 
Solomon, and he didn't love the countries or attitudes under 
which the first Queen Elizabeth operated. Raleigh, you know, 
made settlements over here and named a State north of us 
for the Virgin Queen. A radical Congress didn't think much 
of Andrew Johnson and some of the people with whom I 
worked didn't think much of me. 

Andrew Johnson was destined to have one of the most 
stormy careers in the history of this great republic of ours 
because of his loyalty to the greatest document in the history 
of government— The Constitution of the United States. He 
stood like a rock in a hurricane against the most terrible and 
unscrupulous odds. He stood for right, against his Secretary 
of War U. S. Grant; old Thad Stevens— a crippled moron 
from Pennsylvania; Ben Wade of Ohio, who wanted to suc- 
ceed him; Chandler of Michigan, Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on the Conduct of the War Between the States— and 
I want to tell you something about that committee. When 

* President Harry S. Truman of Independence, Missouri, served as Chief 
Executive of the United States from April 12, 1945, to January 19, 1953. 
This copy of his address delivered in the Raleigh Memorial Auditorium on 
December 5, 1958, was taken from a tape recording made by Radio Station 
WPTF, Raleigh. 

[ 197 ] 

198 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense 
Program in World War II— which got me into the trouble for 
which I afterwards suffered— was organized, a great many of 
the senators in the United States Senate wanted to make it a 
Committee on the Conduct of the War. I knew the history of 
the Committee on the Conduct of the War Between the 
States since I had read the records, the only copies of which 
are in the Library of Congress. This new committee of which 
I was chairman did not follow the example of old Ben Wade, 
Chandler, and the rest of those people who did their best to 
ruin Lincoln. Wade made a speech in Cincinnati for which 
he should have been hanged, but he wasn't! Johnson stood 
for right against Wilson of Massachusetts, and that old crook, 
Benjamin F. Butler, known as "Spoon Butler," because he 
stole all the silverware in New Orleans in his pose as a collec- 
tor of silver spoons. If you want to get a good history of 
Butler, you should go down to New Orleans and mention his 
name and see what happens to you. They will probably throw 
you in the Mississippi River! 

This same "Spoon Butler" had managed to steal fertilizer 
from a little island called Alta Vela, off Santa Domingo. He 
employed to represent him one of the greatest lawyers of 
that day, Jeremiah S. Black, who had been Attorney General 
and Secretary of State for James Buchanan— our weakest 
president of that era. Black and "Spoon" Butler had an 
audience with President Johnson to request him to send a 
warship to Alta Vela Island for the purpose of helping Butler 
steal some more fertilizer. The President refused and the 
Hon. Jeremiah Black, who then was representing President 
Johnson in the trial for impeachment in the high court of 
impeachment— the Senate of the United States— told Johnson 
that he would be acquitted if he would only send the ship 
so that old "Spoon" Butler could steal more fertilizer. As 
I said, Johnson refused and fired Black as his attorney in 
the midst of the impeachment trial. Black said to him, "If 
you don't do this for Butler, I'll resign." Johnson said, "Your 
resignation is accepted right now!" I had the same exper- 
ience with a couple of cabinet officers I inherited who came 

The Most Mistreated of Presidents 199 

to me and said they would resign if I did not do thus and 
so. Well, they resigned all right and it was by request. 

When old "Spoon" Butler died it was reported to that 
famous old senator from Massachusetts, Senator Hoar. The 
old senator said, "I sincerely hope that it is no idle rumor." 
And this remark was from the senator from Butler's own 

When Andrew Johnson came back to the Senate, Wilson 
of Massachusetts, who had helped prosecute him in the 
court of impeachment, was Vice-President and President of 
the Senate. Hannibal Hamlin, Lincoln's first Vice-President, 
who was thrown out when Johnson was made Lincoln's Vice- 
President in 1864, was to be sworn in as the senator from 
Maine. Another senator to be sworn in was General Burnside 
from Rhode Island. You will recall that old Burnside lost 
the bloody battle of Fredericksburg to Lee and Jackson and 
then went on to Chancellorsville and another disaster with 

Andrew Johnson was as courteous and kind as a man could 
be to all that terrible crowd who had tried to ruin him. 
Now, he really had something when he could do that. I 
found it very difficult, and I didn't have half as much trouble 
as he did. He was sworn in on March 4, 1875, and a short 
time afterwards made another of his great speeches on the 
Constitution. Then he went back to Tennessee and passed 
on to the great beyond from whence there is no return. 

In 1875 Arkansas was having trouble with the President of 
the United States, General Grant, who had sent a message to 
Congress asking for the overthrow of that State's govern- 
ment—by Congress! The reason for the message was that 
the government in the State of Arkansas at that time was op- 
posed to Grant. The Springfield, Massachusetts, Republican— 
this was a paper printed in Springfield which is still being 
published— interpreted this message as, "Authorize me ( Gen- 
eral Grant) to make war upon the government of Arkansas in 
the interest of my third term." 

And here, let me quote from Lloyd Paul Stryker: 

Johnson understood this crime, and he was not afraid to speak. 
There was pending before the Senate at this time a resolution 

200 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to approve Grant's outrageous conduct in Louisiana. On March 
22nd Johnson stood up to oppose it. There in that chamber that 
fourteen years ago had echoed with his orations for the Union 
— the same chamber that seven years later had resounded with 
the slanders of Thad Stevens and Ben Butler — the Senator from 
Tennessee again rose to champion the Constitution of the United 
States. Despite his nearly sixty-seven years he pressed into his 
sentences the fire that in his country's darkest hour had made 
him one of her most sturdy patriots. "The President of the 
United States," he said, "assumes to take command of the state 
and assign these people a governor. What does he say himself on 
this point?" Johnson then read from Grant's message: "It has 
been bitterly alleged that Kellogg was not elected [that is, the 
proported Governor of Louisiana] . Whether he was or not is not 
altogether certain, nor is it any more certain that his competitor 
McEnery was chosen. The election was a gigantic fraud, and 
there are no reliable returns of its result." If there had been a 
"gigantic fraud," both contestants, declared Johnson, were dis- 
qualified, "but the President finds a usurper in power, and he 
takes it upon himself to make the government of the United 
States a party to his usurpation. ... Is not this monstrous in a 
free government?" 

It was a long time since anyone had come to champion the 
Constitution in that Senate. "We have been in a great war," he 
continued. "The public mind has been agitated, the Constitution 
has been violated . . . and trampled under foot ... so often, that 
the public mind at this day scarcely has any firm moorings to 
which it can anchor. . . . Where are we going, Mr. President? Is 
Louisiana a commonwealth as it now stands? Or is her govern- 
ment maintained by military power, and that through the Presi- 
dent of the United States? Is it his government? . . . What does 
he do in regard to Arkansas? Sends a message to Congress with 
a threat, If you do not do something, I will.' It is not his place 
to interfere with either of the contending parties." 

Instead of passing the proposed resolution, Johnson declared 
that he would go to the "emperor of the empire," and in the 
language of Cato's reply when Caesar's ambassador demanded 
his capitulation, would "Bid him disband his legions; return 
the commonwealth to liberty." 1 

You know, there is a report in the files of the United States 
Senate, the first Truman report that was ever made to Con- 

1 Lloyd Paul Stryker, Andrew Johnson : A Study in Courage ( New York : 
The MacMillan Company, 1929), 820-821, hereinafter cited as Stryker, 
Andrew Johnson. 

The Most Mistreated of Presidents 201 

gress. It was made by Ben Truman of Connecticut. Johnson 
sent him down South to make a survey to see if it wouldn't 
be a proper thing to withdraw all of the troops during Re- 
construction. Ben Truman is no relative of mine— he came 
from Connecticut— he's of the northern Trumans; mine came 
from the South. He made a wonderful report. He suggested 
that the troops be withdrawn. Old Thad Stevens and the 
rest of that crooked gang called the Radical Republicans in 
those days, prevented that from happening and carried on 

Why had Kellogg been installed in opposition to the wishes of 
Louisiana? Was it, asked Johnson, "for the purpose of irritation 
. . . for the purpose of getting up insurrection ... so as to raise 
the cry These Southern people are in revolt'? The people of 
Louisiana were anxious for full restoration to the Union, but 
what is that to those acting behind the curtain and who are 
aspiring to retain power, and if it cannot be had by popular con- 
test . . . would inaugurate a system of terrorism, and in the 
midst of the war-cry triumphantly ride into the Presidency for 
a third Presidential term. And when it is done, farewell to the 
liberties of the country!" The galleries burst forth in applause at 
this. 2 

This was one of the greatest orations in the history of the 
Senate and Johnson made another of the greatest orations 
to that body in 1859 when he was in the Senate and spoke 
against secession. He was an Andrew Jackson Democrat. The 
fact that Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri did not secede 
from the Union was due to the Andrew Jackson Democrats- 
Jackson was the greatest President that Tennessee ever pro- 
duced, and he was born here in North Carolina. 

It was high time someone should speak out. Grant's craving 
for a third term had become a national scandal. His lust for 
office was to receive its full revelation five years later. But what 
was indeed a scandal was Grant's gift-taking and his rewards to 
the designing givers. "There is a provision in the Constitution," 
continued Johnson, "which declares that: 'No title of nobility 
shall be granted by the United States, and no person holding an 
office . . . under them . . . shall accept any present from any king, 

2 Stryker, Andrew Johnson, 821. 

202 The North Carolina Historical Review 

prince, or foreign state.' The minds of those who made the 
Constitution were directed to the other side of the water; they 
thought temptation was most likely to come from that direction. 
If in the last line of this clause . . . they had added 'or any citizen 
of the United States,' what a fortunate thing it would have 
been!" There was laughter at this well-aimed thrust. 

Grant's pitiable administration, its monstrous abuse of power, 
cried out for denunciation. The great voice of Andrew Johnson 
spoke not for the distracted South alone, but for the conscience 
of the North as well. "I have shown you," he continued, "in 
reference to the Kellogg government, General Grant said it was 
a 'gigantic fraud,' and that neither Kellogg nor his opponent was 
entitled to the office, but having a usurper in he takes him by the 
hand and sustains him. . . . How far off is empire? How far off 
is military despotism?" 

Finally he concluded: "Sheridan says the people are all ban- 
ditti, and if he had a military commission the President need not 
disturb himself any farther, for he would manage all the rest! 
. . . Give me the Constitution of my country unimpaired. . . . Give 
me back the Constitution of my country ! ... In the language of 
Webster, let this Union be preserved 'now and forever, one and 
inseparable.' Let us stand as equals in the Union, all upon equali- 
ty. Let peace and union be restored to the land. May God bless 
this people and God save the Constitution!" 

Like thunder's deep voice upon a torrid afternoon, Johnson 
shook the sleeping conscience of the North. The South took hope 
like a desponding army that hears the rumble of its artillery 
supports, long, long awaited ! 3 

Andrew Johnson, due to his thirst for knowledge, listened 
to his wife, Eliza M. McCardle, the mother of his five chil- 
dren, and became a well-educated man. 

He was elected alderman and mayor of Greeneville, Ten- 
nessee, and you know, they told more lies about him after 
the impeachment trial started than about any President of 
the United States except George Washington. If you want 
to get some real good lies about presidents, you will want 
to read what the papers said about George Washington when 
he was President of the United States. 

It was said that Johnson had never been elected to any 
public office— yet here is his career of election. He was both 
alderman and mayor of Greeneville; he was elected a Con- 
gressman from east Tennessee and re-elected four times for a 

3 Stryker, Andrew Johnson, 821-822. 

The Most Mistreated of Presidents 203 

ten-year period in the House of Representatives. He was 
elected Governor of Tennessee twice and then went to the 
Senate of the United States on election by the legislature of 
Tennessee. He was an Andrew Jackson Democrat and be- 
lieved in the sacredness of the Constitution and so do I. 

At the Baltimore Convention of the National Union Party 
he was nominated by the Republicans to run for Vice-Presi- 
dent with Lincoln for his second term. He was later elected 
and when Lincoln was assassinated, he became President of 
the United States. 

As President, he did all in his power to implement the 
policies of his friend Abraham Lincoln. He believed in the 
Constitution. He believed that the Constitution of the United 
States is the greatest document of government ever written, 
just as I do. I wish everyone of you would read the Constitu- 
tion at least twice a day and at night before you go to bed. 
You'll find something in it every time you read it. It took the 
Supreme Court one hundred and fifty years to find the word 
"welfare" in the Preamble to the Constitution of the United 
States, so you had better read it several times or you may 
miss a few words, too. Johnson also believed that it can be 
debauched by amendment, just as I do. He believed in toler- 
ance and mercy to people who considered themselves his 
enemies. He showed in personal matters, as well as national 
and political ones, that he felt just that way. 

The people of this great State, who put forth the first 
declaration of independence, should be proud of the fact 
that Polk, Johnson, and Andrew Jackson— the greatest of them 
all— were produced by the good soil of North Carolina. Every 
one of them in his own time made this great republic greater: 
Jackson by his maintenance of the Union; Polk by his addi- 
tion of more than 800,000 square miles to its area, for which 
he paid the same price that Jefferson paid for Louisiana— but 
since Missouri is in the Louisiana Purchase, the soil that Polk 
bought wasn't quite as good as that in the Louisiana Pur- 
chase—even if the land wasn't quite as fertile; and Johnson 
set an example of steadfastness under the most terrific pres- 
sure and vilification that any President of the United States 
ever suffered. 

204 The North Carolina Historical Review 

His greatest asset, of course, was Eliza, his wife. She 
helped him all through his life. With a good education for 
that day, she helped and encouraged Andrew Johnson to 
attain an education. He became a real Constitutional 
President and knew more about the Constitution than any 
President before or since has known. He became great 
because of that document. It has taken ninety years for the 
facts to come out, but they have. The facts will always come 
out if we have the right sort of historians. Few historians, 
so-called, are objective. The truth will usually come to the 
view of the people if enough historians write about the truth. 
They never agree among themselves— they have as much 
trouble as the columnists in the newspapers nowadays have- 
yet if you watch the history of a period and read what every- 
body says about it, you will eventually find the real facts 
and that is what has happened to Andrew Johnson. Great 
men have always been slandered and vilified by the press 
and the biased historians, but when the smoke and fuss 
clears away, people usually find who worked for their in- 
terests and who did not. Go home and think about it. 


Edited by Wilfred W. Black* 

Edward Nicholas Boots was the son of the Reverend John 
Boots and Sylvia Coleman Boots, natives of Sussex County, 
England, who had immigrated to the United States in 1830 
and had settled in Beaver County, Pennsylvania. John Boots 
was a Methodist minister; his brother, Samuel, was a preacher 
for fifty years, and his other brother, Edmund, served as 
a class leader, steward, and trustee in the church. Edward 
Nicholas Boots was one of seven sons and two daughters 
born to John and Sylvia. Apparently, E. N. Boots was born in 
1842. 1 His father died in 1853, and his mother ably shouldered 
the responsibilities of raising her family. Boots taught school 
prior to his enlistment in the army. His classical back- 
ground is reflected in these letters to his mother to whom 
he was extremely devoted. He frequently implores her to 
keep his younger brothers in school and to discourage them 
from enlisting in the army. Moreover, his own intellectual 
interests did not cease during his military service. In one 
letter he refers to photographs of the English poet, Thomas 
Hood, which he has sent home; on another occasion he 
speaks of reading Les Miserables as he sat inside his tent 
during a thunderstorm. 

It is evident from the letters that Boots was sensitive, kind, 
reserved, generous, and thoughtful and that his habits and 
tastes were simple. Possibly he was somewhat given to 

* Dr. Wilfred W. Black is an Instructor of Social Science at State 
Teachers College, Frostburg, Maryland. Dr. Black wishes to express his 
appreciation to Mrs. E. S. Hassler (Sylvia Boots Hassler) of Route 6, 
Mercer, Pennsylvania, owner of the letters, for permission to edit her 
uncle's letters for publication. Mrs. Hassler is the daughter of Dan Boots, 
next to the youngest of E. N. Boots' brothers, and to whom one reference 
is made in the collection. She has also been helpful by supplying informa- 
tion relative to the Boots family and by reading the manuscript. 

1 A certificate issued by the Department of Military Affairs of the 
Adjutant General's Office, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, states that 
Edward N. Boots was nineteen years old when he enlisted at New Brighton, 
Pa., on October 29, 1861. However, a niece of E. N. Boots has informed 
the editor that according to an obituary, her uncle died at Andersonville 
in September, 1864, at the age of thirty-one. 


206 The North Carolina Historical Review 

introspection. That he was a deeply religious man, there can 
be no doubt. He deplored the idleness, dissipation, pro- 
fanity, and gambling so prevalent in the army. Boots' pleas 
for letters from home are touching and conjure visions of the 
nostalgia which plagued him. It is apparent that he did not 
possess a rugged constitution since he was a frequent victim 
of fever in the marshy bottoms of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. In view of this it is not hard to visualize the untold suf- 
fering he endured at Andersonville. 

Beneath the nostalgia, melancholy, and impending doom 
which prevail throughout the letters, there are flashes of 
humor as when Boots gives his mother instructions on how to 
make him a shirt or when he lays down specifications to his 
sister on how to make him a needlebook. 

Quartermaster Boots was attached to the One Hundred 
and First Pennsylvania Regiment, and he served with Mc- 
Clellan throughout the Peninsular Campaign. After the Battle 
of Malvern Hill, McClellan withdrew his forces to Harrison's 
Landing, Virginia. The One Hundred and First Regiment 
left Harrison's Landing on August 16, 1862, and reached 
Fortress Monroe about August 25. Here it remained until 
October 1 when it was detached from the Army of the Poto- 
mac. On December 5 the Regiment moved southward out 
of Virginia and entered North Carolina. Near Gatesville, 
it took transport on the Chowan River. Arriving at New Bern 
on December 10, 1862, it joined the forces of Major-General 
J. G. Foster who commanded the Department of North 
Carolina. On December 31, 1862, Brigadier-General Henry 
W. Wessels commanded the First Division of the Eighteenth 
Army Corps which consisted of two brigades: the First 
Brigade under Brigadier-General Lewis C. Hunt comprised 
the Eighty-fifth, Ninety-second, and Ninety-sixth New York 
regiments and the Eighty-fifth, One Hundred and First, and 
One Hundred and Third Pennsylvania regiments; the Sec- 
ond Brigade under Colonel Thomas G. Stevenson comprised 
the Tenth Connecticut, the Twenty-fourth and Forty-fourth 
Massachusetts, and the Fifth Rhode Island regiments. 2 

2 John A. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment Pennsylvania Veteran 
Volunteer Infantry 1861-1865 (Chicago: L. S. Dickey & Co., 1910), 15, 16, 
22, hereinafter cited as Reed, History of the 101st Regiment. Through the 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 207 

Such is the background against which the following letters 
of Sergeant Edward Nicholas Boots were written from New 
Bern and Plymouth during 1863 and 1864. On April 17, 1864, 
Boots was at Plymouth, the key to the control of the Roanoke 
River. It was well-fortified and was held by 2,400 men under 
Wessels. During the afternoon of that fateful Sunday, Gen- 
eral R. F. Hoke with approximately 7,000 men suddenly ap- 
peared in the rear of the town. So stealthily had he advanced 
that he was within two miles of Plymouth before Wessels 
was aware of the danger. Hoke repeatedly charged Fort 
Wessels which was finally surrendered after heavy losses. 
On April 20 Hoke moved his batteries close in upon Ply- 
mouth and made a general assault. The fall of Plymouth was 
followed by the evacuation of Washington, N. C. Hoke then 
tried unsuccessfully to capture New Bern but was forced to 
abandon his siege in order to hasten to the defense of Rich- 

Following Wessels' surrender to Hoke at 11:00 A.M. on 
April 20, the Union officers were sent as prisoners-of-war to 
Macon and the enlisted men to Andersonville. On the after- 
noon of April 21 the men began their march under guard 
and arrived at Tarboro on April 26, whence by boxcars they 
were transported to Goldsboro and Wilmington, to Florence, 
Columbia, and Charleston, S. C, thence to Savannah, Mil- 
ledgeville, and Macon, Ga. Andersonville was reached on 
April 30. About half of the One Hundred and First Pennsyl- 
vania Regiment succumbed to the horrors of Andersonville. 
It was from there that the last letter in the Boots' collection 
was written. Edward Nicholas Boots died at Andersonville 
on September 12, 1864, and today his body lies in Grave 
Number 8,606 in the National Cemetery at Andersonville 
where more than thirteen thousand Union soldiers repose. 

The Boots' letters are written in a firm, clear hand. There 
are peculiarities and sometimes inconsistencies in spelling, 
capitalization, and punctuation. Most of the letters comprise 

efforts of Brigadier-General Benjamin F. Butler, Commodore Silas H. 
Stringham, Brigadier-General Ambrose E. Burnside, and Commodore Louis 
M. Goldborough, a large part of the Atlantic and southern coast had been 
recovered from the Confederacy by late 1862. Strategic points such as 
Roanoke Island, New Bern, Washington, Plymouth, and Fort Macon were 
in the hands of the Federals, but the Confederates still held Wilmington. 

208 The North Carolina Historical Review 

one long paragraph. The place of writing is usually indicated 
at the extreme left of the paper just above the salutation. 
Usually, the year of writing is not indicated, and the compli- 
mentary close is stilted, as, for example, "your $ on e ^ c EN- 
Boots." Most of the letters are to Boots' mother, Sylvia; one 
is to his sister, Lucy Emma; and another to his brother, 

Newbern N Carolina. Monday Feb 16th [1863] 
Dear Mother. 

Your long looked for letter reached me on the 8th. I was glad 
to hear from you once more, letters from home are almost all the 
pleasures that I have. I had the privilege of attending divine 
service twice yesterday. The preachers were both strangers to 
me, even the name of the one that preached in the morning, I 
do not know. His text was Numbers 10-29, 32. 3 One verse of the 
text brought to my recollection the long ago past, I once heard 
Pap preach from it. I think that it was one of his favorite text [s] . 
The speaker in the afternoon was the Rev d Dr. Lathrop of Boston 
a Unitarian. It was a very good lecture but no sermon. Christ 
crucified was not in it. The text was Job 12-23. It was especially 
addressed to the 45th Mass Regt who were all present in full 
equipment. 4 The church is built in the olden style. Pulpit half 
way up to the ceiling, gallery around three sides, organ & choir 
in the gallery opposite to the pulpit. The wall is adorned with 
marble tablets in memory of those who were the first members 
& founders of the church. I observed that the dates of the births 
of some of them were far back in the last century. They have 
lived & passed away ere the terrible struggle that we[']re 
engaged in began, happy are they. The communion will be cele- 
brated in that church next sabbath. I shall attend if possible. I 
do not expect that I can have the box that you prepared for me 
sent, our movements are too uncertain, 5 but I would like to have 

3 "And Moses said unto Hobab . . . We are journeying unto the place of 
which the Lord said, I will give it to you: come thou with us, and we will 
do thee good: for the Lord hath spoken good concerning Israel." (Verse 29) 

"And it shall be, if thou go with us, yea, it shall be, that what goodness 
the Lord shall do unto us, the same will we do unto thee." (Verse 32) 

4 "He increaseth the nations, and destroyeth them: he enlargeth the 
nations, and straiteneth them again." That the sermon was addressed to 
the Forty-fifth Massachusetts Regiment is doubtful. However, the Forty- 
fourth Massachusetts Regiment was in the Second Brigade which with the 
First Brigade comprised the First Division of the Eighteenth Army Corps 
commanded by Henry W. Wessels. (See latter part of Boots' letter of 
April 28, 1863, page 213). 

5 The One Hundred and First Pennsylvania Regiment was engaging in 
foraging raids at this time; the most famous of these was the Hyde 
County raid. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 22-25. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 209 

some of the articles & I think that you can send them by mail as 
some in the company have had things of the same kind sent in 
that way. I would like to have the Shirt, handkerchief, gum rib- 
band 14 yd, pattent thread & testament, & any thing else that 
you like to send. The gloves you kneed not send. The testament 
that I want is of the 64 mo. size. 6 They are generally bound in 
morocco & gilt edged, sometimes the Psalms are bound with it. 
The way to pack these things is, get a large sheet of the heavy 
Buff I should say yellow paper, such as Books are packed in. 
double the shirt to the width that you wish for rolling, have the 
paper wider than the doubled shirt, sew it to the shirt strongly, 
double the edges of the paper in on the shirt & then roll up. both 
tie it & seal it with either wax or mucilage, when packed this way 
the postage should be but one cent an ounce. Direct it plainly, in 
large hand, send me a letter at the same time that you send the 
package, send me the price of the shirt, Handkerchief & Testa- 
ment, if you can send it, send it soon for we may move, my health 
is improving, give my love to all. God bless you all. 

your Son etc E. N. Boots 

Write to me often. 

Camp 101st Regt P.V. Newbern. N Carolina. 
St Patrick's day March 17th [1863] 
Dearest Mother. 

Your kind letter of March 1st arrived last Saturday & the 
package which the kindness of the "loved ones at home" sent 
arrived yesterday. You may be sure that yesterday was a gala 
day with me. The shirt pleases me very much. The Testament is 
just what I wanted, just the size I wanted. The handkerchief is 
just the right size & kind, you certainly must remember my taste 
well, for I could not have made a better selection myself. You 
do not know how much I am obliged to you for those nice things. 
I would like to know the price of the Testament & handkerchief. 
I think that I can get my boots without much trouble to you. 
Capt Hemphill is going home on a short visit soon & he says that 
he will bring my boots. I will try to write about the time he goes, 
but you may not get the letter in time as he is going by way of 
Norfolk & all letters go by way of New York, but Capt Charles 
can tell you, when he is at home. Wrap each boot by itself in 
paper, rolling the leg around the foot. Please put that hundred 
cigars in the feet of the boots. You do not know how much I 
want to smoke a Penna. cigar. If you will send the boots etc you 
will do me a great favor. The wet season is about here & I kneed 
them. My health has got pretty good. I left the Hospital on last 

"Indicates the size of the Testament he wanted as determined by the 
number of leaves made by folding a sheet of paper. 

210 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Friday & I am doing duty. I am not very strong, but my appetite 
is good. Ed is not very well, but I hope that he will be better 
soon. You kneed not be uneasy about the draft. The law for the 
new draft says that where two of a family are already in the 
army, two are to be exempt & left at home. 7 You have only two 
grown up sons at home so they must be exempt. If either should 
be drafted Let some good lawyer be employed (Tom Cunningham 
is the best) , to get him exempted. I still have the Testament that 
I got at Pittsburgh. It is much worn for it has seen hard service. I 
have carried it in my pocket ever since I started. I am going to 
send it home, either by Hemphill or by mail. Put it in my book- 
case, & if I never return I give it to you. I have found it a 
precious friend. I send home a picture of Hood, one of Englands 
bright galaxy of poets, press it out in a book & then put it in my 
desk. I sent two to Emma. I am still trying to love & serve him 
who first loved me. Still pray for me Mother dear I kneed your 
prayers. I have attended service three Sabbaths since I came here. 
Last sabbath no one could leave the regt on account of the rebels. 8 
Instead of being a day of rest it was a day of excitement & un- 
rest. The sound of the death dealing cannon mingled with the 
sound of the church bell. 

your son, with love 

E N Boots 
[Marginal Notation] 
Write to me often. 

Camp of 101st Regt P.V. Newbern N. Carolina 

Afternoon April 15th [1863] 
Dear Mother 

Your kind letter of April 1st arrived last night & found me 
well. To hear that you are well is a source of great pleasure to 
me. I still hope that I may be permittted to see you again, but 
if Providence otherwise determines, I shall expect to meet you 
in a "Home beyond the Tide" where no sorrow is but where all 
is joy. I know that there is a crown of glory prepared for all that 
prove faithful. I pray that we may be kept faithful & to him that 
hath loved us & redeemed us we will give glory forever. I have 
been on two expeditions since I last wrote, both of them were 
destined to get Gen Foster out of Washington or to drive away 

7 Conscription Act of March 3, 1863. The Confederacy had already in- 
voked conscription on April 16, 1862. 

8 Colonel David B. Morris, Regimental Commander, in his official report 
of March 17, 1863, referred to no special attack or danger of attack by the 
Confederates on either Sunday, March 8, or on Sunday, March 15. On the 
contrary, the Regiment was foraging at this time. Reed, History of the 
101st Regiment, 23-24. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 211 

the rebels that surround him & both of them failed. 9 Little Wash- 
ington is situated on the Tar river, about thirty miles from 
Newbern by land & one hundred & twenty by water. The Union 
troops have occupied it about a year. About the last of March Gen 
Foster went there to see how things were going on. just after he 
got there, the rebels came down in force & surrounded the place, 
cutting off all communication by land or water. They built a 
battery five miles below the town on the bank of the river, which 
showered shot & shell on anything that attempted to pass. Several 
small boats have run past in the night & from them we have 
obtained all the news that has been got since the rebels surround- 
ed the place. On the morning of April 4th we embarked on the 
steamer northerner, & arrived at a point four miles below the 
rebel battery on the morning of the 5th (sabbath) about 9 
O'clock. We had a rather rough passage. The night before had 
been very windy & Pamlico Sound was very rough. I now know 
what waves are & I have seen some that were sea-sick, but it did 
not effect me in the least. I rather enjoyed the wild waves. We 
found several gun-boats below the rebel works. In the afternoon 
they opened on the rebel works, but received no reply. We could 
see the smoke from a number of fires some distance back from 
the shore. Whether they were rebel camp fires or the woods on 
fire we could not tell. In the afternoon a flag of truce appeared on 
the opposite side of the river. A boat went to it & brought off 
two me [n] , one quit [e] young reporter himself a deserter from 
the southern army, the other middle aged, flying from the con- 
scription. About sundown the gunboats led off by the battered 
old "Hunchback" again attacked the rebel works. This time the 
rebels replied, some of their balls fell very near to the Hunch- 
back. I stood on the upper deck of the Northerner & had a good 
view of the whole scene. For some hours all had been very quiet. 
The broad river flowing onward to the sea was almost smooth as 
a mirror. The sun had just gone down behind the dark pines 

9 In March, 1863, when General D. H. Hill marched on Washington, 
General Foster hastened by water to inspect the defenses of the city. By 
blockading the river, the Confederates compelled Foster to remain, and on 
March 30 they demanded that he surrender. This he refused to do, and the 
siege of Washington began. For two weeks Foster and his garrison were 
cut off from all communications by land and water. An occasional Union 
gunboat such as the "Ceres" successfully ran the Confederate batteries. 
The most famous of the relief expeditions, that under the command of 
Brigadier-General F. B. Spinola, failed. The One Hundred and First Regi- 
ment participated in this fiasco to some of the events of which Boots alludes 
in his letter of April 15. Eventually, the "Escort" got supplies through to 
Washington, and on the night of April 14 rescued General Foster who re- 
turned to New Bern to organize a new expedition for the relief of Wash- 
ington. However, Hill suddenly abandoned his siege and marched to re- 
enforce General James Longstreet, who was investing Suffolk. It is ap- 
parent that Boots had not learned of Foster's escape from Washington 
when he wrote this letter. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 25-29. 

212 The North Carolina Historical Review 

which on either shore were beginning to cast a dark shadow 
upon the waters, when all at once a cloud of dark sulphurous 
smok[e] burst forth from the Hunchback amongst which was a 
lurid flash & then a sound as of many thunders. After a few 
seconds would be seen the flash of the exploding shell as it 
scattered its death dealing fragments. It was a strange sabbath 
evening scene. We remained at anchor until the next morning & 
then started back for Newbern, where we arrived on the morn- 
ing of the 7th. About 9 O'clock at night (the same night) we got 
orders to start at midnight, [sic] & cross the Neuse for Washing- 
ton by land. I left camp about 1 'O'clock [sic] A.M. in charge of 
the wagons. I got two teams across the next day loaded with 
rations but had to let the other teams remain until next day. Just 
as they were on board ready for crossing an order came to stop 
crossing, so they went off the boat, & remained. The next day I 
received orders to cross the Neuse & get the two teams back 
again as the expedition was falling back[.] I crossed over & got 
the teams over again. I crossed the Neuse four times. Twice I 
took a horse over in an open scow full of horses and mules, but 
though it was dangerous work no accident happened to me. The 
next scow that crossed after I did upset & drowned twenty horses 
& one man. I got safe back into camp about 9 O'clock the night 
of the 10th. The troops advanced to Swift Creek, fifteen miles 
distant & found an enemy there that they could not move. About 
twenty artillery men were wounded. Two other expeditions have 
since started for the same place. Two companies out of our Regt 
are with the last one. Capt Hemphill will not go home for the 
present. I have written to have my boots sent by Capt Mays who 
is now at home. 10 Give my love to all & receive a goodly share 

from your Son 
E N Boots 
Com H. 101st Regt P.V. 

N Carolina 
Mrs. Sylvia Boots. 
[Marginal Notation:] 

Sherlock can have the money another year if he wants it. But 
when the year is up have him to pay the interest on it for the 
year & receipt for it on the back of the note. Send me word how 
much the note is for & when the year is up. If you make out a 
new note for next year, you will have to get a revenue stamp & 
put it on it, but I expect that the old note will still do, but he sure 
about it 

10 Captain William Mays of Company "H," same Company as that of 
Boots. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 105. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 213 

Quartermaster's Department 101st Reg P.V. 
Newbern N.C. Tuesday Evening April 28th [1863] 
Dear Mother 

The Steamer Albany arrived last night, but brought me no 
letter from home, but she brought Capt Mays & a pair of nice 
boots for me. They please me very well in everything except size. 
They are too large. You know that I do not belong to the big 
footed class, but you could not help their being too large. I must 
blame the maker for that & so I will say no more about it. The 
last letter from home (from Emma), spoke of your being un- 
well. I hope that you are better now. I can endure the hardships 
of army life but I cannot endure the thought of your being sick. 
Dear Mother, I beg of you to take care of yourself. I know that 
you have made yourself sick by toiling too hard. You must rest 
yourself more. I know that you will anwer "I must work or things 
will be left undone." Well then let them be undone, your health 
is [of] more account than they are. If I should live to get home 
again I want to find you there & well, otherwise it will be no 
home to me. I have been very busy to-day. We drew our months 
supply of clothing & issued it out this afternoon, which took some 
hard labor but I am through with it & though tired am well. I 
was able to eat a hearty supper, composed of what I have often 
heard you talk about, Viz, fresh herrings. Fresh fish are abundant 
here now. This is the fishing season & the North Carolina coast 
has long been celebrated for its fisheries. We can get Herring, 
shad, Perch, trout & a number of other kinds & the supply is so 
abundant that they are very cheap, & form a great addition to 
the army ration. We are expecting orders to leave this place every 
day. We expect to go to Plymouth on the Roanoak river. 11 It is 
said to be a very healthy place. I expect that we shall be stationed 
there for some time unless the rebels drive us out, or the army 
of Virginia drive the rebels south. The future alone can tell. 
We have any amount of wet weather here & thunder & lightning. 
The health of the troops here is generally good. I attended divine 
service last sabbath & heard an excellent sermon from Heb 11 
& 1st by Revd A L Stone. 12 In the forenoon the funeral of the 

11 The One Hundred and First Regiment remained at New Bern until 
May 2 when it boarded a steamer for Plymouth, sixty-eight miles north of 
New Bern and eight miles from the head of the Albemarle Sound on the 
Roanoke River. The One Hundred and First Regiment was to remain at 
Plymouth until April 20, 1864, when it was to be dislodged by the Confed- 
erates. Service at Plymouth consisted of routine camp duty, picket duty, 
building defenses, and making raids around Plymouth and into the hinter- 
land via the Roanoke, Chowan, Elizabeth, and Alligator rivers — all tribu- 
tary to Albemarle Sound. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 29, 37. 

12 "Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things 
not seen." 

214 The North Carolina Historical Review 

surgeon of the 44th Regt Mass Vols was celebrated. 13 He died up 
at Little Washington while the rebels were besieging the place. 
The officiating preacher took suddenly ill while in the first Prayer 
& being unable to preach the congregation were dismissed — such 
is the uncertainty of health, strength & life. I pray that I may 
so number my days that I shall apply my heart unto wisdom. 
The Regt came back yesterday morning. 14 They have been at 
Washington. They had a hard march, but returned well. It is 
raining hard. I must close for this time. Let me hear from you 
soon, give my love to all. 

your Son etc E N Boots 
Com "H" 101st Reg P.V. 
Newbern N Carolina 

I almost forgot to say that the cigars 
came all right & received a very warm welcome 
Mrs. Sylvia Boots. 

Q M Dep Plymouth N.C. 

Night May 29th [1863] 
Dear Mother 

The steamer "Massasoit" arrived this evening & brought a 
mail among which was your welcome letter of May 11th & 17th. 
I cannot tell you how glad your letter made me. It told me of all 
of you at home & it also told me of William, that he was safe. I 
knew that his Regt had suffered severely & I feared that he was 
among the killed, wounded, missing or prisoners : but your letter 
gives me the glad news that he is safe & I feel satisfied. 15 It is 
true that I wish that the battle had been more fruitful in results, 
but as it was not we must "bide our time". The right will triumph 
in the end. "The Lord God omnipotent raineth". "He doeth all 
things well" I am glad that you are still able to get out to church. 
I hope that the boys are always willing to drive the buggy for 
you. I do not think that it is safe for you to drive Jenny. ... I 
attend church some but there is but one Chaplain here & he 
is so poor a preacher that it is painful for me to listen to him. 
I generally read a good deal on sabbaths if I am not on duty, 
& I hope to have my sabbath generally to myself, but there is 
really but little sabbath in the army. Sabbath is a sort of holyday 
[sic], spent by the greater part in foolishness & very often in 

13 See footnote 4, page 208, above. 

14 The troops returned to New Bern on April 25, and not on April 27, as 
suggested by Boots. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 29. Boots prob- 
ably misdated this particular letter. 

15 This reference is to Boots' older brother, William. To what regiment 
the latter was attached, the editor cannot determine. The reference is 
probably to Joe Hooker's defeat at Chancellorsville on May 4, 1863, when 
the North lost 16,792 men and the South 12,764 men. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 215 

wickedness. The weather here is very warm, fully as warm as 
July in Penna. I saw rye out in head a week ago. Onions are 
nearly out of season & they are altogether out of price. A small 
handfull is 10 cts & they are very scarce at that. Lettuce is 5 
cts a stalk & scarce. Eggs 30 cts per doz & scarce. But I get 
along very well[.] I spend considerably of money, but I think 
that I do not spend any foolishly except what I spend for tobacco, 
& that is considerable. I wish that you would make me a good 
callico shirt & send it to me by mail as you did the . . . one last 
winter. Make it without a collar, but put a button on the back 
of the band, put two pockets in it, not so large nor in the same 
manner as in the one last winter. Let the shirt form one side of 
the Pocket, sowing a piece to it. Let a box plait run down the 
middle of the front but do not put any other plaits in it. if you 
can send me this you will do me a great favor. Let me know as 
soon as possible. I am needing a shirt very bad & cannot get one 
here, give my love to all. write often. 

your son etc E N Boots 
Q. M. Dep. 
101st Reg P. V. 
Newbern N. C. 

I kneed not tell you any thing about Ed. he will answer for 
himself. I send you a rose that I have pressed. There are many 
& most beautiful varieties of the rose here. They have one variety 
of a bright green color. If I can get one I will press it & send 
it to you. 

Plymouth N C June 21st [1863] 
Dear Mother. 

It is now 8 O'clock A.M. & the mail leaves at 10 O'clock AM So 
I have not much time but I will scribble a line or two to you in 
answer to yours of the 19th, which I have received. It was a very 
interesting letter to me, for it told me about you all & about 
old friends that I would like to see again & it was also the only 
letter that I have received from home for a long time. I am very 
well. We have pleasant weather. A Thunder storm every two or 
three days. We had a very heavy one last night, accompanied by 
a very strong wind. It made my tent careen, but I sat still, 
smoked my cigar & read "Les miserables". everything looks 
pleasant this morning. We are in a great confusion just now, as 
an [sic] of our Com. "A" leaves us this morning for Roanoak 
Island. 16 They are to be stationed there in place of the Nine month 
Mass Vols who are just about leaving for home. All the real 

18 Company "A" was not detached from the Regiment until June 27 when 
it was sent to Roanoke Island. Reed, History of the 101 Regiment, 30. 

216 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tug of war falls on the three year men. I must close this short 
note, my love to all 

your Son etc E N Boots 
Q M Dep 
101st Reg P. V. 
Newbern N. C. 
Mrs. Sylvia Boots 

Plymouth N. C. Sep 8th [1863] 
Dear Mother 

A mail arrived last night but it brought no letters from home. 
The letters from home are such a long distance between. I know 
that you have a great deal to do, but I do want a letter from you 
so bad. Do try & write me one soon, if it is only a few lines. 
My health is getting pretty good again & I hope that I am clear 
of the fever: I think that I ought to be, for I have had four 
attacks this Summer, but I have not been as bad as some of the 
others. The weather has become much cooler. This morning there 
was a heavy fog. So heavy that when I went to put on my socks 
I found them quite damp. We have been having preaching every 
night for some days by McGraves an agent of the Christian 
commission. He is a pretty good old fashioned preacher. It is 
a great pleasure to listen to an old fashioned sermon once more. 
We have a Bible class that meets every sabbath. I have attended 
several times & have found it very pleasant. The teacher is a 
Sergeant of the Artillery. Last sabbath a boy came into the class 
that I had never seen before. Last night he was at church, after 
service he came up to me & introduced himself saying that he 
wished to become acquainted with me. He said that he belonged 
to the cavalry & that they were such a wicked set that he had no 
pleasure with them. I told him who I was & asked him to call 
on me. He appears like a gentle boy, not unlike Ezra Hazen in 
appearance. His is a hard lot, for the cavalry are a terribly rough 
set. I begin to think that there is some possibility of the war 
ending after awhile & then I hope to see you all once more. I 
pray that Our heavenly Father may preserve you all & bless you 
in body & soul. I have been in the army almost two years now 
& I know that vast changes have taken place since then both in 
the country at large & in my old neighborhood. Many that I 
once knew have passed away from earth, to a better country 
let us hope. All these things say "Be ye also ready". Let us try 
to be ready so that when the summons comes we can say that 
we were "only waiting." May God bless you all. I received letters 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 217 

from G W Dennis, & Will a short time ago. They were well. Give 
my love to all. 

your son etc 

E N Boots 

Q. M. Dept 

101st Reg P. V. 

Newbern N. C. 
Mrs. Sylvia. Boots. 

Plymouth N. C. Sep 19th [1863] 
Dear Mother. 

Yours of Aug 28th reached me a few days ago & found me 
sick in bed, so sick that if the letter had not been from you I 
should have put off reading it until I got better, but as it was 
from you I made an effort & raised myself of my elbow & read 
the letter. I have had another attack of this wretched swamp 
fever & a hard one, but thanks to Our Heavenly Father I am 
rappidly getting better. I should have loved to have been with 
you at the sacramental meeting at Concord, but though I was 
not there I feel sure that prayers ascended there for me. We have 
but little preaching here. There is no encouragement. Officers 
instead of standing on that side stand on the other, & give all 
their influence to evil. I do not mean that all do this, but a 
majority do. I am glad that you have got a new stove. You 
should have had one long ago. As cold weather is coming on, 
It will soon be time for all that can to begin their studies. I hope 
that you will impress it upon them that now is the time for them 
to improve. Only make them good scholars & you will leave them 
a better fortune than all the gold of earth would be. Educated 
men & women do not often become very bad ones. Self respect 
will not let them sink. ! how I pity William because he is not 
a better scholar. He loved to recite & yet writing a letter is a 
hard job for him. McDan[n]el 17 has brought my socks all right; 
they are very good ones but I fear that it is getting too late 
in the season to wear them. I wish you to write me what they 
cost & what the shirt cost. We have just had three days of rain, 
thunder, & lightning, & to-day we have a cold rain which make 
[s] our tents very wet & uncomfortable. There is still much sick- 
ness in the Regt but I think that it is on the decrease. I begin 
to think that the south will have to give in. This state would 
come back into the Union at once if she could only get her troops 
home, but "Jeff Davis" very carefully keeps them away to help 

17 Sergeant John McDannel (Company "H") was mustered into the 
service on October 29, 1861. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 105. 

218 The North Carolina Historical Review 

fight his battles. 18 God grant that peace may soon reign once 
more. God bless & keep you all. Give my love to all. 

your affectionate Son 
E N Boot 
Q. M. Dep. 
101st Reg P. V. 

N. C. 
Mrs. Sylvia Boots 

Plymouth N. C. Oct 11th [1863] 
Dear Mother 

Yours of September 30th arrived & found me in the enjoyment 
of that great blessing good health, for which I desire to feel 
thankful to the giver of all good. Your letter was a great 
pleasure to me. I should be glad to get one from you every day, 
but as that is impossible I will try to be satisfied with one from 
you every week. I am glad to hear that you still get to attend 
preaching. It is a great privilege ; I know that I should be happy 
to enjoy it with you. We are altogether destitute of any preacher 
at this post & I know not when we shall have one. Prayermeetings 
are still carried on to some extent. I believe that the sabbath 
school has entirely ceased. I had a very pleasant visit to Roanoke 
Island last week, but I have wrote about it to Horace & Dan. 19 
I came back to Plymouth on last Saturday evening. It was all 
the recreation that I have had this summer except a few rides 
with Lt Col Taylor. 20 The sickness in the Regt seems to be on 
the decrease for which we ought to all feel thankful. We have 
been among diseases constantly for many months. That so many 
of our lives have been spared is a great mercy. In the 85th N. 
Y. Reg the sickness is still very bad — they had two hundred 
& forty sick one day this week. The deaths, comparatively speak- 
ing have been few, yet many fresh graves have been dug since 
we came to Plymouth. The greater part have been buried at 
the graveyard attached to a new Episcopal Church [.] (It was 
being built when the war broke out, was left unfinished). The 
Post Quartermaster is now having the grave-yard fenced, which 
is a good thing as it was open to Horses, mules, cattle, & every 

18 Boots' view with respect to North Carolina was premature. The Confed- 
eracy was laying plans to recover positions held by the Federals along 
the Carolina coast. It was not until Sherman began his famous march that 
the South began losing her will to continue resistance. 

19 Both Horace and Dan were brothers of Edward Nicholas Boots. Dan, 
the father of Sylvia Boots Hassler, was born in 1848 and was one of the 
youngest of the Boots' family. 

20 Lieutenant-Colonel Alex. W. Taylor of Company "H" is listed on the 
Field and Staff of the Roster of the One Hundred and First Pennsylvania 
Regiment. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 87, 105. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 219 

other thing that could abuse it. A church has existed before on 
the spot where the new one now stands. The inscriptions on the 
tombs date many years back. One especially I often look at [was] 
erected to the memory of Louis Picot a native of sunny France, 
sleeping his last sleep on the marshy banks of the Roanoke. Like 
the soldier, he sleeps far from the land of his birth [.] A 
body of rebel troops are within a few miles of us putting in force 
the rebel conscription act. 21 The result of it is, that we are 
crowded with refugees coming within our lines to escape it. 
black as well as white are flying, [sic] The Steamer Massasoit 
took a boat load of black refugees from Edenton to Roanoke 
Island last week. They are safe there. I have seen numbers of the 
white refugees & I can hardly say that I have seen a good looking 
man among them. The majority have dark hair, sallow com- 
plexions, high cheek bones, long visages, a treacherous looking 
eye, a shuffling sort of a walk & almost any other ugly look that 
you can think of, but I am glad that we are able to afford them 
protection from the rebel despotism. It appears to be generally 
supposed that we are to stay here for the winter. 22 Winter 
quarters are being built here very fast. We shall soon have a 
small town of log huts. I think that you are doing right in 
buying that farm, but before you buy, be sure to find out all 
the claims that can come against it. You will no-doubt have 
to be very economical for a while to enable you to pay for it, 
but I think that you will be able to get through with it. You 
can use my money. 

your Son etc E N Boots 
Q. M. Dept 
101st Reg P. V. 
Newbern N. C. 
P. S. I will answer Sylvia's letter soon. It is thundering & rain- 
ing hard to day. 
Mrs. Sylvia Boots ENB 

Plymouth N. C. 

Tuesday afternoon March 8th 1864 
Dear Brother. 

In looking over my unanswered letters this afternoon I found 
a letter from you dated Feb. 9th. Whether I have answered it 

21 The first conscription act of the South (April 16, 1862) drafted all 
white men from eighteen to thirty-five. The second conscription act (Sep- 
tember 27, 1862) extended the age from thirty-five to forty-five, but at 
first only those of forty or under were enrolled. However, after Gettysburg 
and Vicksburg (July 4, 1863) President Davis ordered all of those from 
forty to forty-five drafted. James Ford Rhodes, History of the Civil War, 
1861-1865 (New York, The MacMillan Company, 1923), 382. 

22 Boots' assumption was correct. The Regiment remained at Plymouth 
until it was captured by the Confederates on April 20, 1864. 

220 The North Carolina Historical Review 

or not I am not certain & for fear that I have not I will write. 
I would sooner answer each letter that I get from home twice 
than miss answering one. Letters from home have been a very- 
scarce article with me for a long time. I think that they now 
average about one a month & I am expecting for them to stop 
altogether. If such becomes the case I shall have to submit for 
I cannot make any of you write if you do not wish to do so. 
I am enjoying very good health & this is a beautiful afternoon, 
warm & comfortable, but at present Plymouth is a very lonely 
place to me. The Regt left on last Friday morning for Newbern 
I believe, but what object they were ordered there for neither 
they nor anybody else here knows. 23 Either the QM or I had 
to stay behind & he concluded to go so I had to stay. Two Regts 
went from here, the 101st P. V. & the 16th Conn. Vols. It is 
said that Newberne is threatened again by the rebels. But I 
know nothing positive. Their going away has left this place 
in a rather defenceless condition. There are not over eight hun- 
dred troops here now, & a considerable part of them are North 
Carolinaans, [sic] & how much they can be depended [on] we 
do not yet know. A deserter came in yesterday. Says he came 
from Goldsborough & that there are but two rebel troops in the 
state. Don't believe him as all the news that we have had for 
the past month shows that the rebels have been concentrating a 
force in this state. 24 Probably he was sent in to deceive us in 
hopes that we would relax our vigilance & become an easy prey to 
the rebels. If such was the object it wont [sic'] work. We are 
prepared night & day to do all that our numbers will permit to- 
wards defending this place. If you ever have been left at home 
when all the rest have gone away, you can have an idea of how 
solitary this place is now that the Regt is absent. If they do 
not come back I expect a large & troublesome job in moving 
all the baggage up to them. They went in light marching order, 
everything of the baggage kind was left behind. I expected to 
be at home long before this time & we had pretty good reasons 
for believing that we should start this week, but it is all knocked 
in the head now. 25 In fact I have not the least idea when we shall 
go. The gunboat Bombshell had a narrow escape last week. She 

23 At the first reunion of the One Hundred and First Regimental Asso- 
ciation at Leechburg, Pennsylvania on September 10, 1879, Alexander W. 
Taylor referred to this episode at which time an attack on New Bern was 
expected when General G. E. Pickett, commanding the Confederate De- 
partment, sent a force to threaten New Bern. Reed, History of the 101st 
Regiment, 80. 

24 Boots' appraisal of the situation was accurate. 

25 As nearly all of the men of the One Hundred and First Regiment had 
reenlisted, they were momentarily expecting a thirty days' furlough as a 
part of their contract for veteranizing. Reed, History of the 101st Regi- 
ment, 37. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 221 

went up the Chowan river & while she was gone the rebels got 
below her and planted a battery upon the river bank. The rebels 
thought that they had her safe enough. They sent a flag of truce 
& demanded her surrender. But Brinkerhoff her commander 
could not see the propriety of such a proceeding, he refused & 
kept up the river out of the reach of the rebel guns. The next 
day the gunboats Southfield & Whitehead went to his assistance. 
They arrived at the rebel battery just before dark & were warmly 
received. A few shots were exchanged, but night coming on both 
sides quieted down. In the morning the gunboats opened in earn- 
est & the rebels left. The Southfield bursted her hundred pounder 
& its fragments wounded two men. No other damage received. 
The Bombshell is quite famous since her escape. Harry Brinker- 
hoff her commander is considered a brave man. He is a German 
& is most terribly wicked. 

Wednesday morning March 9th A boat has arrived but has 
brought no letters for me. The Regt went to Newbern, got on 
to another boat & immediately came back to Roanoak Island, 
where they now are. Reports say that the rebels are threatening 
this part of the state & I suppose that is the reason that the 
Regt has been sent to Roanoak. What will turn up time alone can 
tell. This is a beautiful morning, about like a May morning in 
Penna., But though it is so warm & pleasant I would be willing 
to exchange it for Pennes [sic] frozen hills for a little while 
anyway & I rather guess that I would be willing to let the ex- 
change remain for good & all. We have been having quite a 
number of thunder storms lately. Last night when I went to 
bed it was lightning rappidly in the south. There is considerable 
sickness here still. The fever & ague still continues in force. 
I had something of a chill last night. The first that I have had 
for five months, but I think that I have stopped it I took 10 
grains of quinine before I went to bed. I feel pretty well this 
morning. We have 2 companies of the 2 d Regt Mass. heavy 
artillery here now. They are a hard set. Nearly all foreigners. 
Came out for the large bounties. A great many of them have 
been sick since they came here. It is amusing to hear some of 
them that are Irish talk about their enlistment. They will say 
"Only sax wakes in this country & enlisted in the Massachusetts 
waty 26 artillery" I must close for this time. Give my love to all — 
good by 

Your brother etc E N Boots 
Q. M. Dept 

Mr. Horace A Boots 101st Re ^ P - V - 

Newbern N C 

28 Brogue for "weighty" or "Heavy" Artillery. 

222 The North Carolina Historical Review 

[Written on the back of this letter is the following note:] 

I enclose you a rebel stamp, if I ever should be so unfortunate 
as to be taken prisoner you can send me a letter & this stamp 
will pay the rebel postage 

Plymouth N. C. 

March 30th 1864 
Dear Sister 

Your kind letter has been on hand almost two weeks & should 
have been answered sooner but various circumstances have 
prevented, among which has been the absence of the Regt at 
Newbern & Roanoak Island, but it is back now. Yet I have but 
little time for writing letters. I am busy from morning till night 
& often late into the night. After being let alone for five months 
the ague & fever has again attacked me. I had a severe shake fol- 
lowed by a strong fever on last friday. I am getting better but 
am far from well yet. We are making preperations for receiving 
a visit from a ram that the rebels have built up the river. 27 Old 
vesels are being S'ink in the channel above this place. Also a 
few large torpedoes & besides all these a one hundred pounder 
& a two hundred pounder are so placed that they can play upon 
it the moment it comes in sight. So you can see we think our- 
selves in a fit state to receive the rebel sheep whenever it chooses 
to honor us with a visit. We are still expecting to start for home 
soon. It may be in a week, it may not be for months. So do not 
feel disappointed that I do not come. I well know that I would 
start any hour for the sake of a visit to my old home, but it 
may not be till the order comes. We have been having some very 
rough weather lately very much like Pennsylvania weather. 

27 As early as the summer of 1863, there had been rumors that the Con- 
federates were building a formidable ironclad, the "Albemarle," at Edwards 
Ferry on the upper Roanoke River. Only General Wessels had taken this 
news seriously, but Lieutenant-Commander Charles W. Flusser, commanding 
naval operations in the waters of North Carolina, felt confident that he 
could sink any vessels which the Confederates could bring against him. 
The approach to Plymouth from the up river was commanded by Fort 
Gray, a well-defended position. Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 36. 
For an excellent account of the Battle of Plymouth and particularly the 
role played by the One Hundred and First Regiment in this battle, see 
Reed, History of the 101st Regiment, 123-138. 

When General Hoke attacked Plymouth he was aided by the "Albemarle" 
which disabled and captured the "Bombshell." After running by Fort 
Warren, an outpost a short distance up the river, the "Albemarle" sank 
the "Southfield" and then turned upon the "Miami," which she drove down 
the river; Captain Flusser was killed in this engagement. Following this 
the "Albemarle" turned her thirty-two pounder rifled guns upon Plymouth 
while Hoke was charging Fort Wessels. 

Civil War Letters of E. N. Boots 


I received a letter from Sylvia last night. She says that mother 
is unwell, besure [sic] that you do all that you can for her & 
above all do it kindly. You will never be sorry that you were 
kind to mother. I must bid you good by now. Give my love to 
all. do write often. 

yours truly E N Boots 

Q. M. Dept 101st Legt PV. 

Newbern N. C. 
Miss L Emma Boots 

Camp Sumpter 

Andersonville Georgia June 23 [1864] 
Dear Mother 

I wrote to you from Hamilton N. C. Just after I was captured. 
I hope that you received it. I am enjoying pretty good health 
for which I feel thankful to our Heavenly Father. I want to 
hear from you. Let me know how you all are, especially let me 
hear of William, you need not write anything except how you 
all are. I hope that an exchange will soon take place. My love 
to all. 

yours truly E. N. Boots 
Andersonvill [e] Ga. 
Via Ft Monroe 
& Flag of truce boat 
Prisoner of war 
[On reverse side] 
Direct as on other side. Write as soon as you receive this. 28 

t w A three cent United States postage stamp was affixed to the reverse 
side of this letter. The envelope bore a ten cent postage stamp issued by the 
Confederate States of America. The censor's mark read "Ex d H. W." In the 
lower left corner of the envelope was stamped the postmark of Old Point 
Comfort dated, strangely enough, Jan. 18. 


By William S. Powell* 

Bibliography and Libraries 

Adams, Charles Marshall. Randall Jarrell, a bibliography. 

Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1958. 72 p. 

Cumming, William Patterson. The Southeast in early maps. 

Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1958. 275 p. $12.50. 
Powell, William Stevens, editor. North Carolina fiction, 

1734-1957, an annotated bibliography. Chapel Hill, University 

of North Carolina Library, 1958. 189 p. $3.00 cloth; $1.50 


Philosophy and Religion 

Charlton, David W. By these things men live. New York, 
Greenwich Book Publishers, 1957. 63 p. $2.00. 

Cushman, Robert Earl. Therapeia: Plato's conception of 
philosophy. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 
1958. 322 p. $6.00. 

Dicks, Russell Leslie. Meet Joe Ross. New York, Abingdon 
Press, 1957. 159 p. $2.50. 

Hamlin, Griffith A. Old Testament, its intent and content. 
Boston, Christopher Publishing House, 1958. 113 p. $2.50. 

Martin, Thomas L. Churches of Davie County, North Caro- 
lina [Charlotte?, 1957] 68 p. $6.00. 

Redhead, John A. Letting God help you. New York, Abing- 
don Press, 1957. 125 p. $2.00. 

Rhine, Joseph Banks. Parapsychology, frontier science of the 
mind. Springfield, 111., Thomas, 1957. 220 p. $4.75. 

Ware, Charles Crossfield. Kentucky's Fox Creek. Wilson, 
[Author ?], 1957. 70 p. $2.50. 

Economics and Sociology 

Andrews, Silas Milton. Mister Andrews' school, 1837-1842. 
Doylestown, Pa., Bucks County Historical Society, 1958. 126 p. 

1 Books dealing with North Carolina or by North Carolinians published 
during the year ending June 30, 1958. 

* Mr. William S. Powell is Librarian of the North Carolina Collection, 
University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill. 


North Carolina Bibliography 225 

Ashby, Lowell DeWitt. Linear difference equations and ap- 
plications to economic theory, by Lowell D. Ashby and W. 
Allen Spivey. Chapel Hill, School of Business Administration, 
University of North Carolina, 1957. 122 p. $2.25. 

Boykin, James H. The Negro in North Carolina prior to 1861. 
New York, Pageant Press, 1958. 84 p. $3.00. 

Canada, John William. Andrew Johnson: the fourteenth 
amendment then and now. La Porte, Texas, [Author ?] , 1957. 
60 p. $ .75. 

Credle, Ellis. Tall tales from the high hills, and other stories. 
New York, Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1957. 156 p. $2.75. 

Dedmond, Francis B. Lengthened shadows, a history of 
Gardner-Webb College, 1907-1956. Boiling Springs, Gardner- 
Webb College, 1957. 219 p. $3.00. 

Dykeman, Wilma. Neither black nor white, by Wilma Dyke- 
man and James Stokely. New York, Rinehart, 1957. 371 p. 

Flanagan, John Theodore. Folklore in American literature, 
edited by John T. Flanagan and Arthur Palmer Hudson. Evan. 
ston, 111., Row, Peterson, 1958. 511 p. $7.00. 

Gee, Mary Wilson. Yes, ma'am, Miss Gee, by Mary Wilson 
Gee, with LeGette Blythe. Charlotte, Heritage House, 1957. 
220 p. $3.75. 

Johnson, Gerald White. Peril and promise, an inquiry into 
freedom of the press. New York, Harper, 1958. 110 p. $2.75. 

Keith-Lucas, Alan. Decisions about people in need, a study 
of administrative responsiveness in public assistance. Chapel 
Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1957. 318 p. $6.00. 

Some casework concepts for the public welfare 

worker. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1957. 
58 p. $1.00. 

Pope, Liston. The kingdom beyond caste. New York, Friend- 
ship Press, 1957. 170 p. $3.00. 

Rutledge, Archibald Hamilton. From the hills to the sea, 
fact and legend of the Carolinas. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 
1958. 201 p. $4.50. 

Schinhan, Jan Philip, editor. The music of the ballads. (Vol. 
IV in The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folk- 
lore) Durham, Duke University Press, 1957. 420 p. $7.50. 

Wellman, Manly Wade. Fastest on the river, the great race 
between the "Natchez" and the "Robert E. Lee." New York, 
Holt, 1957. 234 p. $3.95. 

Woofter, Thomas Jackson. Southern race progress, the 
wavering color line. Washington, Public Affairs Press, 1957. 
180 p. $3.50. 

226 The North Carolina Historical Review 


Rounds, Glen. Swamp life. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice- 
Hall, 1957. 117 p. $3.00. 

Applied Science and Useful Arts 

Blanchard, Elizabeth Amis Cameron. The life and times of 
Sir Archie, by Elizabeth Amis Cameron Blanchard and Manly- 
Wade Wellman. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina 
Press, 1958. 232 p. $5.00. 

Hoffmann, Margaret Jones. Sew far, sew good ! New York, 
Dutton, 1958. 125 p. $3.75. 

Sparks, Elizabeth Hedgecock. Menu maker and party plan- 
ner. Kernersville, [Author ?] , 1957. 292 p. 

Fine Arts 

Fletcher, Beale. How to improve your tap dancing. New 
York, A. S. Barnes, 1957. 120 p. $3.75. 

Morgan, Lucy. Gift from the hills, Miss Lucy Morgan's story 
of her unique Penland School, with LeGette Blythe. Indianapo- 
lis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1958. 314 p. $5.00. 

Selden, Samuel. Man in his theatre. Chapel Hill, University 
of North Carolina Press, 1957. 113 p. $3.00. 

Southern Highland Handicraft Guild. Crafts in the South- 
ern Highlands. Asheville, [The Guild?], 1958. 48 p. $1.00. 

Green, Paul Eliot. Drama and the weather. New York, 
Samuel French, Inc., 1958. 220 p. $3.00. 

Valentiner, Wilhelm Reinhold. Rembrandt and Spinoza, a 
study of the spiritual conflicts in seventeenth-century Holland. 
London, Phaidon Press, 1957. 86 p. $4.75. 


Bartlett, Paul. Moods and memories. 2 Charlotte, Heritage 
House, 1957. 55 p. $2.00. 

Erskine, Edith Deaderick. The millions climb. Emory Uni- 
versity, Ga., Banner Press, 1958. 72 p. 

Hart, Wyche Reiter. The golden falcon. New York, Vantage 
Press, 1958. 46 p. $2.00. 

Hauenstein, John Calvin. Poems of renewal. New York, Ex- 
position Press, 1958. 94 p. $3.00. 

King, Milton Wynn. Anvil knells. New York, Greenwich 
Book Publishers, 1957. 33 p. $2.00. 

2 Winner of the Roanoke-Chowan Award for poetry, 1958. 

North Carolina Bibliography 227 

Marks, Johnnie Lee Stewart. Peep holes. New York, Green- 
wich Book Publishers, 1957. 31 p. $2.00. 

Sledd, Benjamin. A young man's visions, an old man's 
dreams. Riverdale, Calif., Holt Publishing Co., 1957. Ill p. 

Winstead, Opal. Daughter of Saul, and other poems. Charlotte, 
Heritage House, 1958. 51 p. $2.00. 


Frings, Ketti. Look homeward, angel, a play based on the 
novel by Thomas Wolfe. New York, Scribner, 1958. 186 p. 

Fiction 9 

Banning, Margaret Culkin. The convert. New York, Harper, 

1957. 310 p. $3.95. 

Bowen, Robert A. Tall in the sight of God. Winston-Salem, 

John F. Blair, 1958. 372 p c $4.95. 
Burgess, Jackson. Pillar of cloud. New York, Putnam, 1957. 

254 p. $3.95. 
Carroll, Ruth Robinson. Tough Enough's pony, by Ruth and 

Latrobe Carroll. New York, Oxford University Press, 1957. 

64 p. $2.75. 
Fletcher, Inglis Clark. The wind in the forest. Indianapolis, 

Bobbs-Merrill, 1957. 448 p. $3.95. 
Floyd, Hal. The eye of a gentle night. New York, Vantage 

Press, 1958, 168 p. $3.50. 
Forbus, Ina B. The secret circle. 4 New York, Viking Press, 

1958. 160 p. $2.50. 

Fox, Laura Billings. The whangdoodles' songs. New York, 

Vantage Press, 1957. 174 p. $3.00. 
Harris, Gray. Dawn at midnight. New York, Vantage Press, 

1958. 244 p. $3.75. 
Henderson, Le Grand. How baseball began in Brooklyn, by 

Le Grand. New York, Abingdon, 1958. 58 p. $2.00. 
Henderson, Walter P. Down to seven. New York, Vantage 

Press, 1957. 204 p. $3.00. 
Jernigan, Muriel Molland. The two lives of An-Marie. New 

York, Crown Publishers, 1957. 248 p. $3.50. 
Johnson, James Ralph. Big Cypress buck. Chicago, Follett 

Publishing Company, 1957. 128 p. $2.75. 
Kane, Harnett Thomas. The gallant Mrs. Stonewall. Garden 

City, N. Y., Doubleday, 1957. 320 p. $3.95. 

8 By a North Carolinian or with the scene laid in North Carolina. 
* Winner of the AAUW Award for juvenile literature, 1958. 

228 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Landing, W. Frank. War cry of the South. New York, Expo- 
sition Press, 1958. 110 p. $3.00. 

Long, Nina Payne. My talking parakeet. New York, Pageant 
Press, 1958. 58 p. $2.00. 

Meadowcroft, Enid La Monte. Holding the fort with Daniel 
Boone. New York, Crowell, 1958. 147 p. $2.75. 

Morris, Donald R. Warm bodies. New York, Simon and Schus- 
ter, 1957. 204 p. $3.50. 

Price, Olive M. Snifty. Philadelphia, Westminster Press, 1957. 
157 p. $2.75. 

Rounds, Glen. Whitey & the wild horse. New York, Holiday 
House, 1958. 90 p. $2.75. 

Ruark, Robert Chester. The Old Man and the boy. New York, 
Holt, 1957. 303 p. $4.95. 

Russell, Nellie Holland. The bonnie New World. New York, 
Exposition Press, 1957. 241 p. $3.50. 

Slaughter, Frank Gill. Daybreak. Garden City, N. Y., 
Doubleday, 1958. 320 p. $3.95. 

The golden ones, a novel by C. V. Terry. Garden 

City, N. Y., Hanover House, 1957. 285 p. $3.75. 

The mapmaker. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 

1957. 320 p. $3.95. 
Smith, Betty. Maggie-Now. 5 New York, Harper, 1958. 437 p. 

Spratt, Barnett. Toppy and the circuit rider. New York, 

Abingdon Press, 1957. 127 p. $1.75. 
Steele, William O. Daniel Boone's echo. New York, Harcourt, 

Brace, 1957. 78 p. $2.50. 
Stevenson, Augusta. Virginia Dare, mystery girl. Indianap- 
olis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1958. 192 p. $1.95. 
Tracy, Don. On the midnight tide. New York, Dial Press, 1957. 

369 p. $3.95. 
Turner, William O. War country. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 

1957. 172 p. $2.75. 
Wellman, Manly Wade. Lights over Skeleton Ridge. New 

York, Ives Washburn, 1957. 180 p. $2.75. 

Literature, Other Than Poetry, Drama, or Fiction 

Golden, Harry Lewis. Only in America. Cleveland, World 

Publishing Company, 1958. 317 p. $4.00. 
Peace, Samuel Thomas. Me an' ole Kate, and other Christmas 

stories. New York, Vantage Press, 1957. 82 p. $2.50. 

5 Winner of the Sir Walter Raleigh Award for fiction, 1958. 

North Carolina Bibliography 229 

Sandburg, Carl. The Sandburg range. New York, Harcourt, 

Brace, 1957. 459 p. $6.00. 
Winner, Thomas G. The oral art and literature of the Kazakhs 

of Russian Central Asia. Durham, Duke University Press, 

1958. 269 p. $6.00. 


Akers, William Reed. Our kinsfolk. Booneville, Miss., Milwick 

Printing Company, 1957. 114 p. $5.00. 
Bass, Cora. Abstracts of Sampson County, North Carolina, 

wills, 1784-1895. Clinton, Bass Publishing Company, 1958. 

175 p. $10.00. 
Hook, James William. George Michael Eller and descendants 

of his in America. New Haven, Conn., [Author?], 1957. 485 p. 
McCullough, Rose Chambers. Yesterday when it is past. 

Richmond, William Byrd Press, Inc., 1957. 403 p. 
McPherson, Lewin Dwinell. Calhoun, Hamilton, Baskin and 

related families. [Tampa, Fla., Author?], 1957. 447 p. $10.00. 
Matthews, Ella Reed. The genealogy of Henry and Nancy 

Foster Stevens. Asheville, Stephens Press, 1957. 70 p. 
Parker, William Alderman. Aldermans in America. Raleigh, 

Edwards & Broughton Company, 1957. 714 p. $15.00. 

History and Travel 

Alden, John Richard. The South in the Revolution, 1763- 
1789. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1957. 
442 p. $7.50. 

Bass, Cora. Sampson County Yearbook, 1956-1957. Clinton, 
Bass Publishing Company, 1957. 156 p. $3.00. 

Carse, Robert. Blockade, the Civil War at sea. New York, 
Rinehart, 1958. 279 p. $5.00. 

Catlin, George Edward Gordon. On political goals. New York, 
St. Martin's Press, 1957. 150 p. $2.75. 

Cunningham, Horace Herndon. Doctors in gray, the Con- 
federate medical service. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Press, 1958. 338 p. $6.00. 

Daniels, Jonathan Worth. Prince of carpetbaggers. Phila- 
delphia, Lippincott, 1958. 319 p. $4.95. 

Floan, Howard Russell. The South in Northern eyes, 1831- 
1861. Austin, University of Texas Press, 1958. 198 p. $3.95. 

Lambeth, Mary Weeks. Memories and records of eastern 
North Carolina. [Nashville, Tenn.?, Author?, 1957]. 252 p. 

Lefler, Hugh Talmage. Colonial America, by Oscar Theodore 
Barck, Jr., and Hugh Talmage Lefler. New York, Macmillan, 
1958. 767 p. $7.50. 

230 The North Carolina Historical Review 

McKoy, Henry Bacon. Wilmington, N. C, do you remember 
when? Greenville, S. C, [Author?], 1957. 243 p. 

MacNeill, Ben Dixon. The Hatterasman. 6 Winston-Salem, 
John F. Blair, 1958. 276 p. $5.00. 

Merrill, James M. The rebel shore, the story of Union sea 
power in the Civil War. Boston, Little Brown, 1957. 246 p. 

Parris, John A. My mountains, my people. Asheville, Citizen- 
Times Publishing Company, 1957. 259 p. $2.95. 

Patton, Sadie Smathers. The kingdom of the Happy Land. 
Asheville, Stephens Press, 1957. 16 p. $1.00. 

Pearson, Ralph Emerson. Enroute to the redoubt. [Fort 
Bragg?, Author?], 1957. 88 p. $2.20. 

Pittard, Pen Lile. Prologue, a history of Alexander County. 
Taylorsville, Author, 1958. 67 p. $3.00. 

Powers, Mary Rebecca. Stories of two lands, Scotland and 
America. Wagram, [Author?], 1958. 82 p. 

Pugh, Jesse Forbes. Three hundred years along the Pasquo- 
tank, a biographical history of Camden County. Old Trap, 
[Author?], 1957. 249 p. $4.00. 

Rubin, Louis Decimus. The lasting South, fourteen South- 
erners look at their home, by Louis D. Rubin and James Jack- 
son Kilpatrick, editors. Chicago, H. Regnery Company, 1957. 
208 p. $5.50. 

Sharpe, William P. A new geography of North Carolina, by 
Bill Sharpe. Vol. II. Raleigh, Sharpe Publishing Company, 
1958. 1114 p. $5.00. 

Taylor, Theodore. Fire on the beaches. New York, Norton, 
1958. 248 p. $3.95. 

Van Noppen, Ina Woestemeyer. The South, a documentary 
history. Princeton, N. J., Van Nostrand, 1958. 564 p. $6.75. 

Autobiography and Biography 

Baily, Waldron. Autobiography. New York, Exposition Press, 

1958. 117 p. $3.00. 
Clarke, Desmond. Arthur Dobbs, esquire, 1689-1765. Chapel 

Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1957. 232 p. $6.00. 
Crabtree, Elizabeth Gilbert. North Carolina governors, 

1585-1958, by Beth G. Crabtree. Raleigh, State Department of 

Archives and History, 1958. 137 p. $1.50. 
Davis, Burke. Jeb Stuart, the last cavalier. New York, Rine- 

hart, 1957. 462 p. $6.00. 
Ehle, John Marsden. The survivor, the story of Eddy Hukov. 

New York, Holt, 1958. 300 p. $3.95. 

"Winner of the Mayflower Award, 1958. 

North Carolina Bibliography 231 

Gibson, John Mendinghall. Soldier in white, the life of 
General George Miller Sternberg. Durham, Duke University 
Press, 1958. 277 p. $6.75. 

Graham, William Alexander. Papers, edited by J. G. de 
Roulhac Hamilton. Vol. I. Raleigh, State Department of 
Archives and History, 1957. 555 p. $3.00. 

Holder, Rose Howell. Mclver of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, 
University of North Carolina Press, 1957. 283 p. $5.00. 

Irwin Pollock. Tar Heel in Iran. Charlotte, Heritage Print- 
ers, 1957. 104 pp. $2.75. 

Manschreck, Clyde Leonard. Melanchthon, the quiet re- 
former. New York, Abingdon Press, 1958. 350 pp. $6.00. 

Marshall, Otis. Memoirs of a G. P. New York, Vantage Press, 
1958. 155 p. $3.50. 

Mitchell, Curtis. God in the Garden, the story of the Billy 
Graham New York crusade. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, 
1957. 195 p. $2.50. 

Robinson, Blackwell Pierce. William R. Davie. Chapel Hill, 
University of North Carolina Press, 1957. 495 p. $6.00. 

Russell, Lucy Phillips. A rare pattern. Chapel Hill, Univer- 
sity of North Carolina Press, 1957. 185 p. $3.00. 

Smith, Elbert B. Magnificent Missourian, the life of Thomas 
Hart Benton. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1958. 351 p. $6.00. 

Townsend, Sara Bertha. An American soldier, the life of 
John Laurens, Raleigh, Edwards & Broughton, 1958. 266 p. 

Washburn, Willard Wyan. Brother John's Canaan in Caro- 
lina. Salisbury, Rowan Printing Company, 1958. 335 p. 

New Editions and Reprints 

Brown, Harry Bates. Cotton, by Harry Bates Brown and 
Jacob Osborn Ware. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1958. $12.00. 

Slaughter, Frank Gill. The warrior. New York, Perma- 
books, 1957. 245 p. $ .35. 

Wellman, Manly Wade. Twice in time. New York, Avalon 
Books, 1957. 222 p. $2.75. 


The Outer Banks of North Carolina. By David Stick. (Chapel 
Hill : The University of North Carolina Press. 1958. Pp. xvi, 
352. $6.00.) 

Several years ago David Stick began research for a book 
on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Along the way he 
picked up enough material on shipwrecks for his Graveyard 
of the Atlantic. Now, we have the book on the Outer Banks. 
The author's father, Frank Stick, furnished the fine illustra- 
tions for both books. 

The Outer Banks of North Carolina, 1584-1958, is an ex- 
cellent addition to the growing literature on the history of the 
Tar Heel state. All those who enjoy Carolina history will 
want to read this book. All those who go packing off to the 
beach as soon as the days get hot enough will want to take 
the book with them. The fishermen might take it along to 
read when the fish will not strike. Mr. Stick knows whereof he 
writes. He captures something of the exotic atmosphere of 
the Outer Banks, and leaves a bit of the feel of the sand and 
smell of the salt of that land. 

The first chapter gives a description of the changing nature 
of the sands, sounds, and inlets of the North Carolina coast. 
Chapter Two begins the chronological history of the Outer 
Banks with the vain attempts at settlement by Sir Walter 
Raleigh, and for many chapters we follow this story down 
to 1958. The chapters on the Civil War and Reconstruction 
are among the best in the book. The final chapter is a long 
one. In it the author takes the reader on a tour from the 
Virginia border to the inlet at Beaufort with a brief pause at 
each settlement. Modern highways now open much of this 
area to the tourist, and Mr. Stick would like for more of them 
to pay the Banks a visit. 

This reviewer has just one complaint to register. Our 
author ended his story at Beaufort Inlet. What about the 


Book Reviews 233 

lesser string of Banks that dot the coast on down to the 
South Carolina border? This book stops too soon. 

Daniel Miles McFarland. 

Atlantic Christian College, 


A Bibliography of North Carolina 1589-1956. Compiled by Mary 
Lindsay Thornton. (Chapel Hill: The University of North 
Carolina Press. 1958. Pp. viii, 597. Index. $7.50.) 

The North Carolina Collection of the University of North 
Carolina Library comprises by far the most complete assem- 
bly of printed North Caroliniana in existence. Almost synony- 
mous with the name of the Collection is that of Miss Mary 
Lindsay Thornton who was its Librarian from 1917 until her 
retirement in 1958. The publication under review is a tribute 
to both. 

A Bibliography of North Carolina lists more than 15,000 
titles "dealing with North Carolina and North Carolinians, 
writings of North Carolinians, and periodicals published in 
North Carolina" taken from the catalogue of the Collection. 
Miss Thornton notes that North Carolinian is defined to mean 
an author whose work has been published during his es- 
tablished residence in the State as well as a native. Federal 
and State documents, including publications of institutions 
supported by the State, newspapers, maps, manuscript theses, 
and articles appearing in periodicals are excluded. Conse- 
quently, Miss Thornton's Official Publications of the Colony 
and State of North Carolina 1749-1939: A Bibliography, pub- 
lished by the same press in 1954, will of necessity be an ac- 
companying volume to her latest compilation. 

Inasmuch as the Collection does not include every known, 
North Carolina item, the bibliography cannot be complete. 
The recent transfer of the pamphlet collection of the State 
Department of Archives and History to the North Carolina 
Collection will add to the latter's holdings, and the inde- 
fatigable William S. Powell, who succeeded Miss Thornton 
as Librarian of the Collection, will undoubtedly turn up addi- 

234 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tional items in unlikely places. But if this bibliography is not 
complete, it is nevertheless, without challenge, the most use- 
ful tool for locating printed North Caroliniana. 

By making possible this convenient bibliography in a hand- 
somely printed volume, Miss Thornton has made her vale- 
dictory to the North Carolina Collection an enduring con- 
tribution to her fellow historians. 

H. G. Jones. 

State Department of Archives and History, 


The Revolutionary Journal of Baron Ludwig von Closen, 1780- 
1783. Translated and edited with an Introduction by Evelyn 
M. Acomb. (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina 
Press, for the Institute of Early American History and Cul- 
ture, Williamsburg, Virginia. 1958. Pp. xxxvi, 392. $7.50.) 

These memoirs by General Rochambeau's young aide-de- 
camp illumine many aspects of the Franco-American team- 
work that won the American Revolution. The student of 
military history will find many details, recorded daily by 
Baron von Closen, which reveal that phase of the French 
army's and navy's vast contribution to American independ- 

In addition to his military information, von Closen offers 
a valuable look at American society from New England to 
Virginia. He admired America and the Americans; despite 
their "very easy and even free manners" and their careless 
"outward appearance," and it amazed the German-born 
Frenchman that "these same people fight with so much brav- 
ery, can support a war, and have such trained and disciplined 
troops." In another place he declared: "It is incredible that 
soldiers composed of men of every age, even of children of 
fifteen, of whites and blacks, almost naked, unpaid, and 
rather poorly fed, can march so well and withstand fire so 
steadfastly." For Washington he had the highest praise, and 
Rochambeau, in his aide's view, not only possessed high 
military talent but also "a temperament suited to the nation 

Book Reviews 235 

with which we were allied." The inquisitive and sociable 
young nobleman objected mainly to the grasping nature 
which some Americans displayed, for, he explained, they 
"occasionally do not scruple to bleed us as much as they 
can. ..." 

Von Closen, who gave the subject obvious attention in 
every place he visited, concluded that "Baltimore women 
have more charm than the rest of the fair sex in America." 

In addition to providing a full and careful introduction, 
Miss Acomb has scrupulously edited. The biographical direc- 
tory, bibliography, index, and map considerably enhance the 
book's usefulness. 

Bobert F. Durden. 

Duke University, 


The Negro in North Carolina Prior to 1861. By James H. Boy- 
kin. (New York: The Pageant Press. 1958. Pp. 84. $3.00.) 

This slender volume undertakes to treat almost every 
aspect of life among North Carolina Negroes, slave and free, 
before the Civil War. This is a large task that the author 
assigns to himself; and when one thinks of the numerous 
works that deal with the subject— by John S. Bassett, Guion 
Johnson, Bosser Taylor, the present reviewer, and numerous 
others— the literature itself becomes rather formidable. Mr. 
Boykin pays scant attention to these secondary works and, 
using primary materials exclusively, proceeds to examine the 
life and labor of Negroes in North Carolina. The author 
sought to "clear the ground of erroneous conceptions," and 
he expressed a lack of confidence in many sources based on 
statements by "uninformed, partisan, unscrupulous, careless, 
or incompetent" persons. 

These attitudes of the author suggested to the reader that 
he could expect a body of new information or some new 
interpretation. Yet, a careful reading of the volume brought 
forth neither. There are, of course, some facts and incidents 
hitherto unprinted, as far as this reviewer is aware. But they 

236 The North Carolina Historical Review 

do not add up to anything significantly new, and they do not 
contribute a new interpretation to the history of the Negro in 
North Carolina. The lesson of this volume is that where there 
is so much already written on a subject, as in the case of the 
Negro in North Carolina, a new author can do one of three 
things: he can canvass the existing literature, examine it criti- 
cally, and conclude that it needs rewriting, all or in part; he 
can take one aspect that is not thoroughly explored and work 
on that; or he can use new and existing information for the 
purpose of providing some new interpretation. One wishes 
that Mr. Boykin had chosen one of these tasks as his own. 
Now that he has expressed an interest in this engrossing field, 
perhaps he will select one of these tasks. 

John Hope Franklin. 

Brooklyn College, 

New York, New York. 

High Tide at Gettysburg. By Glenn Tucker. (Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana: Bobbs-Merrill Company. 1958. Pp. vii, 462. Foreword, 
maps, notes, bibliography, and index. $5.00.) 

High Tide at Gettysburg is a detailed but vivid account 
of the great Civil War battle of 1863. Glenn Tucker, author 
of this volume and Mayflower Award winner in 1956, sees 
Gettysburg as an engagement in which "a united generalship" 
was missing on both sides. The fighting was more by brigades 
with the tide of battle oftentimes depending on either luck 
or the individual fortitude of a subordinate commander. 
With out breaking the sequence of his story, Mr. Tucker in- 
serts interesting personality sketches of these lesser officers. 

Gettysburg has been the subject of voluminous research 
and writing through the years and the author does not main- 
tain at this late date to have uncovered any new facts. He 
merely shows without bias how the battle was fought. Of the 
factors which contributed to Lee's defeat the following ap- 
pear outstanding to Mr. Tucker: "Inadequate staff work" 
which prevented Lee from keeping his subordinates in line; 
"Failure of Ewell and Early to follow their advantage of 
July 1" which "at this stage . . . was more impressive than 

Book Reviews 237 

that won two months earlier at Chancellor sville"; "Absence 
of cavalry" which caused Lee to fight on ground not of his 
own choosing; "Failure to transfer E well's corps to the Army's 
right" for the fight on July 2; The loss of General Pender at 
a critical moment; "Ewell s failure to attack in concert with 
Longstreet" on the second day; "The capture of Lee's corre- 
spondence"; "Longstreet's attack on July 2" which, in spite of 
being unsuccessful, was in many respects delivered "at ex- 
actly the right moment"; and "Finally, the mass assault on 
July 3." 

North Carolinians will find much to interest them in this 
volume. "Tar Heel" soldiers fought courageously at Gettys- 
burg and their deeds of heroism are faithfully recorded by 
the author. 

This reviewer can find little to criticize in High Tide at 
Gettysburg other than the title itself. Defeat in this battle 
did not necessarily seal the doom of the Confederacy and 
assure ultimate victory for the Union. The nadir of Federal 
morale was yet to come in the summer of 1864. 

John G. Barrett. 

52 Maxwell Rd., 

Chapel Hill. 

Regiment Band of the Twenty-Sixth North Carolina. By Julius 
Leinbach. Edited by Donald M. McCorkle. Reprinted from 
Civil War History (September, 1958). (Winston-Salem: The 
Moravian Music Foundation, Publications No. 5. Pp. 225-236 
[16]. Index. $.40.) 

The student of Civil War history, as well as all North 
Carolinians, is in debt to the editor of Julius Leinbach's per- 
sonal account of his experience in the "Regiment Band of the 
Twenty- Sixth North Carolina." This publication though short 
gives a heroic sketch of "The Bloody Twenty-Sixth" during 
the four-day Battle of Gettysburg. One learns with interest 
that the Twenty-Sixth Band, in addition to inspiring the men 
on to battle with their stirring music, tended the wounded 
and helped their regiment in numerous other ways. 

238 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The Supplement which contains a part of the repertory of 
the Twenty-Sixth Regiment Band held this reviewer's inter- 
est from the first title— "Old North State" to the last one, 
"Where has Lulu Gone"— in all nearly two hundred selections. 
This reader must disagree with the editor when he says "few 
of the pieces will ever be heard again, and that is probably 
well." Certainly, this music was "a creature of circumstance," 
but with the celebration of the Civil War Centennial in just 
a few years, would it not be well that some band play once 
again representative selections from this music, which so 
inspired our forefathers? 

Indeed, it is fervently anticipated that this small booklet 
will inspire others to produce works of this nature, which will 
be of value to the historian as well as to the observance of the 
Civil War Centennial. 

Ava L. Honeycutt, Jr. 

State Department of Archives and History, 


Ebb Tide as Seen Through the Diary of Josephine Clay Haber- 
sham, 1863. By Spencer Bidwell King, Jr. (Athens: The Uni- 
versity of Georgia Press. 1958. Pp. xiii, 129. $3.00.) 

The diary of Josephine Clay Habersham begins and ends 
in 1863, but even in its briefness it discloses one of the most 
intimate and interesting descriptions of the southern home- 
front that this reviewer has read. It is the story of life at 
Avon, summer home of the Habersham family, located on 
the Vernon River, ten miles from Savannah, Georgia. Addi- 
tional source and family materials have been skillfully woven 
into the narrative by Professor King— showing how the tragic 
losses of this one family might symbolize the ebb tide of the 
Confederate glory. 

It is the personal life, however, that gives the Habersham 
diary its greatest depth and historical value. Josephine loved 
fine music and good literature, especially Shakespeare, and 
personally supervised her children's education and lessons in 
these subjects. She was particularly happy when the mail 
brought new magazines, books, and English reviews, and 

Book Reviews 239 

despite wartime conditions she kept abreast of the contempo- 
rary literature. She was shocked at the ever-climbing com- 
modity prices ($100 for a barrel of salt fish, $10 for a box of 
brown sugar, $58 for a summer muslin, $195 for a summer 
dress for Anna, $60 for an untrimmed straw bonnet, $1 for 
a quart ( 7 ) of potatoes ) , but quite willing to depend on the 
Nassau Packet for necessary supplies. She was quite solicitous 
of the patients' welfare at the small Confederate hospital 
located in the community, sending soup, clothing, drinks, etc., 
for them or their visiting families. 

Throughout the diary runs the anguish of war— loss of 
friends, the fall of Charleston, the hopes and sorrow of Lee's 
northern invasion, the fear that her own section of Georgia 
would be seized by the hated conquerors, the helpless resig- 
nation of her friends, and the anxiety over her own two fight- 
ing sons, Joseph Clay and William Neyle Habersham. Joseph 
Clay enlisted as a private, loved the excitement and dangers 
of war, and was always eager for action. He found it in the 
campaigns around Fredericksburg, Richmond, Jackson, Mis- 
sissippi, and Chickamauga. In the battle of Atlanta, he died 
a hero's death while leading his troops. Willie hated war but 
fought dutifully, yet died within an hour of his brother in a 
separate engagement near Atlanta. 

Professor King is to be complimented for his skillful and 
sympathetic handling of the narrative, as well as William E. 
Snowden of Atlanta for his authentic and delightful art work. 
The volume will certainly find its spot in the ever growing 
list of Confederate bibliography. 

Horace W. Raper. 

Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, 

Cookeville, Tennessee. 

The Camp, the Bivouac, and the Battle Field. By W. L. Gammage. 
(Little Rock: Arkansas Southern Press. 1958. Pp. viii, 150.) 

This is a gem of a book, and the Arkansas Southern Press 
was well-advised to reprint it. ( The original edition came out 
in 1864). The author, surgeon for McNair's Brigade, disarms 
us at once by admitting that "book-making has not been any 

240 The North Carolina Historical Review 

part of my vocation," and that he has produced an "unpre- 
tending little volume." "The entire work has been begun and 
finished in Camp," he goes one, "surrounded by the bustle 
and noise and confusion incident hitherto, and with this apol- 
ogy and these explanation I hope to disarm criticism of her 

So saying, Dr. Gammage gives us a detailed and vivid his- 
tory of a regiment that fought as much, and marched further, 
than almost any of the Confederate regiments. The Fourth 
Arkansas Infantry was at Elkhorn, Murfreesboro, Chicka- 
mauga; in the battles of the Atlanta campaign; with Hood 
when he thrust into Tennessee; in the final battles of North 
Carolina. Gammage starts with the regiment's organization 
and takes us through December 10, 1863. The original edition 
was issued at Selma, Alabama, in 1864, without covers; soon 
it was one of the rarest Confederate imprints. Not much is 
known of Washington Lafayette Gammage's life. He was 
born in Alabama in 1827, and settled in Texas before the 
War. Though he lived through the conflict, he was accident- 
ally killed at Mobile, Alabama, en route home. 

To say that the little account is amazingly detailed and 
accurate does not imply that it is impartial. As Gammage 
goes through an area ravaged by the invaders, he is moved 
to write: 

These are the fruits of thy coming, oh worse than vandal or 
barbarian! These are the cruel evidences of thy invading 
march! Rapine, plunder, outrage and destruction, everywhere 
follow in thy footsteps, oh vile and infamous Yankee ! 

Carl Becker was right. Every man is his own historian. 
The Fourth Arkansas was lucky to have a man who could 
wield not only a scalpel and a sword, but also a pen. For now 
that the war is almost a century past, it is the printed word 
that really keeps alive what was often gallant, but sometimes 
gory, glory. 

Marshall W. Fishwick. 

Washington and Lee University, 

Lexington, Virginia. 

Book Reviews 241 

Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy : Guerrilla Warfare in the West, 
1861-1865. By Richard S. Brownlee. (Baton Rouge : Louisiana 
State University Press. 1958. Pp. xii, 274. $4.95.) 

Gray Ghosts of the Confederacy presents an analysis of the 
conditions which give rise to guerrilla warfare in Missouri and 
chronicles the incredible exploits of such prominent partisans 
as Quantrill, "Bloody Bill" Anderson, and George Todd. 
Rather than treating this undercover conflict throughout the 
West, the author concentrates almost exclusively on north- 
central and western Missouri. The period covered is more 
ambitious than the title indicates, dipping back into the trou- 
bled 1850's and advancing into the Reconstruction era. 

Brownlee gives an extended introductory study of the pre- 
war Missouri-Kansas setting. He finds it a training ground 
for the guerrillas and psychologically indispensable in light 
of later events. Also of particular merit are chapters on local 
rule by the military of the national state. The nature of this 
imposed government and its tragic consequences are treated 
with insight. Demonstrating an understanding of the ante- 
cedents of partisan warfare, the author discusses its sources 
of power and sustenance. The bulk of the work concerns the 
rides and struggles of the depredators and counter-depreda- 
tors. This narrative body of the work is written in a lively and 
remarkably objective manner. 

The nature of the author's subject raises a technical prob- 
lem which is not resolved satisfactorily. The study of neces- 
sary military rule in Missouri interrupts the flow of the guer- 
rilla narrative as the author changes his vantage point. This 
device heightens the anticipation of the climatic conflict in 
1864, but damages the consistency of the work. It is felt that 
more emphasis and integration are needed in regard to the 
military effectiveness of the guerrillas in relation to Confed- 
erate operations to the south. The widespread and militarily 
important partisan activity in southeastern Missouri is ig- 
nored. The role of the Missouri state government itself merits 
further amplification in light of the importance attached to 
Union military government. 

The author has undertaken a difficult task in jointly de- 
lineating the ghosts of Missouri partisan activity and discuss- 

242 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ing the complex causation of this bitter war within a war. 
He succeeds in giving insight to the latter and relates the 
former with zest and freshness. The book promises particular 
enjoyment and reward for readers interested in the times 
when Missouri was forced to take a four year legal and moral 

N. C. Hughes, Jr. 
Chapel Hill. 

Prince of Carpetbaggers. By Jonathan Daniels. (Philadelphia 
and New York: J. B. Lippincott Company. 1958. Pp. 319. 

Those who saw General Milton Smith Littlefield in action 
remembered him well. He was the handsomest man in Flor- 
ida, recalled a fellow carpetbagger who knew him during the 
palmiest days of his Reconstruction career: ". . . tall, well- 
proportioned, with dark hair and dark, close-cropped beard, 
rosy cheeks and genial laughing eyes. His personal magnetism 
was very great and few could resist the charm of his address. 
As a manipulator of legislatures he had no superior. . . . 
With money he was as free as water, and when he had no 
money was just as free with checks" (p. 236). Littlefield 
was one of Lincoln's Illinois friends and military proteges; he 
fought gallantly at Shiloh, served as Sherman's assistant pro- 
vost marshal of Memphis, and was associated with the effort 
to recruit and train Negro troops along the Southeastern 
coast. As a militant Republican and friend of the freedmen, 
he returned to the South late in 1867 to serve the interests of 
the Radicals— and of M. S. Littlefield. He began a fabulous 
career as a freebooter. Operating first in North Carolina and 
then in Florida, he worked with Radical politicians and the 
Union League, published the Raleigh Standard, promoted 
grandiose business schemes, speculated in railroad securities, 
and attempted to build a railroad empire. When the General 
left Florida in 1879 he was financially ruined, his dreams long 
since a shambles, his name a synonym for all that was corrupt 
and sinister in Reconstruction. Perhaps no man touches all 
the aspects of the carpetbag story so well. 

Book Reviews 243 

Mr. Daniels has written a sparkling biography. He has 
done some fine detective work in tracking his man along 
some exceedingly murky trails and in explaining the myste- 
rious circumstances that often attended his activities. The 
author's approach is judicious and he seeks to understand and 
explain Littlefield rather than to condemn him. The result 
is a genuine contribution to the writings on the Reconstruc- 
tion period. Yet, for all its good points, the book is marred 
by frequent digressions that are not relevant to Littlefield's 
career. Although the author is a skillful writer, he never 
manages to get inside his subject; to this reader, at least, the 
Prince of Carpetbaggers remains a shadowy figure whose 
motives and aspirations are still obscure. Mr. Daniels has 
uncovered a good deal of information on Littlefield but he 
was handicapped by the paucity of personal papers left by 
the General and his friends. The book is not documented but 
a bibliographical note and a list of major works used are 

Prince of Carpetbaggers goes a long way toward explaining 
the carpetbaggers as a group. It illuminates the intimate rela- 
tionship that often existed during Reconstruction between 
the sordid and the idealistic, the economic and the political, 
the carpetbagger and the southerner, and it suggests some 
of the work that remains to be done in the field of Recon- 
struction history. Daniels' conclusions are refreshing. How- 
ever much the carpetbaggers carried away with them, he 
writes, "it was not so precious as the enduring excuse for the 
South which they brought in their little satchels of carpeting 
when they came." As for General Littlefield, there were "too 
many sinners to select just one for stoning" (pp. 10, 299). 

Dewey W. Grantham, Jr. 

Vanderbilt University, 

Nashville, Tennessee. 

244 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The Cotton Regency : The Northern Merchants and Reconstruc- 
tion, 1865-1880. By George Ruble Woolfolk. (New York: Book- 
man Associates. 1958. Pp. 311. Preface, notes, bibliography, 
and index. $5.00.) 

Accepting Charles Beard's idea that the Civil War was a 
"Second American Revolution," Professor Woolfolk has ex- 
amined the records of local and national chambers of com- 
merce and boards of trade to "document in part" what he 
calls "the first stage of the rising business civilization" (p. 7). 

The author contends that the northern merchant-capital- 
ists, who had previously exerted less influence in politics than 
the agrarians, were after 1865 the "new men" who consciously 
planned to use their influence to mould the "American eco- 
nomic and social pattern to their own taste" (p. 192). "At 
first northeastern business looked upon 'King Cotton' as the 
means by which the new economic orientation might be 
underwritten" (p. 8). The business leaders, the author con- 
tinues, hoped by increasing small farms and free labor 
with government aid, to increase the cotton production and, 
by shifting taxes to cotton and at the same time raising the 
tariff, to give their own manufacturers an advantage over the 
British. Unfortunately their cotton policy failed. 

After the failure of the cotton policy, the merchant-capital- 
ists of Philadelphia, Boston, and the Middle West united to 
destroy the hold of European merchants and industrialists 
as well as their agents in New York City. Considering them- 
selves as a third urban chamber of the national government, 
they formed a National Board of Trade and Congress which 
greatly influenced Congressional action. 

Unfortunately for the Philadelphia and Boston leaders the 
Westerners soon took over. According to Professor Woolfolk 
these Western merchants-capitalists became promoters of a 
new type of credit, new manufactured wares and purchasers 
of cotton. Through their "Knights of the Bag," the newly 
constructed railroads, and the crop lien system, they seized 
much of the southern market and helped establish the one- 
crop system in the South. 

Mr. Woolfolk has done an enormous amount of research 
and he has advanced an interesting thesis, although, in this 

Book Reviews 245 

reviewer's opinion, the evidence and logic which he advances 
do not always prove his contentions. In places his analysis 
is difficult to follow because of the vagueness of his writing. 

Henry T. Shanks. 

Birmingham-Southern College, 

Birmingham, Alabama. 

North Carolina : An Economic and Social Profile. By S. Hunting- 
ton Hobbs, Jr. (Chapel Hill: The University of North Caro- 
lina Press. 1958. Pp. xx, 380. $6.00.) 

A "must" for every general reference shelf, this volume is 
an extension or, more accurately, an elaboration of the 1930 
publication by the same author. The earlier work was the first 
of its kind to be published in the United States and promised 
a similar study "in the future." This, after twenty-eight years, 
is the result of that promise. 

Author Hobbs' book is intended as a "social and economic 
presentation and interpretation" of North Carolina. The chief 
aim of the author (as stated in the preface) is "to present 
North Carolina as accurately and faithfully as possible." 
An all-inclusive potpourri of everything having to do with 
economics and society in the Old North State, this study in- 
cluded chapters on the physical make-up of the State, natural 
resources, physical and economic areas, transportation facili- 
ties, wealth, financial institutions, state and local government, 
education, health, welfare, and other topics. There are a num- 
ber of illustrations and at the end of the text itself are 119 
tables of statistics. 

The picture of North Carolina which emerges in this book 
is vastly different from that drawn in 1930 and vet, in many 
instances, is one which is all too familiar. Todav the State is 
the industrial leader of the South and industries dot the areas 
where cornfields and pine thickets once stood. Despite this 
industrial leadership, farm tenancy remains as an economic 
blight on North Carolina even as it rapidlv disannears else- 
where in the nation. Like other states. North Carolina is 
rapidlv becoming urbanized, but unlike them the number of 
farms in the State increased by ten thousand in the past 

246 The North Carolina Historical Review 

decade to complicate the agricultural difficulties. Even as 
North Carolina leads in textile and wooden furniture produc- 
tion, its per capita income is near the bottom nationally. 
Opportunities for young people are apparently few ( the me- 
dian age in the State is twenty-five years ) and 28,000 more 
persons leave the State each year than enter. Only sixteen 
per cent of the North Carolina college age population enters 
college in a State which is eighth in number of colleges and 
universities nationally. The author does not hesitate to recom- 
mend measures to remedy the economic and social defects 
of North Carolina. 

Bearing in mind the somewhat limited nature of this study, 
the book fulfills the need for such a work. It is relatively free 
of errors but many of the figures (particularly some of the 
maps ) are far too small to read. The greatest criticism is that 
much of the material presented is stale, as if it were written 
several years ago. Where an attempt appears to have been 
made to "up-date" a particular chapter, the result is often 
unsatisfactory. Out of 119 statistical tables at the end of the 
text, sixty-three are based on information for 1954 or before 
( back to 1949 ) . No doubt some of the "lateness" is unavoid- 
able, but often more recent material is available. Thusly, for 
the serious scholar, the tables are often relatively useless be- 
fore the volume appeared. For a general reference book, the 
statistics are valuable, however, for their easy accessibility. 
Then, too, the bibliography at the end of each chapter is often 
inadequate, outmoded, and secondary. As a result, only three 
or four chapters are fresh and use recent records. Particularly 
noteworthy are the sections on banking, library, income and 
wealth, and county government. 

As thumb-nail sketches, the chapters are more than ade- 
quate; as final authorities they lack a great deal. The volume 
tantalizes the reader but does not fully satisfy. True scholars 
must look elsewhere for detailed and recent information. The 
real strength of the volume is its analysis of the economic and 
social problems and the author's recommendations for their 

Carl F. Cannon, Jr. 

St. Mary's Junior College, 


Book Reviews 247 

State Regulation of Commercial Motor Carriers in North Caro- 
lina. By Clyde C. Carter. (Chapel Hill: The University of 
North Carolina Press. 1958. Pp. x, 210. $5.00.) 

In 1891, many years after the need for regulatory legisla- 
tion had first become apparent to some leaders, the General 
Assembly of North Carolina established the Board of Rail- 
road Commissioners and vested it with rate-making and 
supervisory authority over railroads, steamboats, canals, tele- 
graphs, and express service. Eight years later, apparently for 
partisan political reasons, the Board was abolished and the 
Corporation Commission created to assume its duties. This 
agency served until 1933, when its authority was reinvested 
in a single utilities commissioner. The work of the commis- 
sioner having increased in scope and importance, the 1941 
General Assembly created the three-man Utilities Commis- 
sion. This body, later increased to five members, and the com- 
missioner of motor vehicles now share responsibility for the 
regulation of commercial motor carriers in the state. 

Between 1918 and 1925 the public debated whether there 
should be regulation of the commercial motor carriers begin- 
ning to appear in large numbers on the State's new highways. 
In the latter year, in response to expressions of the public 
will, the General Assembly gave the Corporation Commission 
jurisdiction over motor carriers transporting persons or prop- 
erty for compensation. Nearly every General Assembly since 
that time has added regulatory statutes, most of them in con- 
formity with the provisions of the Federal Motor Carrier Act. 
Compared with other states, North Carolina has followed a 
middle course in restricting the size and weight of vehicles. 

Professor Carter describes in detail the legislative history 
of these regulations. This reviewer found the chapter on the 
role of special interest groups in bringing pressure to bear on 
the General Assembly especially informative. Other parts of 
the book contain court decisions relating to carriers and the 
author's recommendations regarding carrier regulation in the 
future. All the chapters which present factual material are 
documented with references to laws, court decisions, reports 
of regulatory agencies, newspapers, and secondary works. 

Although the author shows some evidence of sympathy 

248 The North Carolina Historical Review 

for the motor carriers in their battle with the railroads for 
influence in the General Assembly, he presents the arguments 
of both sides in equal detail. The book gives comprehensive 
and effective treatment to a significant aspect of the general 
problem of governmental regulation of economic activity. 

Henry S. S troupe. 

Wake Forest College, 


The de Graffenried Family Scrap Book, 1191-1956: Seven Hun- 
dred and Sixty-Five Years. By Thomas P. de Graffenried. 
(Charlottesville: The University of Virginia Press. 1958. 
Pp. xvi, 271. Index and illustrations. Privately printed.) 

This book contains much information about members of 
the de Graffenried family and their estates in Europe during 
the past several centuries as well as much material on de 
Graffenrieds and some of their family homes in the New 

Attention is focused on Baron Christopher de Graffenried, 
"Landgrave of Carolina," who founded New Bern, North 
Carolina, in 1710, naming it for his native city of Bern, Swit- 
zerland. He was one of the few persons honored with the 
title of nobility in Locke's Great New American Order. His 
plan of colonization is described as "the nearest approach to 
Locke's ideal that ever existed in America." 

Portraits of the baron and some of his descendants are 
contained in the volume, along with illustrations of the family 
seals, a page of the Landgrave's French version of his New 
World experiences, documents relating to his settlement at 
New Bern, and the "Bear" insignia of Bern and New Bern. 
Nine views of the New Bern are portrayed, including a draw- 
ing of Tryon Palace there. 

Among the distinguished American descendants of Baron 
de Graffenried written up in the book are the late Dr. Arthur 
Graham Glasgow and his sister, Ellen Glasgow, noted Vir- 
ginia novelist. A bequest from Dr. Glasgow made the publica- 
tion possible financially. 

Book Reviews 249 

One of the family homes in this country photographed is 
the de Graffenried plantation house at Pittsboro, North Caro- 

Authentically and interestly written, as based on source 
materials, attractively arranged in subject matter and printed 
form, and profusely illustrated ( 269 pictures ) , the book gives 
much family history not hitherto published. However, more 
detailed accounts were used in two previous genealogical 
volumes written by the same author: History of the de Graf- 
fenried Family (1925) and The de Graffenried Name in 
Literature (1950). 

A retired attorney of New York City, the author is the 
greatest living authority on his family. He is now preparing 
a fourth volume on the subject. This will be a sequel to his 
Scrap Book and will especially feature New Bern. 

Gertrude S. Carraway. 

Tryon Palace, 

New Bern. 

Aldermans in America. By William Alderman Parker. (Raleigh: 
Privately published by the author. 1957. Pp. xv, 714. $15.00.) 

This work was originated by John Thomas Alderman of 
Henderson, North Carolina, whose intention was to compile 
a history of the southern branch of the Alderman family and 
to trace its ancestry as far back as possible. Death overtook 
John Thomas Alderman before he had completed his task, 
whereupon his nephew, William Alderman Parker, assumed 
the responsibility of editing the manuscript with a view to 
preparing a few mimeographed copies for private distribu- 
tion. Additional research by Mr. Parker has resulted in a 
fuller treatment of the southern branch of the family than 
was initially intended, in a broadening of the work to include 
data on those of the family residing in other parts of the 
United States, and in the issue of his findings in permanent 
book form. 

The most comprehensive section of the book is that dealing 
with the descendants of three Aldermen brothers, John ( 1742- 
1822), Daniel (1748-1824), and David (1749-1831), who 

250 The North Carolina Historical Review 

migrated with their parents from Dearfield, New Jersey, to 
Duplin County, North Carolina, in 1755 and subsequently 
became the progenitors of the Aldermans of the South. The 
descendants of John and Daniel are found mainly in North 
Carolina; those of David, who moved to Bulloch County, 
Georgia, in 1816, are scattered over South Georgia and Flor- 
ida. Daniel Alderman s branch of the family included Edwin 
Anderson Alderman, successively president of the University 
of North Carolina, Tulane, and the University of Virginia. 

In dealing with Aldermans in New England and the Mid- 
west the author, by his own admission, has done little more 
"than scratch the surface for those families, leaving that field 
to their own historians." A lengthy Appendix contains articles, 
clippings, and a few letters by or concerning members of the 
Alderman family. Forty pages of index facilitate the location 
of any member of the family in the exhaustive tables of de- 
scent that appear in the body of the text. 

James W. Patton. 

The University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill. 


Department of Archives and History 

General and Budgetary 

The Department of Archives and History presented its 
request for an operating appropriation and for a Capital 
Improvements fund for the coming biennium at a hearing 
before the Joint Appropriations Committees of the North 
Carolina General Assembly on March 11. Mr. McDaniel 
Lewis of Greensboro, Chairman of the Executive Board of 
the Department, and Miss Gertrude S. Carraway of New 
Bern, member of the Board, were present at the hearing. 
Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Department Director, presented 
the request. 

The same day Mr. D. Libby Ward of New Bern, member 
of the Tryon Palace Commission, presented the request of 
the Commission for an operating appropriation. Also present 
for the Tryon Palace hearing were Mrs. John A. Kellenberger, 
Chairman of the Tryon Palace Commission, and Mr. John A. 
Kellenberger, Budget Officer and Treasurer, both of Greens- 
boro, and Miss Gertrude S. Carraway. 

The State Department of Archives and History, the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina, and The North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association sponsored a Civil War Centennial 
Conference in Chapel Hill on February 28. Dr. R. B. House 
of the University presided at a luncheon meeting at the Caro- 
lina Inn and introduced Dr. Christopher Crittenden who wel- 
comed special guests representing six southern states. Dr. 
Bell I. Wiley, Professor of History at Emory University and 
a member of the Civil War Centennial Commission spoke on 
"The Memorable War." Col. Hugh Dortch of Goldsboro, 
Chairman of the Literary and Historical Association's com- 
mittee for the observance, spoke briefly. Following the lunch- 
eon meeting the group adjourned to the Assembly Room of 
the Library of the University for a panel discussion with Dr. 
Crittenden acting as moderator. Other persons who made 


252 The North Carolina Historical Review 

brief talks were Dr. James W. Patton, Director of the South- 
ern Historical Collection, Chapel Hill; Mrs. Mary Givens 
Bryan, Director of the Georgia Department of Archives and 
History, Atlanta; Mr. Lambert Davis, Director of the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill; Mr. E. Milby 
Burton, Director of the Charleston Museum, Charleston, 
South Carolina; Mr. J. C. Harrington of Richmond, who 
represented the National Park Service; Mr. Paul Green of 
Chapel Hill; Mr. James J. Geary of Richmond, Director of 
the Virginia Civil War Centennial Commission; Mr. Edmund 
C. Gass, Assistant Director of the Civil War Centennial Com- 
mission, Washington, D. C; Mr. Glenn Tucker, Mayor of 
Carolina Beach; and Dr. William S. Jenkins, Professor of Gov- 
ernment and Director of the Bureau of Public Records Col- 
lection and Research of the University of North Carolina. 
Staff members of the Department of Archives and History 
attending the meeting in addition to Dr. Crittenden were 
Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, and Mr. W. S. Tarl- 
ton; and Mrs. Grace B. Mahler, Administrative Assistant of 
the Literary and Historical Association, who aided in the 

Directors Office 

On January 13 Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Director of 
the Department, attended a meeting of the Council of the 
American Association of Museums in the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art in New York City. He is chairman of a committee 
to propose revisions to the constitution of the organization 
and made a report of the work of the committee to date. The 
committee is to continue its work until the spring of 1960. 
Dr. Crittenden gave a slide-lecture on January 15 to the 
Woman's Club of Scotland Neck on the historic sites in North 
Carolina. On January 21, to consider plans for 1959, he met 
with the Executive Committee of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association and with representatives of all 
societies which participate in the annual cultural meetings 
in December. It was agreed that the major theme for all the 
societies would focus on the centennial of the birth of Gov- 
ernor Charles B. Aycock. On January 23 Dr. Crittenden met 

Historical News 253 

in Washington, D. C, with the Board of the National Trust 
for Historic Preservation, and on February 4 in Raleigh he 
extended a welcome to the Advisory Committee on County 
Records. He talked on the life of George Washington on Feb- 
ruary 23 to the Sertoma Club of Raleigh. On February 26 
the Travel Council of North Carolina met at Scandia Village 
in Raleigh and expressed its interest in co-operating with the 
Department of Archives and History and other related groups 
in making plans to develop the potential of the travel and 
tourist industry in North Carolina. Dr. Crittenden attended 
the luncheon on March 3 at which Mr. John P. Marquand, 
noted writer, spoke to a joint meeting of the Sir Walter Cabi- 
net and the North Carolina Society for the Preservation of 
Antiquities on the historic sites in the State. Plans for the 
proposed commemoration of the Civil War Centennial was 
the topic of Dr. Crittenden's speech to the Jeb Stuart Chapter 
of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Fayetteville 
on March 4. On March 13 a meeting of the Advisory Commit- 
tee on the Governor's Letterbook, of which Dr. Crittenden is 
Chairman, was held in his office. Other members present were 
Mr. E. L. Rankin, Jr., Private Secretary to Governor Luther 
H. Hodges; Dr. Hugh T. Lefler, Kenan Professor of History 
at the University of North Carolina; Mr. Al Resch, Editor 
of the Chatham News (Siler City); and Dr. James W. Patton, 
Editor of the Letterbook of Governor Hodges. The letterbook 
now being edited by Dr. Patton, who is Director of the 
Southern Historical Collection in Chapel Hill, will cover the 
term beginning November 7, 1954 ( date of the death of Gov- 
ernor William B. Umstead) to February 7, 1957. 

On March 15 and 16 Dr. Crittenden was in Washington, 
D.C., to attend the meeting of a special advisory committee 
to the United States Civil War Centennial Commission. The 
meeting was called to consider steps to be taken to collect and 
publish archives and manuscripts pertinent to the commemo- 
ration. On March 19 Dr. Crittenden, accompanied by the 
various Division heads, met with Dr. Lillian Parker Wallace, 
Chairman of the History Department, Dr. Alice B. Keith, Dr. 
Sarah M. Lemmon, and a group of students, all of Meredith 
College, to discuss the internship courses offered to interested 

254 The North Carolina Historical Review 

juniors and seniors. For a number of years the Department 
has offered this training program with the Division heads 
serving as instructors in their particular fields. 

Division of Archives and Manuscripts 

Recent staff changes in the Division of Archives and Manu- 
scripts are as follows: Mrs. Elizabeth B. Watkins resigned as 
Laminator Operator in the Archives effective March 31; and 
at the Records Center, Mrs. Betty M. London was employed 
as Archivist I to replace Mr. Karl E. Turner on January 1, and 
Mrs. Carolyn C. Bradshaw joined the staff as a part-time 
Clerk II on February 17. 

Mr. EL G. Jones, State Archivist, addressed a meeting of 
the Davidson County Historical Association held in connec- 
tion with the dedication of the new Davidson County Court- 
house in Lexington on January 18. He wrote an article, 
"Genealogical Research in the North Carolina Department 
of Archives and History," in North Carolina Libraries, Vol- 
ume 17, Number 2, January, 1959. On March 7 he attended 
a meeting of the Committee on Newspaper Conservation of 
the North Carolina Library Association in Greensboro. Mr. 
Jones has recently been appointed to serve on the State Rec- 
ords Committee of the Society of American Archivists. 

Mrs. Memory F. Blackwelder, Records Center Supervisor, 
spoke on March 3 to the Junior Woman's Club of Raleigh on 
the subject of wills. 

Since January Mr. Jones and Rear Admiral Alex M. Patter- 
son (Ret.), Public Records Examiner, have spent much of 
their time developing an intensified county records program. 
Admiral Patterson completed visits to all of the 100 counties 
of the State in connection with the program and reported 
generally friendly reception on the part of county officials. 
A considerable quantity of valuable records has been trans- 
ferred to the Archives as a result of these visits, and quantities 
of records of no value to administration or research have been 
authorized to be destroyed, thus making room for more valu- 
able and current records. 

Mr. Jones and Admiral Patterson held numerous formal 
and informal conferences with county officials and members 

Historical News 255 

of the General Assembly in the interest of a State program 
for microfilming permanently valuable county records for 
security purposes. Dr. Crittenden, Mr. Jones, and Mrs. Black- 
welder attended two committee hearings on House Bill 26 
which was enacted into law and which will be discussed 

On February 4 the Advisory Committee on County Records 
met with Mr. Jones and Admiral Patterson for the purpose 
of drawing up suggested schedules for retention and disposal 
of county records. This committee is composed of three Clerks 
of Superior Court— Mr. William E. Church of Forsyth, Mr. 
Joseph P. Shore of Guilford, and Mr. A. W. Graham, Jr., of 
Granville; three Registers of Deeds—Mr. Lemuel R. Johnson 
of Chatham, Mr. J. W. Johnson of Cumberland, and Mrs. 
Christine W. Williams of Duplin; and three other county 
officials— Mr. J. Toliver Davis, Rutherford County Attorney 
and Representative in the General Assembly; Mr. J. C. Ellis, 
Nash County Auditor, Treasurer, and Tax Supervisor and 
Tax Collector; and Mr. E. S. Swindell, Jr., Durham County 
Manager. Ex officio members are Mr. J. Alexander McMahon, 
Secretary-Treasurer of the North Carolina Association of 
County Commissioners; Mr. Robert Montgomery, Secretary 
of the North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds; Mr. 
Royal G. Shannonhouse, Secretary of the North Carolina 
Association of Clerks of Superior Court; and Mr. David 
Evans, Assistant Director of the Institute of Government. 
The sub-committee on records of the Clerks of Court met in 
Chapel Hill on February 19 to complete their recommenda- 
tions. A County Records Handbook is planned to be pub- 
lished by the Department in the near future incorporating 
the recommendations of the committee. 

Mrs. Mary Givens Bryan, State Archivist of Georgia and 
President-Elect of the Society of American Archivists, visited 
the Division of Archives and Manuscripts on March 2; and 
Mr. Robert T. Quarles, State Archivist of Tennessee, was a 
visitor on March 2 and 3. Rear Admiral E. M. Eller, Director 
of Naval History, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 
did research in the Archives on February 11. 

256 The North Carolina Historical Review 

During the quarter ending December 31, 1958, a total of 
611 persons registered for research in the Division of Archives 
and Manuscripts and 564 were served by mail. These figures 
do not include visitors to and letters answered directly by the 
State Archivist. Photostatic copies totalled 791 pieces. In 
addition, 54 microfilm prints, 38 typed certified copies, and 
167 feet of microfilm were furnished. Lamination of manu- 
scripts in the Archives amounted to 4,334 pages, consisting 
largely of ante-bellum marriage bonds. 

In the Records Center, a total of 1,497 cubic feet of records 
were admitted during the quarter and 1,921 were removed. 
Several agencies agreed to wait until shelving was installed 
before sending additional records to the Center. The installa- 
tion of metal shelving, begun in the previous quarter, was 
completed in one section of the Center. The change-over from 
filing cabinets to a shelving-corrugated box system was neces- 
sitated by a lack of space for additional cabinets, and the 
transfiles were dilapidated. The new system will enable the 
Records Staff to maintain records in a systematic way and will 
give better control over and make more efficient use of the 

The Records Center Staff serviced records 195 times, and 
representatives of twelve agencies visited the Center and 
used their records 294 times during the last quarter. 

Inventories and schedules for records were recently com- 
pleted for the State Board of Education, the State Board of 
Public Welfare, the Division of Purchase and Contract, the 
State Bureau of Investigation, and the Department of Justice. 
This makes a total of 28 agencies whose records have been 
inventoried and placed under schedule. 

The Records Center Staff began the filming of the original 
court records from the North Carolina State Supreme Court 
and in addition work was done for five other State agencies. 
A total of 529,388 images were recorded. 

Division of Historic Sites 

On January 27 Mr. W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superin- 
tendent, gave a slide-lecture program on the Tryon Palace 
Restoration to the Alpha Zeta Chapter of the Beta Sigma Phi, 

Historical News 257 

international businesswomen's sorority, at the North Carolina 
State College Student Union Building. On February 11 Mr. 
Tarlton spoke to the Carolina Beach Woman's Club on pre- 
serving and restoring Fort Fisher. On February 16 he and 
Mr. Judson R. Mitchell, Historic Sites Specialist, attended the 
meeting of the officers of the Bentonville Battleground Asso- 
ciation in Smithfield at which Mr. Herschell V. Rose presided. 
The Association agreed to act as hosts for the tour planned 
by the North Carolina Society of County and Local Histo- 
rians, and the historical societies of Johnston, Sampson, and 
Wayne counties. April 19 is the date set for the tour of the 
Battleground which will also serve as the annual tri-county 
meeting which the three societies hold at selected historic 
sites. An illustrated brochure prepared by Mr. Mitchell which 
tells of the stand made at Bentonville by the Confederate 
Army has recently been completed and is available free upon 
application by writing the Division of Historic Sites, Box 
1881, Raleigh. Mr. Mitchell made a talk on March 18 to the 
Johnston-Pettigrew Chapter of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy in Raleigh on the Battle of Bentonville, and 
discussed plans for the further development of the site. 

Restoration of the Charles B. Ay cock Birthplace is now 
in progress. The architect is Dan MacMillan and Associates 
of Fayetteville, the contractor is the E. F. Taylor Company 
of Goldsboro, and Mr. Richard W. Sawyer, Jr., Historic Site 
Specialist, is the representative of the Charles B. Aycock 
Birthplace Commission and the State Department of Archives 
and History. When the restoration is completed it will be 
under the administration of the Department. Mr. Sawyer is 
presently preparing a booklet which will give a sketch of 
Aycock and briefly outline the progress made to date and 
plans for the future of the site. 

A prefabricated metal building approximately of 600 square 
feet in size has recently been erected at the Old Brunswick 
Town State Historic Site. Mr. Stanley South, Historic Site 
Specialist, plans to use the structure to house equipment and 
for storage of materials necessary to the archaeological exca- 

258 The North Carolina Historical Review 

vation of the site. Mr. South gave a talk on March 15 to the 
Lower Cape Fear Historical Society at Orton Plantation on 
the progress of the work at Old Brunswick Town. He pre- 
sented the same program to the Staff of the Department of 
Archives and History at a meeting on March 19 using slides 
to illustrate the progress which has been made. 

A dwelling house will be built during 1959 for the historic 
site specialist in charge of the Town Creek Indian Mound 
located near Mt. Gilead. Mr. David Phelps, Historic Site 
Assistant, is preparing a revised edition of a pamphlet show- 
ing the reconstruction and archaeological work at the Mound. 

Mr. A. L. Honeycutt, Historic Site Specialist at Alamance 
Battleground near Burlington, is preparing a brochure for 
distribution giving a brief history of the Battle of Alamance 
and plans for the development of that historic site. 

On February 3 the Advisory Committee on Historic Sites 
of the Department of Archives and History held its first 
meeting in the Assembly Room of the Department with Dr. 
Christopher Crittenden, Director, presiding. Mr. W. S. Tarl- 
ton, Historic Sites Superintendent, presented a brief state- 
ment of the history of the program and introduced proposed 
resolutions, and briefly discussed the problems of the Division. 

Members of the committee are Miss Gertrude S. Carraway 
of New Bern, Mrs. D. S. Coltrane and Mr. Charles J. Parker 
of Raleigh, Mr. Robert Garvey and Dr. Henry S. Stroupe 
of Winston-Salem, Mr. Voit Gilmore and Mrs. Ernest Ives 
of Southern Pines, Mr. Watts Hill, Jr., of Durham, Mr. Hugh 
Morton of Wilmington, Dr. David J. Rose of Goldsboro, Mr. 
James A. Stenhouse of Charlotte, and Mr. James G. Stike- 
leather of Asheville. 

The General Assembly provided in Section 7, Chapter 
121, of the General Statutes that "The Department of Arch- 
ives and History may, from funds appropriated to the Depart- 
ment for such purpose purchase historical or archaeological 
real and personal properties, or may assist a county, munici- 
pality, or non-profit corporation or organization in the acqui- 
sition and preservation of such properties by providing a 
portion of the purchase price; provided, that no purchase of 
such properties shall be made by the State of North Carolina 

Historical News 259 

and no contributions shall be made from State funds toward 
such purchases until the property or properties shall have 
been approved for such purpose by the Department of 
Archives and History according to criteria adopted by the 

The Advisory Committee adopted the following criteria 
for the selection and acquisition of historic properties for 
State ownership: 

I. Historical authenticity and significance. 

A. It must have been amply demonstrated by competent 
investigation that the site or structure is authentic as 
claimed. Unsupported traditional or hearsay evidence 
is not sufficient to establish authenticity. 

B. The site or structure must possess state-wide historical 
significance for one or more of the following reasons: 

1. It is connected with important events, movements, 
or persons. 

2. It possesses a high degree of artistic or achitectural 

3. It typifies the life of the people of the State, or a 
segment thereof, for a given period or periods. 

4. It exemplifies or sheds important light on the life 
of aboriginal man within the present borders of 
the State. 

5. It is related to other significant sites or buildings. 

6. In cases where reconstruction of structures is nec- 
essary, adequate evidence for authentic recon- 
struction is required. 

II. Practical problems of financing, maintenance, access, and 
the like. 

A. In acquiring properties for State ownership, the prob- 
lem of financing restoration and operation should be 
realistically considered. 

B. In the acquisition of historic properties, preference 
should be given those projects in which State funds 

260 The North Carolina Historical Review 

shall be at least equalled by funds provided from 
other sources. 

C. Accessibility, necessary utilities, adaptability for pub- 
lic use, and protection are to be considered. 

D. The presence of original structures or other physical 
remains is important. 

E. Encroachment of business, industry, housing, and traf- 
fic can seriously impair the historical value of a prop- 
erty. Where such encroachment has already occurred, 
the property may be less suitable for the expenditure 
of State funds. Where it is merely threatened, this 
may be a strong argument for prompt action by the 
State to save the property. 

F. Proposed boundaries should be adequate (1) to in- 
clude completely the historical or archaeological fea- 
tures of the property, (2) to permit adequate develop- 
ment of public access, parking, sanitary, maintenance, 
and interpretive facilities, and (3) to provide suffi- 
cient buffer area for protection. 

G. The project should have a place in the state-wide 
plans and program for the preservation of historic 
sites and buildings. 

H. The proposed program of public use for historic struc- 
tures and sites should be consistent with their proper 
and dignified reservations and with reasonable public 
access to them. 

The Committee, in addition, adopted the following criteria 
for State aid to local historic sites projects: 

I. Incentive value of State aid to local projects. 

A. While undoubtedly there will be a number of local 
projects for which State financial assistance will be 
justified for various reasons, it is obvious that public 
funds should not be granted to all local historic site 
projects. The Department should avoid indiscrimi- 
nate endorsement of such projects for State aid. 
There will doubtless be cases in which State aid will 
not be needed and it goes without saying that public 

Historical News 261 

funds should be appropriated only when there is a 
real need. 

It is felt on the other hand that when there is a 
genuine need on the part of worthy local projects, 
reasonable State assistance may in many cases offer 
a powerful incentive to local effort. In some cases it 
may well be that this incentive factor will mean the 
difference between success and failure on the part of 
local sponsorship. 

Projects requesting State aid should be carefully 
weighed against the prospect of local support that 
State aid may stimulate. 

II. Historical authenticity and significance. 

A. It must have been amply demonstrated by compe- 
tent investigation that the site or structure is authen- 
tic as claimed. Unsupported traditional or hearsay 
evidence is not sufficient to establish authenticity. 

B. The site or structure must possess historical signifi- 
cance for one or more of the following reasons: 

1. It is connected with important events, movements, 
or persons. 

2. It possesses a high degree of artistic or architec- 
tural significance. 

3. It is substantively historic and not merely com- 
memorative. (Monuments, memorials, and other 
intrinsically commemorative projects should not 
be considered historic sites or structures in the 
true meaning of those terms. ) 

4. It typifies the life of the people of the area, or a 
segment thereof, for a given period or periods. 

5. It sheds important light on the life of aboriginal 
man in the area. 

III. Practical problems of finance, maintenance and admin- 

A. The local agency or organization in charge should be 
financially able or have definite prospects of being 
able to continue the project. 

262 The North Carolina Historical Review 

B. The local agency or organization must show compe- 
tence to develop and administer the project in a satis- 
factory manner. 

C. The local organization or agency must be stable 
and be able to provide continuing maintenance and 
care for the property. 

D. The property, when developed, shall be accessible 
to the public on a reasonable basis. 

E. Accessibility of location, adaptability for public use, 
and protection are important and are to be consid- 

F. The presence of original structures or other physical 
remains is important. 

G. Encroachment of business, industry, housing, and 
traffic can seriously impair the historical value of a 
property. Where such encroachment has already oc- 
curred to a serious degree, the property may be less 
suitable for the expenditure of State funds. Where 
it is merely threatened, this may be a strong argu- 
ment for timely action by the State to help save the 

H. Proposed boundaries should be adequate to include 
all essential features or structures, to permit ade- 
quate development, and to provide a sufficient buffer 
for protection. 

I. The proposed program of restoration and develop- 
ment should be consistent with acceptable profes- 
sional standards for such development. 

J. Clear legal title to the property must be proved. 

Division of Museums 

Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, Museum Administrator, was in Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia, January 14 and 15 and in Washington, 
D. C, on January 16 and 17 to do research on Colonial cos- 
tumes. On January 20 she made a talk on early quilt patterns 
to the Alice Broughton Book Club in Garner, and on January 
28 she worked with Mr. Joseph Boaz, Architect, on plans for 
the Tryon Palace museum to be located in the basement of 

Historical News 263 

Tryon Palace. Mrs. Jordan gave a slide-lecture on the Tryon 
Palace Restoration to the Sampler's Book Club in Raleigh on 
February 3. 

On February 11 the Children of the Confederacy held their 
Annual Meeting in the Assembly Room of the Department of 
Archives and History. Mrs. Jordan spoke to the Colonial 
Dames of Wake County on February 19 on the Restoration 
of Tryon Palace. 

Division of Publications 

Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Head of the Division of Publications, 
spoke to the Julian S. Carr Chapter of the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy in Durham on January 13 on "Confederate 
Memorials in North Carolina." On February 17 he went to 
Morganton to assist an interested group in organizing the 
Burke County Historical Society. 

The Department has recently issued two pamphlets for dis- 
tribution. The 20-page pamphlet written by Mr. Corbitt en- 
titled Secretaries of the U. S. Navy: Brief Sketches of Five 
North Carolinians, gives biographical sketches of the five 
men who have served in this capacity and is priced at $.15. 
Pictures of the Civil War Period in North Carolina, also com- 
piled by Mr. Corbitt, is an 82-page booklet with a brief intro- 
duction dealing with the decade 1860-1870 in the State, and 
has pictures with a brief text. Designed primarily for school 
children, the book has a folded-in map which was taken from 
Volume I of Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions 
from North Carolina in the Great War 1861 -'65, edited by 
Walter Clark. The price is $.25 and application for both pam- 
phlets should be made to Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Box 1881, 


House Bill 26, strengthening the authority of the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History in operating a Records Manage- 
ment Program, was enacted into law in March. The bill, intro- 
duced by the Commission on Reorganization of State Gov- 
ernment following a study last summer of the Department's 

264 The North Carolina Historical Review 

work, amends G.S. 121-2 to provide for the Department to 
"conduct a records management program, including the oper- 
ation of a records center or centers and a centralized micro- 
filming program, for the benefit of all state agencies." Author- 
ity for such a program to be conducted by the General Serv- 
ices Division of the Department of Administration was de- 
leted. In addition, the bill adds the following paragraph to 
G.S. 132-8: 

"When requested by the State Department of Archives 
and History, public officials shall assist the Department in the 
preparation of an inclusive inventory of records in their cus- 
tody, to which shall be attached a schedule, approved by the 
head of the governmental unit or agency having custody of 
the records and the Director of the State Department of 
Archives and History, establishing a time period for the reten- 
tion or disposal of each series of records. Upon the completion 
of the inventory and schedule, the State Department of Arch- 
ives and History shall ( subject to the availability of necessary 
space, staff, and other facilities for such purposes) make 
available space in its Records Center for the filing of semi- 
current records so scheduled and in its Archives for non- 
current records of permanent value, and shall render such 
other assistance as needed, including the microfilming of 
records so scheduled/' 

Colleges and Universities 

Dr. Preston W. Edsall, Head of the Department of History 
and Political Science at North Carolina State College, is on 
leave until February, 1960, to utilize a grant for the study of 
legislative politics in North Carolina in the 1950's. During his 
absence Dr. Philip M. Rice is acting head of the department. 
Dr. Rice's book, Understanding a History of Civilization, 
Volume II, was published in January by Prentice-Hall, Inc. 
American Independence through Prussian Eyes, selections 
from the diplomatic correspondence of Frederick the Great, 
edited and translated by Marvin L. Brown, Jr., Associate 
Professor of History, was published by Duke University Press 
in January. The first volume of French Historical Studies, the 

Historical News 265 

journal of the Society of French Historical Studies, was pub- 
lished in December, 1958. This publication, under the editor- 
ship of Dr. Brown, is scheduled to appear annually. Dr. Brown 
will attend the annual meeting of the society in Cleveland, 
Ohio, in April. Dr. J. Leon Helguera delivered a paper, "Co- 
lombia in the Twentieth Century: Some Political and Eco- 
nomic Developments," at the annual meeting of Latin Ameri- 
canists in Pensacola, Florida, March 6-8. Since August, 1958, 
Dr. Helguera has been doing research in the sources of 
Venezuelan history in the United States and Canada on behalf 
of the Fundacion John Boulton of Caracas, Venezuela. Espe- 
cial emphasis of this project has been on the collection of 
possibly unpublished letters and other papers of Simon 
Bolivar, Francisco de Miranda, Antonio Jose de Sucre, and 
Jose Antonio Paez. Professor Stuart Noblin read a paper, 
"Farmers' Movements: A Synthesis and Some Suggestions," 
at the meeting of the Southern Historical Association in 
Nashville, Tennessee, November 6, 1958. Dr. Oliver H. Orr, 
Jr., joined the faculty at the beginning of the fall semester. 
A native of Brevard, Dr. Orr received his Ph.D. in history in 
August from the University of North Carolina. 

Dr. Fletcher M. Green, Chairman of the Department of 
History at the University of North Carolina, spoke to the 
Women's Republican Club of Chapel Hill on February 16 
on "Lincoln's Rise to Power." Dr. Hugh T. Lefler addressed 
the faculty of Lenoir Rhyne College, February 3, on "Some 
Neglected Aspects of North Carolina History." Dr. Dexter 
Perkins addressed the History Graduate Club and the Phi 
Alpha Theta National Honor Society in History at the Uni- 
versity on February 11 on the subject "The Diplomatic Revo- 
lution in the United States since 1930." Dr. Loren C. McKin- 
ney gave two lectures in Knoxville, Tennessee, February 5-6. 
The first lecture was to the Phi Kappa Phi History Fraternity 
at the University of Tennessee on "Medieval Medical Prac- 
tices as Revealed in Manuscript Miniatures," and the second 
was to the Knoxville Optimist Club. Dr. George B. Tindall 
published "The Significance of Howard W. Odum to Southern 

266 The North Carolina Historical Review 

History: A Preliminary Estimate" in the Journal of Southern 
History, XXIV, 285-307. 

Dr. Lillian Parker Wallace, Chairman of the Department 
of History, Meredith College, attended the sessions of the 
American Historical Association in Washington, D. C, on 
December 27-31, 1958. 

Mr. Michael J. Brown, a Danforth Fellow in History at 
Emory University, has been appointed as a temporary Assist- 
ant Professor of History at Davidson College, and Dr. Frontis 
W. Johnston has been appointed Dean of the Faculty of 
Davidson College. 

Mr. A. Hewson Michie has been appointed Instructor in 
the History Department at Salem Academy and College, 
effective February 1. Dr. Michie is a native of Charlottesville, 
Virginia, and a doctoral candidate at the University of North 

Dr. Paul Clyde of the History Department of Duke Uni- 
versity is in Austria as a member of the faculty of the Salz- 
burg Seminar in American Studies. His topic for the January 
classes was "American Policy in the Far East," which he dis- 
cussed from a historical standpoint. Dr. William B. Hamilton 
had an article, "The Nigerian Constitutional Crisis of 1957," 
in the autumn (1958) issue of the South Atlantic Quarterly. 
Dr. Hamilton spent the summer of 1958 in England where 
he searched in various manuscript collections for materials for 
his biography of Lord Grenville. He read a paper at a session 
of the Southern Historical Association meeting in Nashville 
in November, 1958. Dr. Theodore Ropp is in South Africa 
where he will remain until April when he will visit Great 
Britain and Ireland. His project, "Politics and Military Con- 
scription in the Commonwealth, 1900-1957," is a continua- 
tion of a more detailed study, "The Politics of Conscription 
in Canada," which was sponsored by the Commonwealth- 
Studies Center. Dr. Joel Colton has returned to teaching after 
six months research on Leon Blum in France. He recounted 

Historical News 267 

some of his personal experiences and observations of Paris 
during the political crisis of 1958 in a paper presented to the 
Trinity College Historical Society on October 20. Dr. E. 
Malcolm Carroll, who is on terminal sabbatical leave, worked 
in Paris until December in the Bibliotheque Nationale and 
the Archives of the Foreign Office, then left for a tour of 
Italy and southern France. Dr. William E. Scott, formerly 
of Yale University, has been appointed Assistant Professor 
of History and will teach in the field of international relations. 
The following have been appointed as Instructors in the De- 
partment of History: Mr. Winfred Bernhard, Mr. Theodore 
Crane, Dr. Donald Limoli, and Mr. Gaddis Smith. Mr. Limoli 
had an article published on Pietro Verri in the October ( 1958) 
issue of the Journal of Central European Affairs. An article 
by Dr. John Curtiss appeared in the July ( 1958) issue of The 
American Historical Review; a bibliographical essay by Dr. 
Robert Durden on Grover Cleveland was in the summer issue 
of the South Atlantic Quarterly; and Dr. Alfred Tischendorf 
had an article "British Enterprise in Georgia, 1865-1907," in 
the Georgia Historical Quarterly. Dr. Ernest William Nelson 
has been granted a sabbatical leave and Dr. William Thomas 
Laprade has been recalled to teach the graduate seminar in 
historiography. Dr. Harold T. Parker has been appointed for 
a three-year term to the editorial board of the Journal of 
Modern History. 

The Department of History at Duke University has quali- 
fied under the National Defense Education Act of 1958 to 
offer three graduate fellowships (1959-1960) in the History 
of the Commonwealth of Nations. The fellowships will nor- 
mally run for three years with a stipend to the individual of 
$2,000 for the first year, $2,200 for the second, and $2,400 for 
the third, plus $400 for each year on account of each depend- 
ent. From this sum tuition is collected. Fellows must be 
American citizens, or permanent residents of the United 
States, and have the baccalaureate degree or its equivalent. 

Dr. H. H. Cunningham, Dean of the College and Chairman 
of the Department of History of Elon College, has recently 
been named by the United States Department of the Interior 

268 The North Carolina Historical Review 

for work this summer on a research project regarding care of 
the Union and Confederate wounded at the first and second 
battles of Manassas. This new research project, a part of the 
expanding National Park Service program, will seek to show 
the organization of both the Union and Confederate medical 
departments at the time of these two significant battles. Work 
will be done in the area and in Washington, D. C, where 
official reports, papers, and other data will be examined. 

County and Local Groups 

The Rowan Museum News Letter for January contained a 
biographical sketch of Maxwell Chambers, the man for whom 
the house was named in which the Rowan Museum is located; 
a note on fund-raising projects sponsored by the Museum in 
1958; and a number of letters from visitors to the Museum, 
including letters from visiting school children last year. A 
picture and an article about a child's Sheraton bed which has 
been added to the furnishings of the house and acknowledge- 
ments to donors of items complete the issue. 

The quarterly meeting of the Union County Historical As- 
sociation was held on January 15 with twenty-five members 
present. Mr. S. Glenn Hawfield, President, presided and gave 
a brief history of the association since its organization. One 
of the most outstanding projects has been the publication in 
The Monroe Enquirer of eighteen biographical sketches of 
sons and daughters of Union County. Another project has 
been an effort to establish a marker at La Batte's Cross Roads 
on the Newton Road, the place where the first sessions of 
court in Union County were held in an old gin house. The 
Board of Commissioners of Union County recently appropri- 
ated funds for this purpose. Miss Clara Laney has completed 
a book which contains a complete list of Civil War veterans 
of the county and a listing of cemetery markers. Work con- 
tinues on the museum projects and a number of interested 
citizens are assisting in the collection of items for display. 
Mr. Ernest H. Broome gave a talk and members were urged 

Historical News 269 

to aid in a drive to enlarge the membership of the group 
which is 100 at present. 

Thirty-five members and visitors attended the quarterly 
meeting of the Carteret County Historical Society on January 
24 in Morehead City with Mr. F. C. Salisbury, President, 
presiding. Mrs. Nat Smith discussed a number of letters writ- 
ten from Samuel Leffers of Beaufort to his brother in New 
York from 1800 to 1820. Mrs. Lucille A. Smith read a paper 
on the early history of Newport and recognition was given 
to Mr. Tucker R. Littleton of Beaufort and Mr. P. W. Fisher 
of Jacksonville, both of whom have recently had books pub- 
lished. The group voted to present a $50 bond to the student 
who writes the best historical paper on the history of the 
county instead of making a number of $5 awards as originally 

New officers were installed at the February 9 meeting of 
the Gaston County Historical Society with Mr. W. Marsh 
Cavin, Stanley businessman, as President. Mrs. W. M. Craig 
was installed as Secretary, Mr. J. Milton Craig as Treasurer, 
and Mrs. Maude Rankin Wales, who is in South America at 
present, will be the new Vice-President. 

Mr. Allan D. Ivie, Leaksville attorney, spoke at the spring 
meeting of the Rockingham County Historical Society in 
Wentworth on February 27. Mr. Ivie, who is a student of his 
county's history, resides in the old Ivie home in Leaksville. 
At the edge of the lawn a marker designates that spot as the 
southernmost corner of a survey made by Col. William Byrd 
in 1728. It is also a corner of the area referred to by Byrd 
as the "Garden of Eden." 

Dr. Donald M. McCorkle, Co-ordinator, announces the 
tentative schedule of the music and concerts which will be 
presented during the fifth Early American Moravian Music 
Festival and Seminar to be held in Winston-Salem, June 
22-28. Dr. Thor Johnson, Music Director, will assemble an 
orchestra of about thirty musicians, the members being drawn 

270 The North Carolina Historical Review 

from twenty major American orchestras. The seminar, which 
complements the Festival, will study church music repertoire 
and practices, music history, and related subjects under Dr. 
McCorkle who is Director of the Moravian Music Foundation 
and Mr. Theodore Schaefer, Director of Music of the National 
Presbyterian Church, Washington, D. C. The festivals and 
seminars are presented yearly as a non-commercial contribu- 
tion of the Moravian Church in America for greater appre- 
ciation of this outstanding segment of the music of the 
United States prior to 1850. The Moravian Music Foundation 
conducts the research and prepares the music for the festivals. 
For further information and details write to the Moravian 
Music Festival and Seminar, Box 26, Salem Station, Winston- 

Dr. Edward W. Phifer of Morganton was elected President 
of the Burke County Historical Society at the first meeting 
on March 10. An organizational meeting was held on Febru- 
ary 17 at which time dues were set at $3.00 for the first year 
(of which $1.00 is an initiation fee) and at $2.00 for suc- 
ceeding years. Mr. Harry Hallyburton was elected Secretary. 
Approximately 75 persons attended the March meeting and 
the society reports a total of 138 paid members. The consti- 
tution and bylaws provide that life memberships shall be 
available at $50. Miss Beatrice Cobb of Morganton joined 
as a life member. Separate certificates will be issued to life 
members and regular members. 

The Town of Rockingham and Richmond County will hold 
anniversary celebrations, June 21-27. Rockingham is 175 years 
old and the County of Richmond which was established 
November 10, 1779, is 180 years old. Rockingham was named 
for Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham, 
who died in 1782. An act of the Assembly established the 
town on June 2, 1784. 

A pageant depicting outstanding events in the history of 
both the town and the county will be presented nightly with 
a cast of approximately 300 local people. Mr. John W. 
Entwistle is General Chairman, Mr. James C. Billings is 

Historical News 271 

Headquarters Chairman, Mr. R. S. Davis is Treasurer, and 
Mrs. R. E. Bartlette is Secretary. The Publicity Committee 
is composed of Mrs. J. Neal Cadieu, Chairman and Publisher 
of Journal and Post-Dispatch; Mr. Isaac S. London, Editor 
of the Post-Dispatch and County-Town Historian; Mr. J. 
Neal Cadieu, Jr., Editor of the Richmond County Journal; 
Mr. Hubert L. Breeze, Jr., Assistant Editor of the Richmond 
County Journal; Mr. William Futterer, Manager of Radio 
Station WAYN, Rockingham; and Mr. A. D. (George) Way, 
Jr., Editor of the Hamlet News-Messenger. 

The Daily Roanoke-Chowan News has begun publication 
of a series of articles, "The Roanoke-Chowan Story," with 
Chapter I entitled "The Story of the Geologic Making." The 
special 12-page section is illustrated and is so arranged that 
it may be separately bound and succeeding chapters added 
as they appear. 

The Wake County Historical Society held its annual meet- 
ing in the Assembly Room of the Department of Archives 
and History on March 26 with Mr. William A. Parker, Presi- 
dent, presiding. Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Vice-President, 
presented the speaker, Mr. Cecil D. Elliot, Associate Professor 
of Architecture in the School of Design at North Carolina State 
College, who talked on the history of the State Capitol. 
Mrs. Bruce R. Carter, Secretary, read the minutes, and Mr. 
Richard Seawell, Treasurer, gave a financial report. Approxi- 
mately forty members elected the following officers for the 
coming year: Mr. John R. Jordan, President; Mr. Herbert 
O'Keef, Vice-President; Mrs. William T. Hatch, Secretary; 
and Dr. A. M. Fountain, Treasurer. 


The sixth annual summer Institute on Historical and Arch- 
ival Management will be offered by Radcliffe College, with 
the co-sponsorship of the Department of History of Harvard 
University, during the six weeks June 29- August 7. Dr. Law- 
rence W. Towner, Editor of the William and Mary Quarterly 
at the Institute of Early American History and Culture at 

272 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Williamsburg, Virginia, and Associate Professor and Director 
of Graduate Studies in History at the College of William and 
Mary, will direct the course. Designed for college graduates 
who are interested in careers in archival, museum, and his- 
torical society work, the course is also open to employees of 
institutions in these related fields. Students will devote full 
time to the study of archival and historical resources and their 
relation to the interpretation of history; and they will visit 
representative manuscript and archival depositories, historical 
societies, museums, and historic sites and buildings in the 
area of greater Boston. The staff will consist of eighteen 
or more experts in these fields. The class will be limited to 
fifteen and will be conducted as a seminar. Those completing 
the course will receive a certificate. Two full- tuition scholar- 
ships of $200 each are available. Inquiries should be ad- 
dressed to the Institute, 10 Garden Street, Cambridge 38, 

Books received during the last quarter are : Thomas Robson 
Hay, Cleburne and His Command (Jackson, Tennessee: The 
McCowat-Mercer Press, 1959); Daniel M. Smith, Robert 
Lansing and American Neutrality, 1914-1917 (Berkeley and 
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1958); William 
L. McDowell, Jr., Colonial Records of South Carolina [Series 
21: Documents Relating to Indian Affairs, May 21, 1750- 
August 7, 1754 (Columbia: South Carolina Archives De- 
partment, 1958); Emma Lila Funderburk, Southeastern In- 
dians: Life Portraits. A Catalogue of Pictures, 1564-1860 
(Birmingham, Alabama: Privately Printed, 1958); Kenneth 
Coleman, The American Revolution in Georgia, 1783-1789 
(Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1958); Jack Riley, 
Carolina Power and Light Company, 1908-1958 (Raleigh: 
Privately Printed by Edwards and Broughton, 1958 ) ; Hans L. 
Trefousse, Ren Rutler: The South Called Him Reast (New 
York: Twayne Publishers, 1957); Gary S. Dunbar, Historical 
Geography of the North Carolina Outer Ranks (Baton 
Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1958); Marshall 
DeLancey Haywood, Governor William Tryon, and His Ad- 
ministration in the Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771 

Historical News 273 

(Raleigh: Edwards and Broughton Company, 1958 [repro- 
duced from the first printing by E. M. Uzzell, Raleigh, 
1903] ) ; Donald W. Harper, Economic Regulation of the 
Motor Trucking Industry by the States (Urbana: Univer- 
sity of Illinois Press, 1959); Avery O. Craven, Civil War in 
the Making, 1815-1860 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Press, 1959); Richard Walser, Short Stories from the 
Old North State (Chapel Hill: The University of North 
Carolina Press, 1959 ) ; Jennings Cropper Wise, The Long Arm 
of Lee: The History of the Artillery of the Army of Northern 
Virginia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959); W. G. 
Bean, Stonewall's Man: Sandie Pendleton (Chapel Hill: The 
University of North Carolina Press, 1959 ) ; Wood Gray, His- 
torians Handbook: A Key to the Study and Writing of History 
(Boston, Mass., Houghton Mifflin Company, 1959); and Roy 
F. Nichols, Religion and American Democracy ( Baton Rouge: 
Louisiana State University Press, 1959). 



aorth Carolina State Library 


Volume XXXVI 

JULY 1959 

Number 3 

Published Quarterly By 
State Department of Archives and History 

Corner of Edenton and Salisbury Streets 
Raleigh, N. C. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
David Leroy Corbitt, Managing Editor 


Frontis Withers Johnston Hugh Talmage Lefler 

George Myers Stephens 



McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins Fletcher M. Green 

Gertrude Sprague Carraway Josh L. Horne 

D. J. Whitener 
Christopher Crittenden, Director 

This review was established in January, 1924, as a medium of publication 
and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institu- 
tions by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The 
regular price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, 
receive this publication without further payment. Back numbers may be 
procured at the regular price of $3.00 per volume, or $.75 per number. 

COVER — This recent photograph shows the restored Tryon 
Palace and Grounds, New Bern, which was once referred to as 
"the most beautiful building in Colonial America." The Palace, 
opened to the public April 10, stands on the foundations of the 
original structure which was completed in 1770 as the first fixed 
Capitol of North Carolina. See pages 374-375 for a traveler's 
comment on the Palace in 1778. 

Photo by courtesy of State Advertising Division 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI July, 1959 Number 3 




Wesley H. Wallace 




Charles H. V. Ebert 



Fannie Memory Blackwelder 


IN NORTH CAROLINA, 1777 AND 1778 358 

Edited by Hugh Buckner Johnston 


Walser's Short Stories from the Old North State — By 
Mildred E. Hartsock ; Walser's Nag's Head and Bertie. 
Two Novels — By Francis B. Dedmond ; Riley's Carolina 
Power and Light Company, 1908-1958 — By Burton F. 
Beers ; McDowell's Colonial Records of South Carolina. 
[Series 2] . Documents Relating to Indian Affairs, May 
21, 1750-August 7, 1754— By William S. Powell; Cole- 
man's The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763-1789 — 
By Don Higginbotham ; Carter's The Territorial Papers 
of the United States, Volume XXIII : The Territory of 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


Florida, 182U-1828 — By Rembert W. Patrick; Craven's 
Civil War in the Making, 1815-1860— By Rembert W. 
Patrick; Fay's and Wiley's This Infernal War: The 
Confederate Letters of Sgt. Edwin H. Fay — By Carolyn 
Andrews Wallace; Hay's Cleburne and his Command. 
By Capt. Irving A. Buck. Pat Cleburne, Stonewall 
Jackson of the West — By Richard E. Yates ; Hesseltine's 
and McNeil's In Support of Clio: Essays in Memory of 
Herbert A. Kellar — By Philip C. Brooks; Degler's 
Out of Our Past: The Forces that Shaped Modern 
America — By Weldon A. Brown ; Brigham's Fifty Years 
of Collecting Americana for the Library of The Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society, 1908-1958 — By Benjamin E. 
Powell ; and Craven's and Cate's The Army Air Forces 
in World War II, Volume VII, Services Around the 
World— By Col. R. S. Milner. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI July, 1959 Number 3 



By Wesley H. Wallace* 

A hundred or more years ago, North Carolina agricultural 
practices had hardly been touched by science and education. 
There were, however, a few voices raised in the first half of 
the last century urging agricultural reform. Beginning in the 
1830's, the agricultural journals and their editors were prom- 
inent among these few critics. Betterment of agriculture in 
North Carolina was the almost single-minded purpose of 
these periodicals; and, as a crusading form of journalism, 
they are worthy of examination. 

Though farm papers as such did not appear in North Caro- 
lina until the 1830's, agricultural information had frequently 
appeared in the State's weekly newspapers for many years. 1 
Elsewhere in the South, at least three farm journals had come 
into existence, including the Agricultural Museum, published 
in Georgetown, District of Columbia, for two years begin- 
ning in 1810, the American Farmer, an important, long-run 
paper commenced in Baltimore in 1819, and the Charleston 
Southern Agriculturalist and Register of Rural Affairs, begun 
inl828. 2 

* Mr. Wesley H. Wallace is an Associate Professor, Department of Radio, 
Television, and Motion Pictures, at the University of North Carolina, Chapel 

1 Cornelius Oliver Cathey, Agricultural Developments in North Carolina, 
1783-1860 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1956, 
Volume XXXVIII of The James Sprunt Studies in History and Political 
Science) , 199, hereinafter cited as Cathey, Agricultural Developments. 

3 Lewis Cecil Gray and Esther Katherine Thompson, History of Agricul- 
ture in the Southern United States to 1860 (New York: Peter Smith, 2 
volumes, 1941, reprinted with the permission of the Carnegie Institution of 
Washington), II, 788, hereinafter cited as Gray and Thompson, History of 
Agriculture. For a general survey of the agricultural press see Albert 
Lowther Demaree, The American Agricultural Press, 1819-1860 (New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1941, Columbia University Studies in the His- 
tory of American Agriculture, Number 8). 


276 The North Carolina Historical Keview 

After these scattered beginnings, the following decade 
ushered in a host of agricultural periodicals. Lewis C. Gray 
estimated there were "probably not less than a hundred" 
such papers started in the South up to the Civil War. 3 

From August, 1838, when John Sherwood began his 
Farmers Advocate, through May, 1861, seven farm papers 
are known to have been published in North Carolina and 
there may have been others. 4 Two of the seven were pub- 
lished before 1850; the remaining five all fell in the decade, 
1852-1861. During some of this latter period, two papers 
were being published simultaneously; and though there were 
short time lapses between the demise of one paper and the 
birth of its successor, to all intents North Carolina was sup- 
plied with at least one farm periodical for the ten years 
beginning with 1852. ( See chart, page 277. ) 

A close study of the seven farm journals in North Carolina 
to 1861 points to the conclusion that while similarities among 
them certainly existed each journal was, in fact, distinct from 
the others in various ways. The Arator, published in Raleigh 
from April, 1855, through August, 1857, exhibited a number 
of dissimilarities to the first of the seven, John Sherwood's 
Farmers Advocate, and William B. Smith's Edgecombe Farm 
Journal, which came at the end of the period. It can be 
granted that the Arator is perhaps "typical of the ante-bellum 
farm papers of North Carolina," 5 but only in some respects. 

The papers varied considerably in size, and even individual 
publications changed sizes during their existence. The small- 

3 Gray and Thompson, History of Agriculture, II, 788. For more than 80 
of these papers see Stephen Conrad Stuntz, List of the Agricultural Periodi- 
cals of the United States and Canada Published During the Century July 
1810 to July 1910 (Washington, D. C: United States Government Printing 
Office, 1941, Miscellaneous Publication Number 398 of the United States 
Department of Agriculture [Emma B. Hawks (ed.)]). Stuntz is difficult to 
use because the papers are listed alphabetically. The geographical indexes 
are available on cards in the United States Department of Agriculture 
Library, Washington, D. C. 

4 See Helen D. Wilkin, "The Promotion of Agriculture in North Carolina, 
1810-1860" (M.A. thesis, 1941, University of North Carolina), 152-160; 
Cathey, Agricultural Developments, 199; Richard Bardolph, "A North Caro- 
lina Farm Journal of the Middle Fifties," The North Carolina Historical 
Review, XXV (January, 1948), 58, hereinafter cited as Bardolph, "A North 
Carolina Farm Journal"; Guion Griffis Johnson, Ante-Bellum North Caro- 
lina: A Social History (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina 
Press, 1937), 795-797, hereinafter cited as Johnson, Ante-Bellum North 

6 Bardolph, "A North Carolina Farm Journal," 60. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 









*• - 







+ ]■ 


I 3 





J * 






















oo — 









5 . 






» J? 






f * 

















278 The North Carolina Historical Review 

est paper was Volume II of the Farmers Advocate, which 
was approximately 5% inches by 7/2 inches, slightly reduced 
from Volume I. Volume III, on the other hand, increased to 
7M by 10 inches. Several of the papers were approximately 
6 by 9 inches; 6 though Volume IV of the North Carolina 
Planter jumped to 10 by 13 inches. The largest of the papers 
was the Edgecombe Farm Journal, which measured 11M by 
16}i inches. 

All the papers were issued monthly except the Farmer s 
Advocate which essayed to appear twice each month, though 
not always was this aim achieved. There was greater variety 
in the number of pages in each issue; and, again, some indi- 
vidual papers changed in this respect during their existence. 
For example, the Farmers Advocate was issued in sixteen 
pages; the North Carolina Farmer started with twenty-four 
pages, reduced to twenty with Volume V and at its end was 
down to sixteen. The Carolina Cultivator came out in thirty- 
two pages, as did the North Carolina Planter until it in- 
creased its page size and then the number of pages was re- 
duced to sixteen. The Edgecombe Farm Journal set out to 
appear in eight pages but its last issue of only four pages 
probably reflected the outbreak of the Civil War. 7 

The journals varied considerably in the degree to which 
they were regularly departmentalized. Fewest departments 
were carried in the North Carolina Farmer and the Farmers 
Journal. The latter publication was put together somewhat as 
a running account with little order or purpose in the arrange- 
ment and the only departments were editorials, a few "com- 
munications," or letters to the editor, and advertisements. In 
contrast to this was the Edgecombe Farm Journal which was 
the best departmentalized of all the papers, with sections 
featuring agriculture, horticulture, editorials, "Rural-Archi- 

6 For example, North Carolina Farmer (Raleigh), The Farmer's Journal 
(Bath and Raleigh), and Carolina Cultivator: devoted to Agriculture, Hor- 
ticulture, and the Mechanic Arts (Raleigh) until Volume II when the size 
became 6V2 by 10 V* inches. These papers will hereinafter be cited as North 
Carolina, Farmer, Former's Journal, and Carolina Cultivator respectively. 

7 The Edgecombe Farm Journal. Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, 
Floriculture, Household- Arts, Rural- Architecture, Zoology, Etc. (Tarboro), 
I (May, 1861), 2, "Our editors of the Journal being absent on duty in 
Raleigh . . . will well account for the size in which it now appears." This 
paper will hereinafter be cited as Edgecombe Farm Journal. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 279 

tecture," household advice, "Zoology" (which the editor ex- 
plained meant in his paper the section devoted to farm ani- 
mals), editorial miscellany, advertisements, and floriculture. 

There was equally wide divergence in the matter of illus- 
trations. The Farmers Advocate contained none; the North 
Carolina Farmer had a few in advertisements, as did most of 
the papers, but only one in the editorial portion. 8 The Caro- 
lina Cultivator featured a number, including trees, a short- 
horn bull, a cross section of an apple, an apiary, and houses 
and plans. 9 

The men who edited and published the agricultural jour- 
nals in ante-bellum North Carolina were as individualistic 
as were their papers. Most, though not all, had experience as 
editors or publishers in other connections. Most were sin- 
cerely anxious to promote the best interests of agriculture in 
a variety of ways. Some of the editors had backgrounds in 
other professions such as the ministry, medicine, or the law, 
and some had practical farming experience. 

John Sherwood, proprietor of the Farmers Advocate, has 
left comparatively little record of his activities as a person 
or farm journalist. Of himself, Sherwood wrote that he was 
not much of a public figure and was not especially well-off 
financially. 10 To read his paper, however, is to share Profes- 
sor Cathey's conviction that Sherwood was "one of the lead- 
ing advocates of greater efficiency in farm operations." 11 
Sometime after the Farmers Advocate came to the end of its 
span, the family moved from "old" Jamestown on the banks 
of Deep River in western Guilford County to the town of 
Greensboro, where they "were long identified with the press 
there." 12 

8 North Carolina Farmer, I (August 29, 1845), 47 — a sketch of a hog. 

9 Carolina Cultivator, I (June, 1855), 118, 119, 123; II (March, 1856), 
4,9,13; II (April, 1856), 40. 

™The Farmer's Advocate and Miscellaneous Reporter, containing Subjects 
on Agriculture, Literature, Science, The Mechanical Arts, Virtue, and Re- 
ligion, with a Brief Notice of the Most Important Passing Events, Both 
Foreign and Domestic (Jamestown), I (August, 1838), 3, hereinafter cited 
as Farmer's Advocate. 

11 Cathey, Agricultural Developments, 102. 

12 The Greensboro Patriot, June 24, 1929. See Johnson, Ante-Bellum North 
Carolina, 796 n. 

280 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Thomas J. Lemay, who published the North Carolina 
Farmer (1845-1849) and the Arator (1855-1858), both in 
Raleigh, was a minister and a political journalist who, in 
1826, purchased an interest in the Raleigh Star and North 
Carolina State Gazette. Lemay and his partner, Alexander J. 
Lawrence, published the paper as a half-hearted Jackson 
organ until 1832, when Lemay bought out Lawrence and 
brought in the avowed exponent of nullification, David Out- 
law. Lemay was a member of the State central committee 
for Jackson-Barbour in 1832. 13 Sixteen years later his name 
was attached to a circular letter of the central committee of 
the North Carolina Whig Convention. 14 And after the forma- 
tion of the North Carolina Agricultural Society in 1852, 
Thomas Lemay took an active part in its affairs. 15 

Especially prominent in agricultural advancement in North 
Carolina, Dr. John M. Tompkins 16 was for a time a resident 
of Bath, where he edited the Farmers Journal. Though the 
letters "M.D." appear after his name, there is no indication 
that Tompkins practiced medicine. After moving to Raleigh 
sometime about August, 1853, he had a position in the J. M. 
Lovejoy Academy, teaching elementary, agricultural, and ex- 
perimental chemistry. 17 In addition, he acted as consultant 
and soil analyst for farmers. 18 Tompkins seems to have had 
financial difficulties, however; William D. Cooke, a Raleigh 
publisher, took over management of the journal until its final 
issue in December, 1854, 19 and at the time, Cooke later 
claimed, Tompkins owed him $1,730.00. 20 

13 Daniel Miles McFarland, "North Carolina Newspapers, Editors and 
Journalistic Politics, 1815-1835," The North Carolina Historical Review, 
XXX (July, 1953), 393, 401-402. 

"Henry Thomas Shanks (ed.), The Papers of Willie Person Mangum 
(Raleigh: State Department of Archives and History, 5 volumes, 1950- 
1956), V, 121. 

15 Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac Hamilton (ed.), The Papers of Thomas 
Ruff in (Raleigh: North Carolina Historical Commission [State Department 
of Archives and History], 4 volumes, 1918-1920), II, 454, 457, 462, 
465, hereinafter cited as Hamilton, Ruffin Papers. 

ie Dr. Tompkins was chairman of a committee on organization of the 
State agricultural society and played a prominent part throughout the first 
meeting. See Farmer's Journal, I (November, 1852), 243-244, 245-251. 

17 Farmer's Journal, II (November, 1853), 256. 

™ Farmer's Journal, I (March, 1853), 393. 

19 The name "Win. D. Cooke & Co." appears as proprietor on the title page 
of the Farmer's Journal, III (April, 1854). 

20 William D. Cooke to Thomas Ruffin, April 20, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin 
Papers, II, 463. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 281 

The most controversial of all the editors was Benjamin 
Sherwood Hedrick, though the controversy was over his sup- 
port of John C. Fremont and the "free soilers," rather than 
any disagreement with his agricultural advice. Hedrick was 
born near Salisbury in 1827, entered the University of North 
Carolina as a sophomore in 1848, and graduated with first 
honors in 1851. Through the efforts of President David L. 
Swain, Hedrick obtained a small navy position at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, which permitted him to do advanced work in 
chemistry and mathematics at Harvard. Returning to the 
University of North Carolina as Professor of Chemistry, He- 
drick was dismissed by the executive committee of the board 
of trustees in October, 1856, for public expression of unpopu- 
lar political views. 21 It was during the months immediately 
leading up to the controversy that Hedrick was announced 
as editor of the Carolina Cultivator, William D. Cooke's 
farm publication which followed Tompkins's Farmers Jour- 
nal. Hedrick's name disappeared from the masthead after 
the October, 1856, issue; and his letter of resignation was 
published in the Cultivator the following month. 22 

The North Carolina Planter appears to have been the 
State's best ante-bellum farm journal in several respects. 
Among other attributes, it had the most diversified editorial 
staff of any of the seven agricultural periodicals. Owned and 
published by A. M. Gorman, the paper eventually boasted 
four editors, whose names appeared simultaneously on the 
title page. When the paper started in January, 1858, Gorman, 
a Raleigh publisher who also issued a general newspaper, 
seems to have had the over-all editorship. S. W. Westbrook 
of Guilford County, "well known throughout the entire 
South" as a gardener and nurseryman and apparently a prin- 
cipal in the nursery firm of Westbrook and Company of 
Greensboro, 23 was the horticultural editor. William H. Ham- 
ilton of Raleigh, a florist, "an experienced practical garden- 

21 Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac Hamilton, Benjamin Sherwood Hedrick 
(Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1910, Volume X, 
Number 1 of The James Sprunt Historical Publications), passim. 

22 Carolina Cultivator, II (November, 1856), 273. 

28 The North Carolina Planter: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture, and 
the Mechanic Arts (Raleigh), I (January, 1858), 17, 32, hereinafter cited 
as North Carolina Planter. Gorman's weekly newspaper was The Spirit of 
the Age (Raleigh), 1849-1865?; 1876-1896. 

282 The North Carolina Historical Review 

er," was a partner in a florist firm of Hamilton and Carter. 
Hamilton took care of the floriculture department. 24 Two 
years later, Gorman brought in as the principal editor James 
M. Jordan, and to take care of the Western North Carolina 
regional differences John W. Woodfin was added. 

Originally from Isle of Wight County, Virginia, Jordan 
moved to Raleigh toward the end of 1859. He was a widower 
with two children and was characterized as a "man of educa- 
tion—a farmer of thirty years standing. . . ." 25 His tidewater 
farming experience was balanced by the mountain valley 
background of Buncombe County lawyer-farmer John W. 
Woodfin. John was the well-known younger brother of even 
more prominent Nicholas Washington Woodfin who served 
for ten years in the State legislature as the senator from the 
Buncombe-Henderson district. 26 In announcing John Wood- 
fin's appointment as associate editor, the North Carolina 
Planter described him as "of almost universal acquaintance in 
the Western counties, from Salisbury to the Tennessee line." 
In addition, the younger Woodfin was "known in his own 
community as being the best and most practical farmer in 
that section of the country; . . ." 27 

Beginning with the January, 1861, issue, only the names 
of Jordan and Hamilton remained on the title page; Wood- 
fin's disappeared after the December number; and the peri- 
odical itself ceased after the May, 1861, issue. 28 

Almost nothing is known of William Benjamin Smith's pre- 

24 North Carolina Planter, I (March, 1858), 93; I (August, 1858), 264. 

85 North Carolina Planter, III (January, 1860), 17. Jordan's status as a 
farmer was confirmed by an advertisement offering his 432-acre farm for 
sale. The farm was located five miles from the James River, seven miles 
from Smithfield, and three miles from Pagan Creek. See North Carolina 
Planter, II (December, 1859), inside back cover. 

28 Samuel A'Court Ashe (ed.), Biographical History of North Carolina 
from Colonial Times to the Present (Greensboro: Charles L. Van Noppen, 
8 volumes, 1905-1917), II, 481-483. 

27 North Carolina Planter, III (January, 1860), 17. Woodfin's ability as a 
farmer had earlier been established when he received first prize in the 1853 
Indian Corn Sweepstakes by raising 109 bushels on the test acre. His brother 
Nicholas also entered the contest but was disqualified because he did not 
follow the rules for reporting the planting methods. See the Weekly 
Raleigh Register (Raleigh), March 8, 1854. 

28 Woodfin became a cavalry major and was killed in ambush near Warm 
Springs (North Carolina) about November 20, 1863. See Walter Clark (ed.), 
Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina in 
the Great War 186U65 (Raleigh: E. M. Uzzell; Goldsboro: Nash Brothers, 
5 volumes, 1901), IV, 112. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 283 

Civil War activities except that he was a resident of Tarboro 
and from there edited and published the Edgecombe Farm 
Journal. While in Tarboro, he was a member of the local 
Masonic lodge; 29 and he also edited and published a maga- 
zine devoted to political literature. 30 Sometime in 1866, Smith 
moved to Wake County, where his publishing firm, Wm. B. 
Smith & Company, issued Smith's own book on the Masonic 
order and a number of other works. Smith's publishing activ- 
ities must have been extensive since he was a partner with 
John H. Bryan, Jr., of Raleigh, and William Evelyn in the 
Raleigh firm and perhaps was a member of the publishing 
firm of William Evelyn & Company of New Orleans. 31 

Though North Carolina's farm journals were centered on 
agricultural activities, their pages contained a greater variety 
of material than might be supposed. As a generality, Dr. 
John F. Tompkins's own description of his plan for the edi- 
torial content of the Farmers Journal fits the other publica- 
tions as well. Dr. Tompkins wrote that his aim was to have 
"one or more" of his own articles, "several communications 
from our best farmers," and the remainder of each issue to 
be made up of articles suitable to North Carolina's farming 
conditions. Tompkins proposed to obtain this last group by 
reprinting from other papers and journals. 32 Though Tomp- 
kins did not mention them, other familiar editorial items in 
all the journals included formal editorials and unsolicited 
letters from readers. 

The feature articles which appeared in most of the publi- 
cations were either specially-written material by local writers 
or reprints from other periodicals. In subject matter there was 

29 This was the Concord Lodge No. 58, as reported in returns in Proceed- 
ings of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of North Carolina 
(Raleigh: A. M. Gorman, 1862), 33, hereinafter cited as Proceedings of 
North Carolina Grand Lodge. 

80 The Mercury, Devoted to Southern Political Literature (Tarboro), 1859-? 

31 Smith's name disappeared from the Tarboro Lodge and reappeared in 
the Rolesville (Wake County) Lodge No. 156 in 1866, Proceedings of North 
Carolina Grand Lodge, 1867, 128. Smith was the author of The Mysteries of 
Freemasonry (Raleigh: Wm. B. Smith and Company, 1866), and it is in 
the advertisements at the end of this small book that Smith's publishing 
connections are apparent. 

32 Farmer's Journal, I (April, 1852), 1. 

284 The North Carolina Historical Review 

scarcely a topic that escaped attention. 33 John Sherwood be- 
gan the Farmers Advocate with an article so extensive as to 
require publication in three successive issues. Writing under 
the heading "Striking Contrast," Sherwood argued that 
North Carolina's agricultural situation compared unfavorably 
with that of other sections and states. 34 More than twenty 
years later, North Carolina's backwardness in agricultural 
affairs received editorial comment from the North Carolina 
Planter, indicating that the tune and the words were still 
much the same as in the earlier day. 35 

In another article, Sherwood contended that the way to 
gain information about efficient agricultural practices was 
through associations and journals. He recommended that 
"the friends of improvement" form societies, starting with the 
neighborhood, and these to work with county groups which 
in turn would be the foundation for a state society, and this 
would lead into a "great National Society, thus forming effi- 
cient channels of communication throughout the union," 
leading to obviously beneficial results. 36 

Other feature articles in the Farmers Advocate show the 
breadth of interest and variety of sources. Among others, 
there was a long item on "Deep Ploughing" taken from a 
pamphlet by Thomas Moore of Maryland, a series of pieces 
on internal improvements put together from several sources, 
a reprint from the Franklin Farmer (Kentucky) of an ex- 
tract of a report to the Kentucky State Agricultural Society, 
an item from the Southern Cultivator titled "The Mulberry 
Mania— Humbuggery— Observations on the Extension of the 
Silk Culture" that warned bluntly against attempts to pro- 

33 It is difficult to define "feature article/' Those included in this group 
were usually longer than the rest and were either "lead" articles or were 
prominently placed and headed so as to attract attention. Excluded from 
this group were lengthy reprints of portions of books. 

'"Farmer's Advocate, I (August 1, 1838), 3-6; I (August 16, 1838), 27-29; 
I (September 1, 1838), 27-29. 

35 North Carolina Planter, III (September, 1860), 292. 

38 Farmers Advocate, III (January 1, 1842), 235. Though Thomas J. 
Lemay has been credited with being the earliest advocate (in 1848) of a 
revived State agricultural society, Sherwood was a vigorous exponent of a 
well-integrated plan for agricultural societies, including a State society, 
some seven years earlier. See Farmer's Advocate, III (January 1, 1842), 
235, and Bardolph, "A North Carolina Farm Journal," 61. 


N. C. Agricultural Journals 285 

duce raw silk, and "Experiment on the Farm/' reprinted from 
the Tennessee Farmer.* 7 

The North Carolina Planter had a number of interesting 
feature articles in the years immediately preceding the out- 
break of the Civil War. Abraham W. Venable, Congressman 
from North Carolina, contributed advice on crop rotation; 
Edmund Ruffin, one of the South's leading agriculturalists, 
was represented in two reprints from the Southern Planter, 
one on the drilling of peas, the other on the use of straw and 
cornstalks as top dressing; and there was a special contribu 
tion by a Whiteville, Tennessee, farmer on corn cultivation. 
Especially featured were several articles on the subject of 
"horizontal plowing and hillside ditching," each apparently 
entered in a contest sponsored by the North Carolina Agri- 
cultural Society. Dr. Nicholas T. Sorsby of Alabama received 
the first prize of $50.00 for his essay which the Planter pub- 
lished as it did similar ones from two other correspondents. 39 
As time passed, three articles appeared which touched on 
slavery. A reprint from the Southern Countryman, discussing 
the causes and remedy for the low price of land in the South, 
affirmed that slavery and climate were not among the 
causes. 40 The second was a special article for the Planter 
signed only "J.S.D.," titled "Is It Our Interest?" which argued 
against the re-opening of the slave trade. 41 The third was a 
comparison of slave labor and free labor systems drawn by 
Edmund Ruffin from the United States Census. 42 

As numerous and varied as were the featured articles, un- 
questionably the bulk of information in every farm journal 
lay in the short items ranging in length from a paragraph to 
a page or more on a bewildering array of subjects. The Farm- 
ers Advocate, in keeping with its subtitle which promised 
items on "Virtue and Religion," came out briefly but firmly 

37 Farmer's Advocate, I (October 16, 1838), 81-86; 89-92; I (February 1, 
1839), 193-197; I (May 1, 1839), 273-277; I (June 1, 1839), 305-307. 

38 North Carolina Planter, I (January, 1858), 4-6; I (February, 1858), 
42-45; II (January, 1859), 4-7; II (May, 1859), 129-131. 

"North Carolina Planter, I (May, 1858), 124-142; I (June, 1858), 169- 
176; I (July, 1858), 201-203; I (August, 1858), 233-235; I (September, 
1858), 281-283. 

40 North Carolina Planter, II (June, 1859), 161-164. 

41 North Carolina Planter, II (September, 1859), 257-258. 

"North Carolina Planter, III (April, 1860), 97-103. 

286 The North Carolina Historical Review 

with paragraphs opposing the use of alcohol and tobacco. 
Examples of other short items include comments on turnips, 
manures and fertilizers, crop rotation, agricultural schools, 
and the need for knowledge in farming. 43 

Cures for various and sundry ailments were frequently in- 
cluded. In the short space of two pages, the North Carolina 
Farmer offered advice, generally culled from other sources, 
on the cure of cancer, piles, lockjaw, and rheumatism, both 
inflammatory and common. 44 The North Carolina Planter on 
one occasion carried an item of "Advice to Consumptive 
People." As an indication, however, that health items were 
very much in the minority, the same issue of the Planter dis- 
played two items on manures, five items on wheat— two of 
which dealt with the problem of smut— three pieces of advice 
on tobacco, and individual items on potato tops, Chinese 
sugar cane, the value of the earthworm, destruction of cater- 
pillars in trees, fattening hogs, and an account of the value 
of growing "live" fences. It will be noted that cotton was not 
included. Of these twenty short items, seven were written 
especially for the Planter, four came from the Southern 
Planter of Petersburg, and one each came from an unidenti- 
fied New York source, an unidentified Scottish source, the 
Journal of the Royal Agriculture Society, the Salisbury 
Watchman, the Horticulturist, Journal of Health, Newberry 
Sun, Country Gentleman, and Southern Homestead. 45 

A short article headed "Snuff Rubbing" appeared in the 
Carolina Cultivators July, 1855, issue. This item is worthy 
of special comment because it illustrates the roundabout 
way news stories sometimes took in finding their way to 
North Carolina journals and because the subject matter is 
somewhat out of the ordinary. 

"Farmer's Advocate, III (July 16, 1841), 110-111, 112; I (August 1, 
1838), 15; I (August 16,1838), 19; I (March 1, 1839), 221; I (September 1, 
1839), 369-370, 370-371, 372-374, 374-375. 

u North Carolina Farmer, V (October, 1849), 84-85. 

45 North Carolina Planter, I (August, 1858), passim. The names in the 
text are as they appeared in the journal and clarification of their titles is as 
follows : Carolina Watchman ( Salisbury) ; The Horticulturist and Journal 
of Rural Art and Rural Taste (Albany, New York, and Boston, Massachu- 
setts) ; The Journal of Health (London?) ; The Southern Farmer (Peters- 
burg, Virginia); Rising Sun (Newberry, South Carolina?); The Country 
Gentleman (Albany, New York) ; and The Southern Homestead (Nashville, 
Tennessee) . 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 287 

The story seems to have originated with a "special corre- 
spondent" of the Cincinnati Times, from which paper the 
Indiana Farmer copied it, from which latter journal the 
Carolina Cultivator obtained the item. At the beginning of 
the story, the Indiana Farmer commented that the corre- 
spondent's "statements may be true but we are not willing 
to believe them." Then followed the observations on "snuff 
rubbing," which was described at considerable length as dan- 
gerous and a "sickening, dirty, poisonous practice" that 
Women's Rights conventions ought to look into. The prac- 
tice, the correspondent thought, took on aspects of the drug 
habit. He described the process of "rubbing," or "dipping," 
as the modern day calls it; and then wrote of its place in so- 
ciety: "At parties, snuff -rubbing forms a portion of the 
ladies' entertainment. ... In many of the Southern churches, 
the ladies side of the house is as badly stained with tobacco 
as the gentlemen's." 46 

It is scarcely too much to say that no North Carolina agri- 
cultural publication was complete without its complement of 
letters to the editor. Sometimes these were grouped in a de- 
partment called "Communications"; 47 at other times, they 
were scattered throughout the journal. The letters asked 
questions, commented on articles, gave advice, and replied 
to other letters. For instance, the question of whether North 
Carolinians engaged in agricultural pursuits should be called 
farmers or planters, and from that to the farmer's relation to 
politics, occupied space in the North Carolina Farmer for a 
period of at least five months. Some of the exchanges and the 
editorial comments are instructive on contemporary attitudes 
toward a definition of farmer and planter and toward the 
farmer and his relationship to politics. 

The exchange started in the September 15, 1845, issue with 
a letter from an unidentified writer who thought that the 
North Carolina "Planter" would have been a better title for 
the paper than the North Carolina "Farmer." The writer sup- 
ported his argument with a statement he said was made ten 
years earlier by the venerable Nathaniel Macon to the effect 

46 Carolina Cultivator, I (July, 1858), 165. 

47 Farmer's Advocate, Farmer's Journal, and Carolina Cultivator had 
such departments. 

288 The North Carolina Historical Review 

x 'that the term Farmer was seldom heard in North Carolina, 
and that he [Macon] was glad of it, as it always indicated 
to him a state of tenancy— he preferred the term Planter, 
which conveyed to his mind more of independency and plen- 
ty/ " Editor Lemay politely disagreed with his "respected" 

The appelation farmer, in North Carolina and throughout the 
United States, is applied as a comprehensive term, designating 
the agriculturist in all his pursuits, and conveying the idea of 
independency and plenty whenever it is associated with intelli- 
gence, industry and economy; whereas the term planter is gen- 
erally used in a more restricted sense, to distinguish the tobacco 
or cotton grower. Mr. Macon was mistaken. The reason that he 
but seldom heard the term farmer is, that he lived in a section 
of the State where tobacco was the great staple of the agricul- 
turist or farmer. 48 

The following month, "A.O.G." from Duplin County sup- 
ported Editor Lemay 's contention: 

... in this section of country, in speaking of an agriculturist, 
there is not one man in five hundred who would say "planter" 
it is all "Farmer." Planter ! We have too many planters now, to 
the number of farmers ; or rather, I should say, we have too few 
farmers to the number of planters. 49 

In this same letter, the writer had sent in $5.00 for a sub- 
scription "club" to the North Carolina Farmer. At the same 
time, he noted that another reader had wished the Farmer 
well even though he differed from Editor Lemay in politics. 
Correspondent A.O.G." turned to this point with vehemence: 
"Why not! What has politics to do with agriculture? Now, 
sir, I differ with you in politics myself as wide as the poles, 
so does every subscriber I have sent you; but, I repeat, what 
has politics to do with agriculture?" He thought more farm- 
ers would be better off if they learned more about farming 
and paid less attention to politics. 50 

48 North Carolina Farmer, I (September 15, 1845), 81. 
49 North Carolina Farmer, I (October 15, 1845), 114. 
60 North Carolina Farmer, I (October 15, 1845), 113-114. 


The following month, the same correspondent sent in more 
subscriptions, and complained that " 'f or the purpose of mak- 
ing a little political show' " many farmers were leaving the 
soil. He thought that agricultural education was the answer— 
' 'then men would quit quarreling about Whigism and De- 
mocracy, Texas and Oregon, and turn their attention to 
farming— to manuring and "plowing deep while sluggards 
sleep." '" 51 

In January, 1846, a Wayne County writer, perhaps inspired 
by this series of outbursts on farmers and politics, wondered 
why Wake County men were so backward in their farming. 
It was not true in other things. " In politics,' " he wrote, " 1 
know, they are wide awake, . . . ' " In fact , politics, to their 
detriment, was almost their sole concern. He wanted Wake 
farmers to set an example by forming a county agricultural 
society. 52 

In February, the Wayne County writer found concurrence 
instead of contradiction from a Wake County correspondent 
who wanted Raleigh editors to take the lead in forming such 
a society. Noting that the need for agricultural knowledge 
was great, the correspondent went on: 

Every tallow faced stripling at a crossroad meeting, can sit 
on the root of a tree, and while he turns his 'chaw' from one 
cheek to the other and whittles his stick, can give his views on 
a U. S. Bank and Tariff, &c. satisfied if his fence is high enough 
to keep his neighbor's old sow from jumping over it. 53 

Though agricultural editors condemned the interference 
of party politics with the more important— to them— activity 
of progressive farming, some of these same editors were not 
above playing a bit of politics in the realm of agriculture. 
After the North Carolina Agricultural Society was launched 
in 1852, 54 Dr. John F. Tompkins's Farmers Journal had been 
selected as the official periodical of the society; and when 
that paper ceased publication with the December, 1854, 

61 North Carolina Farmer, I (November 15, 1845), 140-142. 

52 North Carolina Farmer, I (January 15, 1846), 183-184. 

53 North Carolina Farmer, I (February 2, 1846), 205. 

54 For a description of various agricultural societies, from the first State 
organization in 1818 to the one started in 1852, see Cathey, Agricultural 
Developments, 77-81. 

290 The North Carolina Historical Review 

issue, the society was without an editorial outlet. It is perti- 
nent to the problem which follows to recall that William D. 
Cooke, a Raleigh publisher, was the actual proprietor of the 
paper at its end and that Editor Tompkins, according to 
Cooke's calculations, owed Cooke $1,730.00. 55 

In the spring of 1855, a teapot-sized tempest blew up over 
the matter of selecting a new official "organ" of the State 
agricultural society. Involved were William Cooke, already 
publisher of the Southern Weekly Post and prospective pub- 
lisher of a farm journal; Thomas J. Lemay, also a Raleigh 
publisher who had put out the Raleigh Star and, in the late 
1840's, the North Carolina Farmer; and Dr. Edward A. 
Crudup of Franklinton, chairman of the executive committee 
of the State agricultural group. Thomas Ruffin, President of 
the North Carolina Agricultural Society and a leading attor- 
ney, jurist, agriculturist, and political figure, served as the 
focal point of the letters putting forth claims, counter claims, 
accusations, and denials. 

In a letter to Ruffin, dated March 8, 1855, Cooke wanted 
the State agricultural society president to appoint a new 
chairman of the executive committee. Cooke, reporting a 
rumor that Dr. Crudup had resigned, complained that he 
had written Crudup several times asking for a list of pre- 
miums for the State fair the society was staging in the fall. 
Almost as if it were an afterthought, Cooke noted that he had 
sent along with the letter a copy of the first issue of the 
Carolina Cultivator, "the paper which I pledged myself to 
issue at the last meeting" of the society. Cooke told Ruffin he 
had gotten some of his friends and members of the executive 
committee to endorse his paper, "for the purpose of assuring 
those who do not know me that the Cultivator had their 
confidence." 56 

Ruffin wrote from his home near Hillsboro to Cooke say- 
ing that the publication of the Carolina Cultivator came as a 
surprise. Though Cooke had been recommended to him, 
Ruffin said he had not heard of the "pledge" to publish the 

55 See above, page 280. 

56 William D. Cooke to Thomas Ruffin, March 8, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin 
Papers, II, 452. The resolution passed at the January meeting of the society 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 291 

paper and, besides, those recommending Cooke had agreed 
that he was too busy to take on the job. Ruffin told Cooke 
that because he had "no personal knowledge of your quali- 
fications for Editor of such a work," he had agreed with 
others that Thomas J. Lemay should be the one to publish 
the journal. If by some chance Lemay did not go through 
with his plans, Ruffin said he would become one of Cooke's 
subscribers. 57 

On March 13, Dr. Crudup responded to Ruffin s questions 
about the rumored resignation and about Cooke's new jour- 
nal. Denying any intention of resigning and reviewing the 
action taken at the past meeting of the agricultural society, 
Crudup claimed that it was at Cooke's instigation a resolu- 
tion was introduced and passed directing the executive com- 
mittee to choose an "Organ." When this had been done, 
Cooke and two other editors— Lemay and a "Mr. Kennedy of 
Goldsboro"— each sought the privilege of publishing the 
official journal; whereupon Crudup said he had recom- 
mended letting the full society choose among the applicants 
at its fall meeting. According to Crudup, Lemay and Ken- 
nedy had agreed but Cooke "seemed rather cross," and ob- 
jected to Lemay's election as secretary of the society. The 
next thing Crudup knew was that he had received a proposed 
title page from Cooke's journal, styling itself as the official 
voice of the society, and apparently seeking Crudup's en- 
was as follows : " 'Resolved — That the Executive Committee be authorized 
to adopt, as the Organ of the Society, any agricultural periodical publish- 
ed in this State, which they may think proper: and that they be requested 
to take such steps toward securing subscribers, as in their judgment they 
may see proper.' " This was published in the Carolina Cultivator, I (March, 
1855), 18, and the following endorsement was added: "And, whereas, 
William D. Cooke, of Raleigh, late publisher of the 'Farmer's Journal,' 
proposes to publish an Agricultural Journal . . . therefore, we, the under- 
signed, members of the Executive Committee appointed by the State 
Agricultural Society, do hereby take pleasure in recommending the said 
Carolina Cultivator to the planters and farmers of North Carolina; 
judging from Mr. Cooke's past experience in conducting an Agricultural 
paper, we feel assured that the Carolina Cultivator will prove to be 
worthy [of] the support and patronage of the Agricultural community. 

"And we do hereby appeal to the Farmers of the State, and all others 
who feel an interest in the Agricultural Improvement of North Carolina 
to sustain the Carolina Cultivator, and use their influence in pro- 
curing subscribers for the same." Following the notice were the names 
of Wilson W. Whitaker, W. H. Jones, James F. Jordan, and John C 

67 Ruffin to Cooke (copy), March [10?], 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, 
II, 453-454. 

292 The North Carolina Historical Review 

dorsement. The executive committee chairman refused but 
when he saw the first issue of the paper with the endorsement 
signed by four members of the executive committee, Crudup 
said he went to Raleigh and persuaded Cooke to "correct the 
false impression" that the paper was the official journal rep- 
resenting the society. 58 Crudup told Ruffin he was not pleased 
with Cooke's actions and that "his whole object had been to 
forestall the Committee and make it subserve his own private 
purposes. ... I intended ... to thwart him in his selfish 
design, . . ." Then Crudup revealed his own attitudes about 
the selection of the paper. He told Ruffin he had called an 
executive committee meeting in Raleigh for April 2 and 
that the selection of a journal would be part of the business. 
" 'The Arator' is clearly the paper for us, and Mr. Lemay I 
think the most suitable editor we could possibly get. 'The 
Arator' will be out shortly." 59 

The executive committee met but no quorum was present. 
Of the seven members attending, the vote stood four to three 
in favor of the Arator. In addition Lemay's supporters had 
garnered four proxies; but because Cooke's friends objected 
to having these counted the decision was postponed to the 
May meeting of the committee. 60 

Cooke came to his own defense on April 20. Writing to 
Judge Ruffin, he reviewed the termination of the Farmer s 
Journal as being due to the lack of subscribers and to the 
fact that Tompkins owed him money. He then reminded 
Ruffin that the executive committee wanted another paper, 
which Cooke told members of the committee he was willing 
to publish, telling Ruffin that Dr. Crudup at first accepted 
the editorship of the proposed "Carolina Cultivator," but 

58 Such a correction appeared in the Carolina Cultivator, I (April, 1855), 
50: "The endorsement of several individual members of the Executive 
Committee of the State Agricultural Society, published in our last, was 
not intend [ed] by the signers or ourselves, to be understood as an official 
act, but as an emphatic recommendation from gentlemen officially con- 
nected with the Society. We ask nothing but a fair examination, and a 
liberal support." 

59 Crudup to Ruffin, March 13, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, II, 455- 
457. On March 16, Crudup wrote Ruffin that he opposed selection of the 
Carolina Cultivator because "it would have savoured of favoritism with 
which we have already been charged by some of the Editors." Crudup to 
Ruffin March 16, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, II, 458. 

60 Crudup to Ruffin, April 14, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, II, 461-462. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 293 

changed his mind when he became chairman of the execu- 
tive committee. However, Cooke says, Crudup urged him 
(Cooke) to go on with the paper and that Crudup would 
become one of three partners in the enterprise. 61 

William Cooke's version of the circumstances surrounding 
the adoption of the resolution authorizing the executive com- 
mittee to select a new "Organ" differed materially from the 
account given by Crudup. In his April 20th letter to Thomas 
RufBn, Cooke claimed the resolution did not begin with him 
but that he was asked to draw it up in favor of the proposed 
"Carolina Cultivator." Cooke told RufBn he did not hear of 
any other applicants and he did not know about Lemay's 
intentions to put out a paper "until the Cultivator was in 
type." Cooke complained of Crudup's actions: "His course 
has been very severely commented upon in Raleigh by those 
who have heretofore been his warm friends, and who are 
acquainted with the facts in the case, not only on [as] a 
breach of confidence but as calculated to do great injury to 
the Society." Cooke thought neither his nor Lemay's journal 
should be selected as the voice of the society. He proposed 
going ahead with his paper since it would be no more burden 
than had been the Farmers Journal. He told RufBn he was 
not editing the paper but hoped "to be able to issue an Agri- 
cultural Journal equal at least to any in the country." 62 

Another member of the executive committee, Kenneth 
Rayner, wrote Ruffin a few days later recommending that 
RufBn urge Crudup not to force the issue but to put the 
matter over to the fall meeting of the full society so that 
there would be time "for passion and feeling to be allayed." 
Rayner wanted to avoid the development of ill will "among 
those [Crudup, Cooke, and Lemay] who have been our most 
effective men in our great agricultural enterprise." 63 

Perhaps as a result of Rayner's caution, Cooke's advice 
that neither paper be selected, and Ruffm's efforts, the North 
Carolina Agricultural Society did not give the title of "official 

61 Cooke to Ruffin, April 20, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, II, 463-464. 

63 Cooke to Ruffin, April 20, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, II, 464-465. 
The editor Cooke then had chosen is not identified. Benjamin Hedrick 
became editor later in the year. 

63 Rayner to Ruffin, April 28, 1855, Hamilton, Ruffin Papers, II, 465-466. 

294 The North Carolina Historical Review 

organ" to any other paper, 64 though in 1860 the society passed 
a resolution recognizing "The 'North Carolina Planter' as an 
Agricultural Journal worthy of our patronage, and [we] 
hope that the members of the Society will use their exertions 
to extend its circulation." 65 

This internal struggle for preferment never reached the 
generality of North Carolina's residents. It was conducted 
quietly and in a manner to prevent adverse effects on agri- 
cultural development. In their own journals, Cooke, Lemay, 
and the agricultural editors who preceded and followed them 
usually spoke editorially in harmonious support of enlight- 
ening agricultural practices and avoided political contro- 

Though there was considerable variety in the subject mat- 
ter of editorials in North Carolina's ante-bellum agricultural 
periodicals, most of the editorials can be grouped around 
several large topics: the need for more subscriptions; 66 pleas 
to farmer-readers to write of their own experiences so that 
these could be published for the edification of other readers; 
the need for improvement in agricultural practices in North 
Carolina; the value of agricultural journals in furthering the 
best agricultural interests and improvements; and advice on 
how to farm more successfully. What is surprising about 
these editorials is the scarcity of mention of sectional parti- 
sanship until almost the eve of the Civil War; and, even then, 
the volume of such material was not large. 

Illustrative of the concentration upon general uplift and 
improvement in agriculture are the twelve editorials in a 
single issue of the North Carolina Planter for June, 1858. In 
an item on the North Carolina Agricultural Society, the editor 
suggested that railroads ought to give newspaper and journal 
editors free tickets to ride the trains to visit the State Fair in 
Raleigh— permanent passes would be better still, of course. 
Then the support of the State Fair was urged on everyone, 

64 Cathey, Agricultural Developments, 82. Professor Bardolph discussed 
Lemay's disappointment that the Arator was not chosen. See Bardolph, 
"A North Carolina Farm Journal," 67-68. 

65 North Carolina Planter, III (November, 1860), 366. 

66 Pleas for subscriptions ran throughout the journals. In the North 
Carolina Planter, for example, subscriptions were discussed in I (April, 
1858), 113; I (May, 1858), 145, 147; I (June, 1858), 186, 188, 190; I 
(July, 1858), 217-218; II (February, 1859), 49-50, and others. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 295 

though the editor complained that it ought to be in early 
October instead of in November. A third item acknowledged 
as "The Right Kind of Encouragement" the subscriptions 
sent in by several people. The next four concerned farming 
activities— "Home Truths for Farmers"; "Warts on Horses 
and Cattle"; how to raise sweet potatoes from seed; and how 
to get rid of the turnip fly. The eighth editorial thanked the 
Henderson County Agricultural Society for endorsing the 
Planter and recommending that all the society members sub- 
scribe. How to defeat the "Chinch Bug" occupied one space; 
preparation of "Swamp Manure" was described in another. 
"The Farmer— Morally and Intellectually" gave considera- 
tions on the "real grandeur and importance" of farming. And 
finally, in an editorial headed "Hard Work" the point was 
made that farming properly was hard work but probably no 
harder than becoming a scholar such as the historian William 
H. Prescott, who was known to have had a "long struggle 
to fame." 67 

Almost from first to last in the 1838-1861 period, farmers 
of North Carolina were criticized by journal editors for their 
shiftlessness and for their failure to take advantage of the 
scientific knowledge of farming available to them. In a long 
editorial on June 1, 1839, the Farmers Advocate discussed 
"Our Condition and the necessity of improvement," in which 
John Sherwood argued against the habit of farming in old, 
inefficient ways. He criticized the lack of awareness of 
changes that made North Carolina farmers appear to for- 
eigners or travelers in a most unlovely and unlettered light, 
and he inveighed against the tendency of North Carolina 
farmers to procrastinate. 68 North Carolina was compared un- 
favorably with Virginia in the matter of members and money 
in the State agricultural society. The Farmers Journal in De- 
cember, 1853, pointed out that Virginia had 4,000 members 
and $50,000 whereas North Carolina had about 400 members 

67 North Carolina Planter, I (June, 1858), 185-190. 

68 Farmer's Advocate, I (June 1, 1839), 316-318. The word "science" or 
the term "scientific farming" or similar phrases are found frequently. 
See, for example, North Carolina Planter, III (June, 1860), 193; III 
(September, 1860), 289. 

296 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and $3,000. 69 The Carolina Cultivator urged that North Caro- 
linians "arouse from lethargy" because other states north, 
south, and west had left North Carolina behind. 70 And 
toward the end of the period, the North Carolina Planter 
seems to have put its finger on why farmers in the Old North 
State did not do better and why agricultural journals were 
not better supported: 

We have conversed with men in Wake county, who tell us that 
they farm it according to their own notions, that they don't want 
any instructions from books — that they farm it after the manner 
of their fathers, believing that their plowing and hoeing will 
impart fertility to the soil and make it yield miraculously; at 
the same time they are ignorant of the modus operandi. . . . The 
old fogies, then, opposed to book farming, as they term it, to the 
improvement of the times, to the progressive age, must be civi- 
lized by the efforts of young America, instructed in the art of 
doubling their crops, and the use of the improved implements 
and utensils of farming. 71 

In connection with the improvement of agricultural prac- 
tices, a favorite theme was to urge the taking of the current 
North Carolina agricultural periodical as a source of agri- 
cultural information. Other journals were good but they did 
not reflect the special conditions in North Carolina. 72 

The usefulness of agricultural periodicals was sometimes 
linked with the fact that politics was not discussed. 73 John 
Sherwood thought agricultural journals were not believed by 
their readers because they had learned to disbelieve items 
printed in political journals. Sherwood was convinced that 
editors of farm papers were not concerned with party poli- 
tics but were motivated by a desire to improve agriculture. 
Sherwood described perfectly the importance of the farm 
publication to the improvement of agriculture: 

69 Farmer's Journal, II (December, 1853), 272-273. 

70 Carolina Cultivator, I (September, 1855), 224. 

71 North Carolina Planter, III (September, 1860), 292. 

72 See, for example, North Carolina Farmer, I (June 13, 1845), 1-4, 13, 

73 North Carolina Farmer, I (June 13, 1845), 17. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 297 

. . . discoveries from which great improvements have been 
made . . . might each have remained confined within the limits 
of a single neighborhood, had it not been for the publication of 
Agricultural Journals. But whenever any new improvement is 
made, and sufficiently tested to confirm its utility, it is . . . com- 
municated for publication in one or more Agricultural Papers; 
it is then copied from one paper to another, until it becomes 
known to many thousand readers. 74 

Dr. John Tompkins noted that farm papers were increasing 
but that it was a lot easier to get a "new party paper" going 
than to start a farm journal. Reading about agriculture 
"seems to be held in the very lowest esteem," Tompkins 
thought, and as a result agricultural journal publishers had 
to charge prices lower than those "of the meanest and most 
vulgar vehicle of party trash to be found in the country." 75 

The absence of sectionalism in the State's agricultural 
journals— either the familiar East- West division in North 
Carolina or the North-South controversy— was quite remark- 
able throughout most of the ante-bellum period. It was only 
in 1859 that the North-South division began to creep in. The 
North Carolina Planter contended that the way to become 
educated in agricultural matters was to subscribe to the 
Planter which had access to the columns of twenty southern 
agricultural publications. Nine months later, the sectional 
difference became more explicit. Editor James M. Jordan 
pointed out that he believed there were northern agricultural 
papers which had a larger circulation in North Carolina than 
did the Planter. Because farming was different in North 
Carolina from that in the North, Jordan could not see the 
farmers' reasons for "encouraging these Northern agricultural 
journals in preference to those of their own sunny side." He 
reminded his readers of the southern rage at John Brown's 
raid on Harper's Ferry but was unhappy to note that this 
rage had disappeared. Merchants continued to buy from the 
North, North Carolina newspapers continued to publish 
items from Northern papers, "by way, we suppose, of recom- 
mending them to the favorable consideration of their sub- 
scribers"; and it was the South's money and slave system of 

74 Farmer's Advocate, II (December, 1840), 369-373. 
78 Farmer's Journal, I (April, 1852), 21-22. 

298 The North Carolina Historical Review 

labor that supported the North. Then Jordan wound up a 
purely political harangue more usually found in the general 
newspapers, using terms like "irrepressible conflict," "North- 
ern free soil, black republican, squatter sovereignty," and the 
like. Jordan's complaints about the preference given northern 
journals was echoed a few months later by the Edgecombe 
Farm Journal, which objected to the reception given "periodi- 
cals from abolition publishing houses. . . ." 76 

Slavery and slave labor mentioned in Jordan's editorial 
were not the usual topics. Editors talked about the slave sys- 
tem only occasionally and mostly these comments were 
grouped in the 1860's. Dr. John F. Tompkins, however, de- 
voted a long editorial in 1853 to the responsibility of the 
master to his Negroes. Writing under the heading of "Man- 
agement of Negroes," Dr. Tompkins touched on the moral 
issue and condemned a show of kindness that was coupled 
with neglect. "The responsibility of a master is, we think, 
great— his accountability in the world to come in relation to 
this matter [of slavery] is immense." It was no kindness to 
the master or to the Negroes, the editor contended, to let 
them lie idle yet not feed or look after them. 77 

Though it is perhaps merely coincidental, it was not until 
about the time James M. Jordan came to Raleigh from Isle 
of Wight County, Virginia, that the North Carolina Planter 
began to take part in the defense of the South and southern 
institutions. Following the editorial in December, 1859, deal- 
ing with northern agricultural journals, the southern labor 
system, and the North's attacks on southern practices and 
rights, Jordan returned to the same general subject three 
months later. In the February, 1860, issue he discussed the 
"Political State of Agriculture." Saying that as editor, "we 
know no party; it is our duty to encourage, protect and pro- 
mote the interest of the farmer," Jordan went on to discuss 
the adverse effects of the tariff on agriculture. Tariffs were 
not the only troubles, however; the increase in free Negroes 

76 North Carolina Farmer, II (December, 1859), 369-370; III (September, 
1860), 290-291; Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (March, 1861), 4. The slave 
system of labor was praised in the Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (Decem- 
ber, 1860), 4. 

'"Farmer's Journal, II (May, 1853), 52-54. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 299 

was a major agricultural problem because the free men of 
color disturbed and disrupted the work of slaves. Since the 
economy of North Carolina and of the South was based on 
slavery, Jordan had only two recommendations to make re- 
garding free Negroes : "Remove them beyond the limits of the 
State or reduce them to slavery." 78 

Two other editorials reviewing the place of southern agri- 
culture with its foundation of slavery appeared in the North 
Carolina Planter; still another was published in the Edge- 
combe Farm Journal. The Planter denounced abolitionists 
and argued the constitutional protection of slavery in one; in 
the other, James M. Jordan expressed his belief that agricul- 
ture was the true foundation of everything but that it was 
always under attack. In this four-page editorial, Jordan re- 
viewed the attacks on slavery from the Missouri Compromise 
forward, holding that the Missouri Compromise was wrong 
because Congress had no authority to go into the question. 
The Tarboro publication contended that cotton weighed 
"heavier in the political balances of the world than any other 
article of agricultural or manufacturing produce" in the 
United States; and Smith argued "that if the South be de- 
prived of slave labor the world will be deprived of its cotton 
and cotton fabrics. . . " 79 

Only rarely was the possibility of military action fore- 
shadowed in editorials of North Carolina's farm papers. In 
March, 1860, Editor Jordan attached his initials to a recom- 
mendation that North Carolina needed to look to her own 
defenses by getting her militia in a state of readiness. The 
union ought to stand, he believed, but a Republican victory 
in the November election would mean the union would be 
dissolved and North Carolina ought to follow the example 
of other southern states which were already taking military 
precautions. Just a year later, the Edgecombe Farm Journal 
urged the need for planting cotton. War was imminent, the 
paper declared; and if it should "last the whole year, or even 
longer," cotton would be in great demand as a medium of 

78 North Carolina Planter, III (February, 1860), 50-52. 
"North Carolina Planter, III (May, 1860), 161-165; III (November, 
1860), 353-357; Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (March, 1861), 4. 

300 The North Carolina Historical Review 

exchange for supplies and equipment which would be 
needed. 80 ; 

In spite of these examples of militant sectionalism in a few 
political editorials, the agricultural papers generally kept to 
those matters which would improve rather than destroy; and 
whether the tone was one of cajoling, entreating, or prod- 
ding, the editorial was used mainly as a support for improved 
agricultural practices. 

The North Carolina Planter was not sure that editors of 
preceding agricultural journals in North Carolina had always 
known what the best agricultural practices were. At any rate, 
the forerunners of the Planter had been relatively short-lived, 
a "fate justly befalling all enterprizes undertaken by men not 
qualified to conduct them." The Planter was sure the pre- 
vious "editors were intelligent men in other departments," 
but implied that only the Planter was edited by a farmer and 
because this was so the Planter would succeed where others 
failed. Editing was not all, of course; with enough subscrip- 
tions, "we shall have the means of going out as missionaries 
to civilize the anti-book farmers of the State." 81 

An examination of North Carolina's agricultural press be- 
fore the Civil War leads to the conclusion that lack of sub- 
scriptions was more truly a cause of failure than was the lack 
of farming knowledge on the part of journal editors. The 
lack of subscriptions was likely though not definitely related 
to another aspect of inadequate financial support for the 
papers— the general scarcity of advertising. Advertising and 
subscriptions were the only means by which any journal 
could pay its own way. 

Subscription rates were low, even by the standards of the 
day, 82 and there were such things as "club rates" of multiple 
copies sent to a single address which further reduced the 
annual rate. The Farmers Advocate charged $1.25 yearly 
for twenty-four issues, with a special club rate of ten copies 
for $10.00, all payable in advance. The North Carolina 
Farmer was $1.50 annually, but only $1.00 if the sum was 

80 North Carolina Planter, III (March, 1860), 81-83; Edgecombe Farm 
Journal, I (March, 1861), 4. 

81 North Carolina Planter, III (September, 1860), 291. 

82 Farmer's Journal, I (April, 1852), 21-22. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 301 

paid within sixty days, and the club rate was six copies for 
$5.00. In the 1850's the rates of other journals were still 
lower, with the North Carolina Planter originally asking 
$1.00, which was reduced in January, 1861, to 75 cents for a 
single annual subscription, a five-copy club for $3.00, and a 
ten-copy club at 50 cents each. The lowest rates were those 
of the Edgecombe Farm Journal: 50 cents yearly, and a club 
of five copies for $2.00. 83 

Information about the number of subscribers is fragmen- 
tary at best, but the North Carolina Planter offers some light. 
Though claiming to publish "a much neater and more tastily 
gotten up Periodical than any of its predecessors," the 
Planter complained in October, 1858, that it had fewer than 
a thousand subscribers. Almost a year later the number was 
down to eight hundred; and, of these, many received it at 
club rates of 80 cents annually so that the Planters income 
from subscriptions for a whole year was only about six hun- 
dred dollars. In February, 1860, the list was back up to a 
"little over one thousand," and up to about thirteen hundred 
in July. Two months later it had fifteen hundred subscribers 
and was still complaining about the lack of support from 
farmers. From an earlier hope of five thousand subscribers, 
the paper lowered its goal to two thousand but seems never 
to have reached that figure. 84 

The only paper which did not complain of lack of sub- 
scribers was the Edgecombe Farm Journal. Early in 1861, 
the Tarboro paper claimed that, though other papers had 
stopped publication because of the "unhappy pecuniary state 
of the country," its own subscription list was large enough 
"to establish the Journal on a permanent basis," and sub- 
scriptions were still coming in. 85 In spite of this claim, the 
paper failed to appear after the May issue. Whether the 
claim itself was exaggerated is not known; the paper did, 

83 Farmer's Advocate, I (August, 1838), front cover; North Carolina 
Farmer, I (June 13, 1845), 21; North Carolina Planter, I (January, 1858), 
1; IV (January, 1861), 11; Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (December, I860), 

^ North Carolina Planter, I (October, 1858), 4; II (September, 1859), 
273; III (February, 1860), 49; III (July, 1860), 288, "... our list is 
larger than it has ever been . . . "; III (September, 1860), 290-291. For 
the five thousand goal, see I, (January, 1858), 18. 

85 Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (February, 1861), 4. 

302 The North Carolina Historical Review 

however, attempt to increase circulation by offering copies 
free to any North Carolinian who could not afford to take 
the paper, qualifying the offer by warning: "We mean what 
we say, but, we wont pay the postage." Another subscription 
technique of the Edgecombe Farm Journal was a fairly elab- 
orate system of premiums to be given to agents who obtained 
new names. Commencing with 350 subscribers, for which an 
agent would receive his choice of a $75.00 melodeon, the 
premiums were graduated downward through two makes of 
sewing machines, a subsoil plow, and a hand corn sheller 
worth $6.00, for fifty-five names. Agents turning in twenty or 
more names could obtain books on which an allowance of 
ten cents per name would be made. 86 

Other techniques for adding to subscription lists were to 
send the journal to names obtained from other lists and to 
continue sending the paper unless the recipient returned the 
copy with the word that he did not want it; or, the journal 
would continue to be sent until overdue subscription "arrear- 
ages" had been paid; or, the editor would praise some friend 
for sending in long lists of additional subscribers accompan- 
ied by payment in advance; or, the paper would receive from 
its predecessors— as did the North Carolina Planter from both 
the Arator and the Carolina Cultivator— -lists of patrons who 
had subscribed to the earlier papers and might want to have 
the newer publication. 87 

Cheap postal rates were an inducement to subscribers; and 
the North Carolina Farmer late in 1845 pointed out that, be- 
ing classed with newspapers, the Farmer would be delivered 
free anywhere within thirty miles of Raleigh and for only one 
cent per issue anywhere within North Carolina or a hundred 
miles of the State and just a cent and a half beyond that dis- 
tance. 88 In 1858, the North Carolina Planter called attention 
to the fact that postal rates were only half a cent per issue if 
the postage was paid in advance each quarter; if paid at the 

86 Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (December, 1860), 4; I (March, 1861), 7. 

87 North Carolina Farmer, I (June 13, 1845), 21; Farmer's Advocate, I 
(September 1, 1839), back cover; I (February 1, 1839), back cover; North 
Carolina Farmer, I (February 16, 1846), 211-212 (thirty-eight copies were 
going to Albertson's post office in Duplin County, mainly as the result of 
work by "A. O. G.") ; North Carolina Planter, I (January, 1858), 19; I 
(March, 1858), 82. 

88 North Carolina Farmer, I (November 15, 1845), 144. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 303 

end of the quarter, the rate doubled. "Six cents, paid in ad- 
vance, will pay the postage for one year to any place in the 
United States." 89 

The Edgecombe Farm Journal changed the tune slightly, 
asking its subscribers to stop sending in postage stamps as 
payment for the paper. The Farm Journal said it had more 
than enough stamps; besides, the gummed sides had a bad 
habit of sticking together; and it concluded its plea with the 
flat statement: "We much prefer money to stamps." 90 

Another way to come by money to support the agricultural 
journal was to persuade advertisers to use the columns of the 
periodical. Until the 1850's, advertisements were few; the 
Farmers Advocate only once had as many as two in the same 
issue, and both of those offered mulberry trees for sale. 91 

Commencing with the Farmers Journal, advertising 
showed considerable increases. The publisher charged by 
the "square" (approximately two column inches). Usually 
the first insertion cost from $1.00 to $1.50, depending upon 
the journal, with subsequent insertions of the same advertise- 
ment costing from 75 to 80 cents per "square." The Farmers 
Journal charged $10.00 per year for a "square," $30.00 for 
half a column in every issue for a year, and $50.00 for a year's 
run of a full-column advertisement. 92 The Carolina Cultivator 
set its rates at $16.00 for a quarter-page in each issue for a 
year, with charges of $30.00 for a half-page, and $50.00 for 
the entire page. 93 

Few generalizations can be made concerning the subject 
matter of advertising and the geographical location of the 
advertiser. The Farmers Journal for March, 1854, contained 
18/2 column inches of advertising divided into eight separate 
advertisements. Dr. Tompkins figured in three of these; and 
the other five included two for nurseries, a factor and com- 
mission merchant, an iron and brass foundry and machine 
shop, and one advertiser of agricultural implements who 
noted that he was offering a "large number of articles brought 

89 North Carolina Planter, I (October, 1858), 313. 
90 Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (December, 1860), 4. 
91 Farmer's Advocate, I (February 1, 1839), 206, 208. 
92 Farmer's Journal, I (March, 1853), 394. 
93 Carolina Cultivator, II (February, 1857), 377. 

304 The North Carolina Historical Review 

to the late [North Carolina] Fair and left with me on sale, 
on all of which the Railroad freight will be saved to the pur- 
chaser, a very important item on heavy goods." The geo- 
graphical sources of these advertisements included Brinkley- 
ville (North Carolina), Fayetteville, Charleston (South Car- 
olina), Petersburg (Virginia), and Raleigh. 94 

Among interesting advertisements carried by the Carolina 
Cultivator was one for a Raleigh mutual life insurance com- 
pany which insured, among others, slaves "for a term of one 
to five years, for two-thirds their value." In the same issue 
there were advertisements for two mutual insurance com- 
panies covering property, a notice from The New Hotel at 
Weldon, "Meals Always Ready on the Arrival of the Cars," 
and one for farm machinery such as bailers, a patented corn- 
sheller, and sausage stuff ers and cutters. 95 Suffolk and Essex 
hogs, Shanghai and Brahma Putra chickens, and Merino 
sheep were all offered for sale in an earlier issue. 96 

The Carolina Cultivator for February, 1857, is an excellent 
example of variety in subject matter and point of origin in 
its advertisements. There were twenty-six advertisements in 
all; two were full page insertions, and the remainder were 
smaller. The full-page notices included one from William 
Cooke's own publishing firm for a new North Carolina map 
that was endorsed by Governor Thomas Bragg, William A. 
Graham, State Geologist Ebenezer Emmons, and scientist 
and university professor Elisha Mitchell. The second full 
page was for Horace Waters who sold pianos, melodeons, 
and music. The other advertisements included six for farm 
implements, four for periodicals, three for patent medicines 
and preparations, two for book publishing, and one each for 
a commission merchant, a book binder, a book store, a school, 
a nursery, a fertilizer firm, a seedsman, a maker of hemp fire 
hose, and a position as a school teacher wanted by a northern 
girl. In origin, seven came from New York City, five from 
Raleigh, three from Philadelphia, two from Brookville in 
Granville County, and one each from Warrenton and New 
Bern, Richmond (Virginia), Atlanta (Georgia), Riceville 

94 Farmers Journal, II (March, 1854), 383-384. 

95 Carolina Cultivator, I (February, 1856), 398-400. 
98 Carolina Cultivator, I (December, 1855), 333, 334. 

N. C. Agricultural Journals 305 

and New Brunswick (New Jersey), and Boston and Lowell 
(Massachusetts). The applicant for the teaching position 
asked that replies be sent to the editor. 97 Of the twenty-six 
advertisements, seventeen originated outside of North Caro- 

What is somewhat surprising is the scarcity of patent med- 
icine advertisements in the agricultural journals. There were 
such notices, of course, and some of them occupied consider- 
able space; 98 they were not nearly so prevalent, however, as 
were similar advertisements in contemporary family or po- 
litical journals. 99 Nor were these advertisements as numerous 
as might be expected from the Southerner's constant concern 
for the poor state of his health. 100 

In looking broadly at the agricultural journals in North 
Carolina between 1838 and 1861, several points stand out. 
The number of forward-looking farm editors and others who 
were interested in improving agriculture was small, but the 
number was growing in the 1850's and early 1860's. The edi- 
tors and publishers of farm journals were frequently inter- 
ested in other publishing activities and in a variety of other 
agricultural improvement activities such as the State fair and 
various agricultural societies. Except in a very few instances, 
these editors were not farmers; or, if they farmed, it was inci- 
dental to their main occupations or professions. 

As for the journals, there seems to have been more sense, a 
greater variety of information, and a great deal more useful 
information in their pages than perhaps has been generally 
believed. To a surprising degree, political subjects were 
avoided or minimized to the point that a reader who relied 
solely upon agricultural papers in the State for his knowledge 
of the world and the nation might have been shocked by the 

97 Carolina Cultivator, II (February, 1857), 377-384. Almost as much 
variety was apparent in other journals. See North Carolina Planter, III 
(November, 1860), inside front cover, inside back cover, and back cover; 
Edgecombe Farm Journal, I (November, 1860), 7. 

98 See North Carolina Planter, III (March, 1860), inside front cover. 
"See the Greensborough Patriot (Greensboro), August 4, 1849, in which 

there were nine of the fifty-four advertisements ; the Weekly Raleigh Regis- 
ter, September 21, 1853, contained four of thirty advertisements, two of 
which occupied an entire column. 

100 James W. Patton, "Facets of the South in the 1850's," The Journal 
of Southern History, XXIII (February, 1957), 5-7; Johnson, Ante-Bellum 
North Carolina, 722-743. 

306 The North Carolina Historical Review 

onset of the Civil War in 1861. In fact, the agricultural jour- 
nals continued to publish letters, reprints of articles, and ad- 
vertisements originating in the northern states right up to 
the outbreak of fighting. 101 

The lack of public support for these agricultural periodi- 
cals, in the form either of subscribers or of advertisers, is 
somewhat more difficult to explain. General family or politi- 
cal papers in the State were numerous, some of them were 
long-lived and crowded with advertisements, and the out- 
standing papers in Raleigh, Fayetteville, Tarboro, Salisbury, 
Greensboro, and elsewhere had healthy subscription lists. 102 
Poverty may have had an effect; one paper had to serve. The 
State's citizens were perhaps preoccupied with political mat- 
ters. It could have been that the lack of support stemmed 
from the fact that the farm journals generally were noncon- 
troversial and nonpolitical. 103 But the main reason would 
seem to be that farming was something which one learned 
by doing and learned by following a father's example— not 
something to be learned from books or newspapers. 104 

In spite of their shortcomings, their brief existences, their 
small subscription lists, the agricultural journals of ante- 
bellum North Carolina strove manfully to fill the role of 
"missionaries to . . . the anti-book farmers of the State." 

101 See reprint from the Indiana Farmer in North Carolina Planter, III 
(December, 1860), 377. See also the following in the Edgecombe Farm 
Journal: I (September, 1860), 1-6, an Ohio exchange, Albany Knicker- 
bocker (New York), Express (New York), New England Farmer, Farmer 
(Genesee), I (February, 1861), 4, 6, a letter from Jonathan Edgecomb 
[sic], Lima, La Grange County, Indiana, and an item from the Maine 
Farmer, as well as various advertisements. In the North Carolina Planter, 
III (November, 1860), there were four advertisements from New York City, 
and one each from Cennaminsen, New Jersey; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; 
and Lowell, Massachusetts, among others. 

102 Johnson, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, 772-773, points out that in 1850, 
North Carolina's fifty-one newspapers and journals had circulation in 
excess of two million and that in ten years the number of papers had 
reached seventy-four and that the circulation had climbed almost to 
five million. 

103 See Johnson, Ante-Bellum North Carolina, 786, for a report of 
criticism of a newspaper that was too self-controlled in the matter of 
partisan politics. 

10i See above, page 296. 


By Willard Badgette Gate wood, Jr.* 

Eugene Clyde Brooks, one of the architects of the present 
school system in North Carolina, was an active force for edu- 
cational progress in the State for more than three decades. 
Between 1898 and 1934 he occupied almost every rung in the 
educational ladder, and a striking feature of his career was 
the remarkable success that he achieved in each capacity. At 
one time or another during this period he was a teacher, 
principal, school superintendent in Monroe and Goldsboro, 
clerk in the State Department of Education, Professor of Ed- 
ucation in Trinity College, State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, President of North Carolina State College, and 
leader in important educational organizations. His popular 
reputation rested largely upon his work as first director of 
Governor Charles B. Ay cock's campaign for better schools; 
his pioneer program in teacher training at Trinity College; 
his full-scale reorganization of the public school system as 
State Superintendent between 1919 and 1923; and the ex- 
pansion of State College under his guidance. Brooks, how- 
ever, made another significant contribution to education as 
editor of a magazine for North Carolina teachers which was 
first published in 1906. 1 

North Carolina had lacked such a periodical since 1901, 
when P. P. Claxton moved his North Carolina Journal of Ed- 
ucation outside the State. Claxton's magazine, like several 
others in the previous quarter century, had been unable to 
overcome the obstacles that beset educational journalism in 
North Carolina. The educational renaissance, initiated by 
Aycock during the next four years, pointed up the need for 
another journal devoted to public education. Henry E. See- 
man, a printer by trade who had manifested interest in North 
Carolina educational publications for more than a decade, 

* Dr. Willard Badgette Gatewood, Jr., is an Assistant Professor of 
History, East Carolina College, Greenville. 

1 See Willard B. Gatewood, Jr., "Eugene Clyde Brooks: Educator and 
Public Servant" (unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1957, Duke Univer- 
sity, Durham). 

[ 307] 

308 The North Carolina Historical Review 

led the movement to establish another teachers' magazine 
and regularly attended the sessions of the Teachers' Assembly 
to plead the cause of such a journal. Finally, he offered to 
publish and finance the magazine, if the educational forces 
of the State would support it. In 1905 the State Association 
of County Superintendents and other groups affiliated with 
the Teachers' Assembly endorsed Seeman's enterprise. 2 

A committee representing the Assembly met in Raleigh in 
July, 1906, to hear Seeman explain the details of his propo- 
sition. After a full discussion the group decided to begin pub- 
lication of a teachers' journal. The Assembly was to select 
the editor and assist in securing subscriptions, while Seeman 
was to be publisher and financial manager. Brooks, who had 
been in Raleigh lecturing at North Carolina College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts earlier that summer, had un- 
doubtedly discussed the question of an educational magazine 
with his old friend State Superintendent James Y. Joyner, 
and probably indicated his willingness to accept the editor- 
ship. Brooks's previous journalistic experience with the Wil- 
son Mirror and The News and Observer (Raleigh), his repu- 
tation among school men, and Joyner's endorsement were 
apparently the factors that persuaded the Assembly repre- 
sentatives to appoint him editor of their magazine at a salary 
of $1,200. The new North Carolina Journal of Education was 
to be published bi-weekly in Durham, and Brooks was to 
give up his current position as superintendent of the Golds- 
boro schools in June, 1907, in order to devote full time to his 
editorial work. 3 

2 Edgar W. Knight, Public School Education in North Carolina (Boston, 
1916), 364, hereinafter cited as Knight, Public School Education; Charles 
L. Lewis, Philander Priestley Claxton: Crusader for Public Education 
(Knoxville, 1949), 98-109; Ruth Groom, "North Carolina Journals of 
Education," North Carolina Education, VIII (May, 1914), 8-10, 15, here- 
inafter cited as Groom, "North Carolina Journals of Education"; E. D. 
Fowler, The Seeman Printery: Fifty Years, 1885-1935 (Durham, 1935); 
E. C. Brooks, "Henry E. Seeman," North Carolina Education, XI (May, 
1917), 17-18, hereinafter cited as Brooks, "Henry E. Seeman"; William K. 
Boyd, The Story of Durham: City of the New South (Durham, 1927), 
253-254; "Two Score Years and Ten: A Half-Century of Educational 
Journalism," North Carolina Education, XXIII (September, 1956), 17, 
hereinafter cited as "Two Score Years and Ten." 

3 Brooks, "Henry E. Seeman," 17-18; Goldsboro Daily Argus, July 23, 
1906. Various inquiries and searches indicate that the Brooks manuscripts 
relating to the teachers' magazine have been destroyed. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 309 

Brooks and Seeman spent "the greater part of July and 
August making plans for the new publication." The first issue 
of the North Carolina Journal of Education appeared on Sep- 
tember 15, 1906, at an annual subscription rate of one dollar. 
The magazine had a rather impressive format and was di- 
vided into several departments, including articles of especial 
interest to school superintendents, primary teachers, the 
Women's Association for the Betterment of School Buildings 
and Grounds, and teachers in high schools, academies, and 
colleges. Other sections were devoted to "educational meth- 
od," current events, feature articles, and personal items. 
Brooks announced that, in addition to these regular depart- 
ments, a series of useful articles by experienced teachers and 
announcements by State Superintendent Joyner, chairman of 
the advisory editorial board, would be published from time 
to time. 4 

In the first issue of the Journal Brooks stated the editorial 
policy which he would consistently support for the next sev- 
enteen years: 

The policy of the Journal is, and will continue, to do every- 
thing to advance the cause of education, to call attention to work 
that is well done, and to discuss problems that are giving the 
teachers most concern. We believe the profession should be im- 
proved by raising the standards of teachers and that a high 
grade certificate should command a high salary in any county. 
In order to provide opportunities for the improvement of teach- 
ers we believe each county should establish free township and 
county high schools. We believe the State should provide for a 
longer school term by so amending the Constitution that the 
county commissioners may levy sufficient tax for better houses 
and longer terms. We believe further that after the State opens 
its doors to the children, they should be compelled to enter, es- 
pecially the smaller children who are too small to work, and all 
who are unable to read and write. 5 

He gave more explicit expression to this policy in his first 
editorial comments. The lead editorial, entitled "Is the School 
Term Long Enough," declared that "the average length of 

4 Brooks, "Henry E. Seeman," 18; Goldsboro Daily Argus, August 31, 
1906; "Two Score Years and Ten," 17, 44; North Carolina Journal of 
Education, I (September 15, 1906). 

6 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (September 15, 1906), 12. 

310 The North Carolina Historical Review 

schooling for the country child is about three years of four 
months each." Brooks dismissed as absurd the idea that the 
State was financially unable to provide better schools and 
longer terms for rural children, and declared that the first 
remedial step was to amend the constitution in order that the 
counties could levy taxes sufficient to meet the demands of 
rural education. In two other editorials he urged the county 
boards of education to enlarge the powers of the county 
superintendents, and deplored the rapid turnover of teachers 
which resulted from appallingly low salaries. 6 

During its first year the Journal largely continued the "de- 
partmental" arrangement of the initial issue. Editorially, 
Brooks hammered away on such themes as longer school 
terms, qualified teachers, and higher salaries. He described 
the pathetic plight of rural schools which were kept open less 
than four months each year and whose qualified teachers 
"flocked to wealthier counties." He demanded a public high 
school in each township in order to provide a "training 
ground to prepare a sufficient number of teachers for the en- 
tire public schools." In almost every editorial he concluded 
that the basic problem of public education in North Carolina 
was "the lack of money," which he attributed to the defects 
of a Reconstruction constitution and to the decisions of the 
State Supreme Court in 1870 and 1885. In 1906 the court 
still held that county officials could not exceed the constitu- 
tional tax limitation in providing for the constitutional school 
term of four months. According to Brooks, it was high time 
the legislature and the people rectified these "ancient deci- 
sions" of the Supreme Court by constitutional amendments 
increasing the school term and removing the tax limitation 
for educational purposes. 7 

Immediately prior to the opening of the legislature of 1907, 
Brooks increased the tempo of his editorial campaign for 
various reform measures. He insisted that the State possessed 
adequate wealth to equalize and raise educational opportun- 

8 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (September 15, 1906), 12. 

7 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (October 15, 1906), 8; I 
(November 1. 1906V 10: Charles L. Coon, "School Support and Our North 
Carolina Courts," The North Carolina Historical Review, III (July, 1926), 
403-405. 412-417, hereinafter cited as Coon, "School Support arid Our 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 311 

ities in the several counties and to establish a minimum sal- 
ary for teachers with superior qualifications. 8 For the benefit 
of legislators he presented statistics showing that one-fourth 
of the children in the State did not have advantage of the 
minimum school term of four months required by the consti- 
tution. "Those who have taken an active part in the educa- 
tional campaign of the past few years," he wrote, "have seen 
one or two land owners in a district exercise authority over 
his tenants whose children ought to be in school, and turn 
the election against schools, saying . . . that education for 
these is not a 'necessary expense', and the children had better 
work in the fields— yes 130,620 of them." 9 He also implored 
the legislature to provide adequate facilities for training ele- 
mentary teachers, and heartily endorsed proposals to increase 
the State Superintendent's salary and enforce school attend- 
ance. 10 

In 1907 Brooks threw the support of the Journal behind a 
measure declaring public schools a necessary expense and 
requiring counties to levy a tax sufficient to maintain at least 
a four months term in every school. The defeat of this bill 
brought him great disappointment, but he urged the teachers 
and school officials of the State to keep such a law before the 
people until the meeting of the next legislature. Brooks sup- 
ported Joyner in opposing a bill to elect county boards of 
education by popular vote. He argued that many people in 
the State did "not even believe in education at all" and to 
place the boards of education in the hands of "active politi- 
cians" would destroy the educational progress made since 
1901. The bill was defeated, largely because the Democrats 
were yet unwilling to endanger their power over such local 
offices. Despite certain disappointments, Brooks concluded 
that the legislature of 1907 had taken "no backward steps" 
and had left the schools "considerably stronger." Later in the 
same year the State Supreme Court reversed the Barksdale 
decision of 1885 and declared that county school officials 

8 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (December 1, 1906), 10. 
9 North Carolina Journal of Education,' I (January 1, 1907), 12. 
10 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (March 1, 1907), 4. 

312 The North Carolina Historical Review 

could exceed the constitutional limitation in levying taxes 
for the maintenance of the four months school term. 11 

When Brooks became professor of education in Trinity 
College in 1907, he retained his position as editor of the 
teachers' journal. The move to Durham made it possible for 
him and Seeman to work more closely and conveniently on 
the publication. By that time, however, it appeared that the 
magazine would suffer the dismal fate of its predecessors. 
Brooks declared that subscriptions "came in so slowly that 
one would think that the teachers of the state had no interest 
in the publication." So few were the advertising contracts 
that they were "kept on one page in the ledger." 12 Although 
Brooks had refused to accept further pay after December, 
1906, there was a deficit of $2,000 by the end of the first year 
of publication. The journal probably would have collapsed 
had it not been in the hands of such men as Seeman and 
Brooks, who saw in it something more than a financial in- 
vestment. Both men had "faith" in the publication. Seeman 
told Brooks, "We will make it go." In October, 1907, Brooks 
described the unsound financial condition of the Journal to 
the Association of County Superintendents and insisted that 
6,000 subscriptions were necessary to save it. Each superin- 
tendent then promised to solicit a certain number of sub- 
scriptions from his county. Also, Brooks persuaded Seeman to 
publish the magazine monthly instead of bi-weekly, retain- 
ing the original price of one dollar. Through these means 
and increased advertising receipts, the Journal reduced its 
deficit to $500 in 1908. 13 

From 1907 to 1909, Brooks continued to crusade for a pro- 
gressive educational program through his editorial columns. 
In May, 1907, he was again writing about the length of the 
school term and speaking of "four or five months" as a mini- 
mum term for rural children. 14 After the passage of the high 
school law in the same year, the Journal increased the num- 

11 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (March 1, 1907), 4; I (March 
15, 1907), 4, 9; I (April 1, 1907), 8; Coon, "School Support and Our 
Courts," 412-417. 

^Brooks, "Henry E. Seeman," North Carolina Education, XI (October, 
1917), 17-18. 

13 North Carolina Journal of Education, II (October, 1907), 17. 

14 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (May 15, 1907), 9. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 313 

ber of articles of interest and value to secondary school teach- 
ers and officials. Brooks urged county school officials to take 
full advantage of the law, but warned against overloading 
the high school curriculum with textbooks and rote memory 
work. In this connection he pointed out the necessity for 
qualified teachers and insisted that the material progress and 
popular support of public education had surpassed that 
other essential ingredient to efficient schools— the training of 
teachers. He was convinced that most teachers were plod- 
ding along in "the old ways," adding nothing new to their 
classroom instruction. He suggested, as a partial remedy, a 
more efficient corps of county superintendents who would 
personally supervise the work of the teachers and encourage 
in-service training. 15 

In November, 1908, Brooks answered the attacks of cer- 
tain church groups who opposed the State high school law 
on the grounds that it was detrimental to denominational 
secondary schools. He insisted that State control of education 
could be traced to Martin Luther and that the problem was 
not "how far the state shall educate, but how much education 
can an individual receive." 16 He argued that the separation 
of church and State necessitated State control of education 
and that the destruction of State schools was not a part of 
the church's mission. According to Brooks, the chief claim of 
the church on education lay in the State's neglect of its duty 
in the past. "Religious instruction," he concluded, "does not 
depend upon church control and ownership of the school 
any more than a religious people depend upon a theocracy." 
This was a rather strong editorial for a professor in a Meth- 
odist college to direct to one of the leading Methodist jour- 
nals in the State. 17 

By the end of the third year of publication the North Caro- 
lina Journal of Education had paid off its debt and become 
self-supporting. In December, 1908, Seeman announced that 
he had sold the magazine to W. F. Marshall of Raleigh, a 

16 North Carolina Journal of Education, II (February, 1908), 14-16. 
16 North Carolina Journal of Education, II (March, 1908), 5-7. 

17 "Our State Educational Policy," North Carolina Christian Advocate, 
LIII (October, 15, 1908), 1; North Carolina Journal of Education, III 
(November, 1908), 14-16. 

314 The North Carolina Historical Review 

printer and former teacher. It was moved to Raleigh shortly 
thereafter, and the name changed to North Carolina Educa- 
tion, in January, 1909. Brooks remained editor, purchasing 
half interest in the journal in 1910. At the end of the fourth 
year he announced that the financial condition of the maga- 
zine continued to improve but was yet "unsatisfactory." In 
1910 the monthly circulation had risen to 1,400 copies. This 
fell to 1,200 in the following year, but rose to 1,600 in 1912. 
Brooks and Marshall, as editor and publisher respectively, 
maintained the arrangement of 1910 until August 1, 1919. 18 

One of the principal handicaps to the development of edu- 
cation in North Carolina, as Brooks continued to point out, 
was the large percentage of teachers without normal school 
training. In 1908, for example, two-thirds of the teachers in 
the State lacked any such training. A partial remedy for this 
situation was offered at the meeting of the Association of 
County Superintendents in August, 1909, by J. A. Bivins, 
State Supervisor of Teacher Training. He announced the es- 
tablishment of the North Carolina Teachers' Reading Circle, 
which was designed "to furnish from year to year a carefully 
selected course of reading adapted to the professional needs 
of the teacher." The members of the Reading Circle would 
take an annual examination on the books which would be 
prepared by the State Supervisor of Teacher Training and 
given by the county superintendents. Upon successful com- 
pletion of a four-year course in reading, the teacher would 
receive a diploma from the State Department of Public In- 
struction, entitling him to preferential treatment regarding 
jobs and salaries. The county superintendents were "advised 
to renew, free of cost, the first grade certificate to all who are 
members of the reading circle. . . . " 19 

Brooks attended the meeting of the county superintendents 
in 1909 and participated in the discussion of the Reading 
Circle project. In the October issue of North Carolina Educa- 

18 North Carolina Journal of Education, III (December, 1908), 1; Brooks, 
"Henry E. Seeman," 17-18; Groom, "North Carolina Journals of Educa- 
tion," 15, North Carolina Education, V (September, 1911), 2; W. F. 
Marshall to E. C. Brooks, September 19, 1913, Eugene Clyde Brooks 
Papers, Duke University Library, Durham, hereinafter cited as Brooks 

19 Report of the Supervisor of Teacher-T raining, 1908-1910, 112-114. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 315 

Hon he initiated the Reading Circle program with a treat- 
ment of Hamilton's Recitation. He was requested to under- 
take this work by Joyner and Bivins because of his success 
in extension work among Durham County teachers. Appar- 
ently, his direction of the Reading Circle was intended at 
first to be temporary, but he continued to supervise it for a 
decade, which suggests that the State officials considered his 
work of a superior quality. In fact, Joyner rarely failed to 
compliment Brooks's conduct of the Reading Circle in his 
biennial reports to the Governor. Since more than half of the 
11,915 teachers in the State participated in the Reading 
Circle, Brooks exerted a significant influence in raising the 
qualification of teachers through his reading courses in North 
Carolina Education. 20 

In addition to this reading program, the columns of the 
magazine carried a variety of information valuable to the 
teacher. Brooks published articles on the teaching of history 
which were based upon his work with the Committee of 
Eight in revising the elementary school courses in history. He 
frequently included descriptions of efficient programs and 
successful innovations in certain school systems. He had faith 
in the power of example and publicized "model" school pro- 
grams with a view toward arousing other areas to benefit by 
their success. Similarly, he seemed to believe that publicity 
of glaring defects would elicit a public indignation strong 
enough to demand remedial measures. In various wavs 
Brooks's journal stimulated a professional spirit, an esprit de 
corps, among North Carolina teachers. To determine his 
influence in this direction is obviously impossible, but the 
elevation of the professional status of the teacher was a con- 
stant concern and a frequent editorial theme. 21 

In September, 1910, Brooks published his personal ob- 
servations on the progress of teacher training during the past 
decade. After eight years of summer institute work, he re- 

20 Report of the Supervisor of Teacher-Training, 1908-1910, 114; North 
Carolina Education, IV (October, 1909), 16-17; Report of the President of 
Trinity College to the Board of Trustees, 1915, 6-7; Biennial Report of the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1910-1912, 10, hereinafter cited 
as Biennial Report. 

21 North Carolina Education, IV (October, 1909), 8; Knight, Public 
School Education, 363. 

316 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ported: "There is to be found considerable improvement in 
the professional spirit of teachers and county superintend- 
ents. There are, of course, more than one thousand local tax 
districts. These as a rule draw teachers of superior training, 
who, mingling with other teachers of the state have made a 
better spirit and there is a greater incentive to progress." De- 
spite these improvements, he noted several inexcusable de- 
fects. For example, some county superintendents confined 
their efforts to a "little clerical work"; many teachers did not 
own the textbooks required by law and did "not know the 
lessons when they go to class"; and summer institutes still 
concentrated upon grammar and arithmetic at the expense of 
literature, geography, and history. "These conditions existed 
more widely ten years ago," he concluded, "but they exist 
today and are a barrier to the progress of education." ' 

Between 1909 and 1913, Brooks waged a vigorous cam- 
paign for several educational measures, with the purpose of 
gaining support for them among school officials and teachers 
who, in turn, would arouse the people. One such measure 
was a legislative provision for agricultural instruction in pub- 
lic schools. Brooks had first published his ideas on the sub- 
ject in 1902 in The News and Observer. By 1909 he was wag- 
ing an editorial campaign for farm-life schools. He opened the 
columns of his journal to the editor of the Progressive Farm- 
er and to a professor at the State agricultural school, both of 
whom heartily endorsed the establishment of farm-life 
schools. Brooks also publicized the work of the Boys' Corn 
Clubs, a movement sponsored in the South by Seaman Knapp 
in 1908, and financed by the General Education Board. The 
clubs, enrolling over 3,000 members in North Carolina by 
1911, were usually conducted in connection with local 
schools, under the direction of State Supervisor I. O. Schaub. 
The purpose of the clubs was to introduce future farmers to 
scientific agriculture and to increase soil productivity. Prizes 
were awarded to boys whose land yielded unusually large 
quantities of corn. Brooks considered this competition "a 
significant educational contest" and pointed to the work of 

22 E. C. Brooks, "Progress in Teaching — Some Notes and Observations," 
North Carolina Education, V (September, 1910), 6-7. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 317 

the corn clubs as the first step toward incorporating scien- 
tific agriculture into the public school curriculum. Largely 
as a result of the agitation for agricultural education by 
Brooks, the Farmer's Union, and various educational organi- 
zations, the legislature provided for ten farm-life schools in 
1911, and two years later the provisions were extended to in- 
clude the establishment of such schools in every county in 
the State. 23 

Another educational innovation that Brooks endorsed was 
the creation of a professional textbook commission. In 1911 
he directed an editorial to Governor W. W. Kitchin request- 
ing his support for such a reform. Brooks pointed out that 
the State Board of Education consistently rejected textbooks 
recommended by the sub-textbook commission composed of 
professional school men. At the same time, Joyner pleaded 
with the legislators to amend the law in order that teachers 
could be represented on the textbook commission, which then 
consisted of members of the State Board of Education. The 
legislature of 1911, following the advice of Brooks and Joy- 
ner, provided that, in addition to the seven members of the 
State Board of Education, six professional school men should 
be appointed to the textbook commission. Since Joyner was 
already a member, this act gave the school men a majority on 
the commission. 24 

One of Brooks's favorite editorial topics was the office of 
county superintendent, which he considered the fulcrum of 
the public education system and, at the same time, one of the 
weakest links in the whole structure. In his critique of "a 
good superintendent" he declared that such men "should 
know how to teach and how to teach well," but above all, 
they should possess "the saving grace of common sense and 
should be able to judge good teaching, not so much from the 
standpoint of so-called theoretical pedagogy as from the 

23 North Carolina Education, IV (November, 1909), 4; IV (December, 
1909), 8-9; IV (January, 1910), 9; IV (February, 1910), 21-22; IV 
(June, 1910), 3-26; Frederick B. Mumford, The Land Grant College Move- 
ment (Columbia, Missouri, 1940), 133-134; E. C. Brooks, The Story of 
Corn and Western Migration (Chicago, 1916), 259-265; Biennial Report, 
1910-1912, 12; Biennial Report, 1912-191U, 17; North Carolina Education, 
V (May, 1911), 11; VII (January, 1913), 3. 

24 North Carolina Education, V (March, 1911), 13; V (February, 1911), 
4-5; Biennial Report, 1908-1910, 18-20; Biennial Report, 1910-1912, 15. 

318 The North Carolina Historical Review 

effect of the instruction on the child." The superintendent, 
of course, must be an efficient administrator and business 
manager, fully acquainted with school law and finance. 
Brooks believed that a superintendent should "remain long 
enough in a community to work out something worthwhile," 
and decried the fact that many county superintendents were 
political appointees who devoted only part of their time to 
school work. Such men failed to provide that supervision so 
essential to an efficient school system, and offered no assist- 
ance to teachers desiring professional improvement. In 1913, 
Brooks urged the legislature to remedy this situation by re- 
quiring all superintendents to possess at least the require- 
ments for a first grade elementary certificate. The General 
Assembly refused to go as far as he suggested, but it did pro- 
vide that superintendents must have taught during the five 
years immediately prior to his election. 25 

Perhaps Brooks's most vigorous editorial campaign in 
North Carolina Education concerned the six-months school 
term. In March, 1909, he urged a crusade to amend the State 
constitution to provide for a minimum term of six months. 26 
From then on, rare was the issue of North Carolina Educa- 
tion that did not carry an article or editorial on the six-months 
term. Brooks intensified his campaign for such legislation in 
the fall of 1912, an indication that he thought that the next 
legislature would be receptive to the existing agitation. In 
November, 1912, he wrote: 

It is apparent to all that the public school term in a large 
number of counties is too short. In fact, a four months term is 
so short that pupils will forget in the remaining eight months 
what they have learned in four months . . . The minimum term 
should be moved up to six months within the next year and 
every teacher in North Carolina should become interested enough 
to make this a live issue in every county. The General Assembly 
will meet in January. But between now and then teachers and 
school officers could bring this need home to those who will 
represent the counties in the next General Assembly. 27 

25 North Carolina Education, V (June, 1911), 15; V (September, 1910), 
6-7; VII (January, 1913), 3; VII (April, 1913), 5-6; VII (May, 1913), 15. 

26 North Carolina Education, III (March, 1909), 13. 

27 North Carolina Education, VI (November, 1912), 19. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 319 

Brooks later suggested that the legislature provide an addi- 
tional tax of five cents on each $100 valuation of property in 
order to increase the school term. The legislature of 1913 fol- 
lowed his advice both in providing a six-months term and a 
five cent tax which yielded $375,000. The legislators recog- 
nized that this amount would hardly insure a six-months term 
in all schools. Moreover, the constitutional minimum was 
still four months. In short, Brooks and his cohorts had won 
only the first round in their fight. They had to continue their 
efforts until 1918, when the people of North Carolina finally 
ratified a constitutional amendment providing a minimum 
school term of six months. 28 

Brooks exhibited courage in editorials on many occasions. 
His bold criticisms of the courts and of many accepted edu- 
cational practices, as well as his rebuttal to the attack on 
public high schools by a Methodist publication, serve as ex- 
amples of his fearlessness. Even more significant was his 
defense, in 1909, of Charles L. Coon, Superintendent of the 
Wilson county and city schools, who had described in an 
address the unequal division of school taxes between Negroes 
and whites. Coon concluded that Negro education was not a 
burden upon white taxpayers. Many North Carolina news- 
papers were highly critical of Coon's remarks, and some 
launched a full-scale attack upon him. Brooks's position was 
that, although he had not fully agreed with Coon at the time 
of the address, he did agree that "the negro school is not a 
very great burden on the white race." He complimented the 
Wilson school board for supporting Coon, declaring that it 
was "refreshing to be assured that the members were not 
swept off their feet by the hysterics of the crowd." 29 

While Brooks was at Columbia University in 1913-1914, 
he continued to edit ISJoHh Carolina Education, with the 
assistance of S. S. Alderman, executive secretary of the Cen- 

28 North Carolina Education, VII (January, 1913), 3, 5; VII (February, 
1913), 1-2; Fred W. Morrison, Equalization of the Financial Burden Among 
the Counties in North Carolina: A Study of the Equalizing Fund (New 
York, 1925), 13-14. 

29 North Carolina Education, IV (November, 1909), 14. In 1907 Brooks 
described Coon as "one of the best school men in the state" who was often 
unpopular because of his "plain language." E. C. Brooks to F. A. Wood- 
ward, April 20, 1907, Charles L. Coon Papers, University of North Caro- 
lina Library, Chapel Hill. 

320 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tral Campaign Committee. He still furnished monthly install- 
ments of the Reading Circle course. He also published two 
especially significant articles concerning teacher education 
and the high school curriculum. In the first article he decried 
the existing tendency of summer institutes in North Carolina 
to emphasize "method courses" at the expense of courses 
providing teachers with "a working knowledge of the school 
subjects/' In his opinion it was absurd to offer instruction "in 
the general method of conducting a recitation" to teachers 
without adequate preparation in such subjects as literature, 
geography, and history. He believed too that institute con- 
ductors had to apply educational theory to practical situa- 
tions before their instruction would become worthwhile. 30 
In the second article, concerning the high school curriculum, 
he reiterated his demand for a broad, flexible course of study, 
asserting that the "existing emphasis on the curriculum with 
its points' and 'credits' and pages to be covered, its arbitrary 
standards, and its logical balance of studies, has gone far to 
obscure the real meaning of education as a process of choos- 
ing and applying those things that will secure the strongest 
and most profitable reaction in the child." He placed the 
major responsibility for the rigid high school curriculum, 
"wrongly conceived and wrongly used," upon the colleges. 
"No study or group of studies," Brooks concluded, "has any 
importance for its own sake; its value assists a teacher in 
bringing a pupil into those relations with his environment 
that are agreeable, stimulating, and promising for him per- 
sonally and profitable to society. The curriculum should in- 
clude any body of knowledge that can be successfully organ- 
ized to this end." 31 

When Brooks returned to Durham in 1914, after a year at 
Columbia University and a summer at Peabody College, 
Europe had embarked upon a long and costly war, and North 
Carolina stood ready to launch another battle in its educa- 
tional crusade. He immediately arranged for the publication 
of articles to provide teachers with information necessary 

30 E. C. Brooks, "A Word as to Teacher Training," North Carolina Educa- 
tion, VIII (June, 1914), 6-7. 

31 E. C. Brooks, "An Example of a Misdirected Educational System," 
North Carolina Education, VIII (March, 1914), 6-7. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 321 

for a "broader perspective" of the European conflict. In Sep- 
tember, 1914, he wrote an article on "A European War and 
the Geography of Europe." His colleague at Trinity College, 
William T. Laprade of the History Department, consented to 
prepare a series of articles describing the background of the 
war. Between October, 1914 and May, 1915, Laprade pub- 
lished seven articles in North Carolina Education, bearing 
such titles as "Nationalism in the Balkans and the European 
War," "Bismarck and the German Empire," and "Policies of 
Kaisar William II." With the entry of the United States into 
the war, North Carolina Education participated in the vari- 
ous patriotic and propaganda campaigns conducted in the 
public schools. 32 

From 1914 to 1919, North Carolina witnessed the passage 
of much important educational legislation, stimulated in part 
by circumstances produced by the war. By 1916 the public 
schools had reached a point that demanded significant 
changes. One proposed reform concerned the method of ex- 
amining, accrediting, and certifying teachers. According to 
Superintendent Joyner, the existing method had been "in 
operation in this State, almost without the crossing of a Y 
or the dotting of an Y, since 1881." There was no uniformity 
in the certification of teachers, and each of the one hundred 
county superintendents could "establish practically his own 
standard." 33 In 1897 the legislature had created the State 
Board of Examiners, appointed by the State Board of Edu- 
cation, to prepare and grade examinations of applicants for 
first grade certificates. With the passage of the high school 
law ten years later, the Board of Examiners was given charge 
of certifying teachers in public high schools in rural areas. 
Thus, teacher certification rested almost solely upon exam- 
ination. 34 In describing the situation in 1916, Joyner declared: 

32 North Carolina Education, XI (September, 1914), 6-7. For the Laprade 
articles see North Carolina Education, IX (October, 1914-May, 1915). 

33 Biennial Report, 1912-1914, 25-26; Biennial Report, 191U-1916, 24. 

34 James E. Hillman, "The Story of Teacher Education and Certification 
in North Carolina," The Quarterly Review of Higher Education Among 
Negroes, XXI (January, 1953), 21-23, hereinafter cited as Hillman, 
"Teacher Education and Certification"; Gilbert Tripp, "James Yadkin 
Joyner's Contribution to Education in North Carolina as State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction" (unpublished M.A. thesis, University of 
North Carolina), Chapter V, 50-71. 

322 The North Carolina Historical Review 

All teachers in elementary rural public schools are required 
to be examined and certificated by the county superintendent of 
the county in which they teach: first grade teachers biennially, 
second and third grade teachers annually. There is no provision 
to secure exemption from this endless round of examinations on 
the same subjects. . . . Previous preparation and successful ex* 
perience count nothing toward certification. . . . All teachers in 
all city, town and other public schools operated under special 
acts of the General Assembly are exempt from examination or 
certification of any sort by anybody. 35 

In Joyner's opinion this antiquated, chaotic method of teacher 
certification had to be reformed if the State consolidated the 
educational progress of the past decade. This reform, he 
thought, would mean a higher quality of instruction, better- 
trained teachers, and higher salaries for teachers. 36 

Changes in the certification system had the backing of 
North Carolina Education. In fact, few measures received 
such strong editorial support from Brooks. In January, 1913, 
he urged the legislature to establish "a uniform examination, 
graduation, and certification system for teachers, with a mini- 
mum professional and scholastic requirement in advance of 
the present requirement for teachers." Although the legisla- 
ture ignored the plea, Brooks continued to champion such a 
provision. By 1914 Joyner was more urgent in his recommen- 
dation for the establishment of a "uniform standard of aca- 
demic qualifications" for teachers by the State Board of Ex- 
aminers and for the "classification of certificates that would 
reward teachers with successful experience and advanced 
training by reasonable increases in salary. Shortly after this 
recommendation, the Legislature of 1915 empowered the 
Board of Examiners, in its discretion, to accept successful 
experience and academic and professional credit from ap- 
proved colleges in lieu of examinations. Brooks expressed 
disappointment with this provision, charging that the legis- 
lature had refused to accept Joyner's entire plan because of 
its fear of centralization of power in the State Superintend- 
ent's office. 37 

35 Biennial Report, 1914-1916, 71. 

86 Biennial Report, 1914-1916, 27-28. 

37 North Carolina Education, VII (January, 1913), 3; Biennial Report, 
1912-191^, 26-27; Hillman, "Teacher Education and Certification," 22; 
North Carolina Education, X (October, 1915), 12. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 323 

At the same time Brooks outlined a plan which would com- 
bine the work of the summer institute conductors and exam- 
iners under the direct supervision of the State Department. 
In discussing his plan, he wrote: 

The law requires that each county hold an institute biennially 
and the teachers to be certified biennially. The officers of the 
institutes are county superintendents and two institute con- 
ductors. It would be a simple matter therefore to have these 
officers of the institute changed into an examining board with 
full power to license teachers in the county. The State Depart- 
ment could have supervision over the entire work of this board 
as it does today. Then, it would hardly be necessary to enforce 
attendance upon institutes. Furthermore, after a teacher re- 
ceived a first grade certificate, she would not be required to stand 
examination on the same public school studies two years hence ; 
but a progressive course should be outlined, and it should be part 
of the work of the institute conductors to outline this course for 
the approaching year and to examine in the course of the pre- 
ceding year. In this way the Teachers' Reading Course will be of 
great advantage to the teachers of the state. This plan could be 
enforced with but little change in the present law. 38 

Brooks claimed that his plan, which was endorsed by several 
influential school officials, would incur little additional ex- 
pense and would avoid the cry of centralization. 39 

He admitted that his plan was "different from that pro- 
posed by the State Superintendent." 40 Indeed, Joyner was 
concerned about the proposal and willing to modify his own 
scheme to avoid an open break with Brooks. He argued, 
however, that Brooks's plan for the institute conductors to 
become the board of examiners was impractical because of 
the rapid turnover in institute conductors from year to year. 
"I should like to talk to you about the plan for the uniform 
examination and certification of teachers," he wrote Brooks, 
"before you discuss it further along the line of your last 
editorial." 41 Joyner's concern about their differences indi- 
cated that he considered Brooks's support in North Carolina 

38 North Carolina Education, X (October, 1915), 12-13. 

39 North Carolina Education, X (November, 1915), 19. 

40 North Carolina Education, X (October, 1915), 12. 

41 J. Y. Joyner to E. C. Brooks, October 18, 1915, Brooks Papers. 

324 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Education of primary importance to the success of the pro- 
posed measure. 

The objectives of their plans were identical. Their differ- 
ences lay only in the matter of organization and operation. 
Both were straight-forward men who could discuss their di- 
vergent views and appreciate the merits of the other's plan. 
Moreover, their genuine interest in the progress of public 
education would not permit them to endanger the success 
of a needed reform by an open disagreement. The unified 
endorsement of one plan of certification by all educational 
forces was a prerequisite for persuading the legislature to 
enact the measure. Brooks and Joyner continued to iron out 
their differences from time to time through correspondence 
and conversation. In the spring of 1916, Brooks still consid- 
ered "the time ripe for a union of the institute work . . . with 
the examining work," while Joyner held this combination as 
a future goal. They discussed the matter when Joyner visited 
Brooks for several days in the summer of 1916 in order to get 
his assistance on an address to be delivered at the National 
Education Association. Finally, a compromise plan incorpor- 
ating ideas of both men was approved by the Teachers' As- 
sembly. Brooks championed the new plan in North Carolina 
Education, declaring that "the cause of education would be 
generally improved by its enactment." 42 

The work of Joyner, Brooks, and many others on teacher 
certification came to fruition during the Legislature of 1917. 
The Legislature abolished the Board of Examiners and creat- 
ed the State Board of Examiners in Institute Conductors, com- 
posed of three men and three women, with the State Super- 
intendent as chairman and the State Supervisor of Teacher 
Training as ex officio secretary. This board possessed "entire 
control of examining, accrediting, and certificating all appli- 
cants for teaching positions in the State and was also put in 
charge of directing and conducting the teachers' institutes 
for a term not less than two weeks biennially in every coun- 
ty." 43 Every teacher in the State was required to hold a cer- 

42 E. C. Brooks to J. Y. Joyner, April 28, 1916; J. Y. Joyner to E. C. 
Brooks, June 27, 1916, Brooks Papers; North Carolina Education, XI 
(February, 1917), 13. 

43 Biennial Report, 1916-1918, 12. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 325 

tificate from the board except those with second and third 
grade certificates which were issued by local superintendents. 
The board certified teachers on the basis of professional 
and academic credit as well as examination. 44 

For Brooks the next important step after the creation of the 
State Board of Examiners and Institute Conductors was the 
appointment of the "right" people as members. He requested 
Governor Bickett to avoid the mistake of appointing persons 
without an intimate knowledge of the actual educational 
conditions in the State. He feared that such persons would 
place the academic requirements for certification too far 
beyond the reach of the "rank and file of teachers." He sug- 
gested that Bickett appoint A. T. Allen, N. W. Walker, and 
Edgar W. Knight as members of the board. Of these, Allen 
was appointed. Brooks also worked with the board in organ- 
izing the certification system and advised the members to 
work for a "better course of study," more adequate school 
libraries, and larger enrollment in the Reading Circle. On 
May 12, 1917, he arranged for North Carolina Education to 
become "the official organ of the State Board of Examiners 
and Institute Conductors." 45 

In addition to the certification law, the Legislature of 1917 
enacted several other measures that Brooks supported in his 
editorial columns. In that year the State accepted federal aid 
for vocational education provided bv the Smith-Hughes Act, 
which was passed bv Congress while the Legislature was in 
se^ion . For Brooks this was the reward of long years of cru- 
sading for the incorporation of agriculture and domestic 
science into the public school curriculum. The Legislature of 
1917 also provided $25,000 for the education of illiterate 
adults. For several vears, night or "moonlight" schools for 
illiterate adults had flourished in various parts of the state. 
Brooks had publicized the movement through numerous 
articles; in his opinion the most beneficial result of these 

^Biennial Report, 1916-1918, 12. There was little opposition to the crea- 
tion of the SH-a+e Board of Examiners a-nd Institute Conductors. In 1917 
the legislators waged their most vigorous battle over the perennial auestion 
of popular election of county boards of education. See The News and 
Observer (Raleigh) March 4, 1917. 

45 E. C. Brooks to T. W. Bickett, Anril 2, 1917. Brooks Papers; North 
Carolina Education, XII (October, 1917), 4; XI (June, 1917), 15. 

326 The North Carolina Historical Review 

schools was their promise of giving illiterate parents "the 
mental concepts necessary to reason on educational ques- 
tions . . . and to think in terms of better schools" for their 
children. 46 

The General Assembly of 1917 endorsed a constitutional 
amendment for the six-months school term; this amendment 
was to be submitted to the voters in November, 1918. Brooks 
had waged a relentless editorial campaign in behalf of such 
a measure ever since the establishment of his magazine in 
1906. Between the adjournment of the Legislature in 1917 
and the election more than a year later, he renewed his 
appeal to the teachers to arouse popular support for the 
amendment. Joyner, as director of the campaign for the six- 
months term, relied heavily upon Brooks and North Carolina 
Education. In August, 1918, Joyner wrote him: "Give us a 
strong editorial. You might also print a copy of the planks in 
the state platforms of the two political parties strongly en- 
dorsing the amendment." 47 Brooks wrote articles entitled 
"Why All Good Citizens Should Work For the Six Months' 
Amendment" and "Preach a Crusade Against Ignorance." 
Joyner himself published an article in North Carolina Edu- 
cation expounding the advantages of the constitutional 
amendment. In November, 1918, the people of the State 
passed the amendment for a minimum school term of six 
months by a vote of 122,062 to 20,095. A week later the 
First World War ended with the signing of the Armistice. 
North Carolina was now prepared to implement more fully 
the educational legislation passed in 1917, and to adjust its 
school system to the new conditions created by the war. 48 

In the meantime Brooks continued to publish a wide va- 
riety of material in North Carolina Education that was valu- 
able to teachers and school officials. In addition to the Read- 

46 North Carolina Education, IX (February, 1915), 11; XI (April, 
1917), 5-7; X (November, 1915), 4-5. 

47 J. Y. Joyner to E. C. Brooks, August 17, 1918; J. Y. Joyner to E. C. 
Brooks, October 1, 1918; and E. C. Brooks to J. Y. Joyner, October— (?), 
1918, Correspondence of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, De- 
partment of Archives and History, Raleigh, hereinafter cited as Public 
Instruction Correspondence. 

48 North Carolina Education, XIII (September, 1918), 3-5; XIII (Octo- 
ber, 1918), 4-5; XIII (November, 1918), 4-5; Biennial Report, 1916-1918, 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 327 

ing Circle assignments, he provided numerous suggestions 
on "how to improve the teacher in service," which was a 
major problem confronting school men. He gave specific 
hints for more effective classroom procedures, while such 
regular features of the journal as book reviews and reports 
of the North Carolina Story-Tellers League afforded teachers 
other useful information. In 1920 Brooks induced Professor 
Laprade to write seven articles on "teaching citizenship in 
history classes," which emphasized the necessity for a broader 
aim than the accumulation of facts or the promotion of pro- 
vincial pride. A year later, Laprade contributed eight articles 
to the journal in which he, a professional historian, discussed 
such subjects as "The Use of Textbooks in History and 
Civics" and "Planning the Work of a Course in History." He 
included lesson plans which the teacher could use as guides 
for his own class work. Through similar methods Brooks 
sought to furnish information valuable to school officials. For 
example, he himself published articles in North Carolina 
Education in 1917 and 1918 on school law and administra- 
tion which were designed for principals and superintendents. 
He also acted as his own "roving correspondent" and re- 
ported proceedings of educational meetings in his magazine, 
in order that school men might be informed of developments 
in the field of education. For Brooks this was an essential 
factor in the growth of a professional spirit among the edu- 
cational forces of the State. 49 

By 1919 Brooks had edited North Carolina Education for 
thirteen years. During that period he had co-operated with 
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction in all matters 
affecting public schools. Whatever the differences of opinion 
between Joyner and Brooks, they remained close personal 
friends and partners in the building of a reputable school 
system in North Carolina. Brooks rarely missed an opportun- 
ity to compliment Joyner's leadership. He supported Joyner 
in all campaigns for re-election and described him as the 

49 North Carolina Education, X (January, 1916), 4-5; XV (September, 
1920— March, 1921); XVI (September, 1921— February, 1922), XII (No- 
vember, 1917 — February, 1918). See also E. C. Brooks to W. F. Marshall, 
August 3, 1920, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

328 The North Carolina Historical Review 

"leader of educational thought in North Carolina." When 
Brooks succeeded Joyner as State Superintendent in January, 
1919, he described his "distinguished predecessor" as "one of 
the finest products of the state" who was leaving office "at 
the height of his power and popularity." 50 

Upon his elevation to the State Superintendency, Brooks 
feared that he would have to terminate his connection with 
North Carolina Education. Professor M. C. S. Noble of the 
University expressed a desire to become editor if Brooks re- 
linquished the position. But the Governor and Attorney- 
General assured him that he would in no way violate "the 
spirit or letter of the law" by retaining his relation with the 
magazine while holding a State office. However, on August 1, 
1919, Brooks leased his half interest in the publication for 
$500 to W. F. Marshall, the publisher, and became "con- 
tributing editor." For the next four years North Carolina 
Education was in effect the press organ of the State Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction. It, of course, carried a wealth of 
material of practical value to teachers and also served as a 
medium of communication between State Superintendent 
Brooks and the educational forces during a period of rapid 
change in school legislation which necessitated numerous 
announcements and explanations. In fact, the volumes of 
North Carolina Education between 1919 and 1923 provide 
a large part of the history of Brooks's administration as State 
Superintendent. 51 

For seventeen years Brooks closely adhered to his orig- 
inal editorial policy "to do everything possible to advance the 
cause of education." He possessed a great deal of pride in the 
publication which through his faith and diligence managed 
to survive longer than any other educational journal in the 
State. He reluctantly severed his connection with the maga- 

60 North Carolina Journal of Education, I (June 1, 1907), 9; North 
Carolina Education, XIII (December, 1918), 15; XIII (January, 1919), 5. 
For the financial condition of North Carolina Education from 1917 to 
1919 see Report of the Business Manager of North Carolina Education, 
July 1, 1918, Brooks Papers; Report of the Business Manager of North 
Carolina Education, July 1, 1919, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

51 E. C. Brooks to M. C. S. Noble, January 9, 1919; W. F. Marshall to 
E. C. Brooks, August 1, 1919, Public Instruction Correspondence. 

Eugene Clyde Brooks 329 

zine in 1923 upon becoming president of North Carolina 
State College of Agriculture and Engineering. 52 

52 After Brooks severed his relationship with the magazine, Marshall 
became the sole owner, and Brooks' successor as State Superintendent, A. 
T. Allen, served as contributing editor. In 1924 North Carolina Education 
was purchased by the North Carolina Education Association and its name 
changed to North Carolina Teacher. Ten years later it reverted to the 
title, North Carolina Education and celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in 
September, 1956. E. C. Brooks to A. T. Allen, August 16, 1923; A. T. 
Allen to E. C. Brooks, August 20, 1923, Brooks Papers; "Two Score Years 
and Ten," 17, 44-46. 


By Charles H. V. Ebert* 

The North Carolina Piedmont with its abundant forest 
stands and water power resources became the cradle of a 
great lumber industry that filled the needs of the settlers. 
As in the case of other regions that had the same over-all 
conditions, such as suitable timber, water power, and a grow- 
ing population, furniture making was the outgrowth of lum- 
ber operations. Frequently the lumber mill operator turned 
to the making of furniture. These early establishments work- 
ed on a very small scale without access to outside capital and 
served local needs only. A great number of these small furni- 
ture making shops located throughout the Piedmont and 
eventually gave rise to larger furniture making centers. Furni- 
ture is manufactured in about thirty out of a hundred North 
Carolina counties but there is a distinct concentration of this 
industry within the Piedmont proper. High Point has become 
the heart of this furniture making region and its rise reflects 
most typically the evolutionary trends of this industry. 1 

High Point, the furniture center of the South, is situated 
on the interstream divide between the Deep River and the 
Yadkin River in the central Piedmont of North Carolina. 
This section of the Piedmont consists of gently to steeply 
rolling hills and generally is less rugged than the foothills of 
the Blue Ridge to the west or the maturely dissected eastern 
margin of the Piedmont. 

Two transportation lanes were responsible for the geo- 
graphical location of High Point. First, the east-west Fayette- 

* Mr. Charles H. V. Ebert is Assistant Professor of Geography at the 
University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York. 

1 Editor's Note: This is the first article to be published in The Review 
dealing with furniture manufacturing in North Carolina. Even though High 
Point is considered the center of furniture manufacturing in the State, 
it is by no means the only town in which furniture manufacturing plays 
an important economic role. An article on the subject covering the State 
would probably have a wide appeal. This brief article, based as it is on 
Mr. Ebert's unpublished master's thesis (The University of North Carolina, 
1953, Department of Geology and Geography, Chapel Hill), will, we hope, 
stimulate such interest in the subject that someone will undertake to pre- 
pare a broader and more detailed study. Mr. Ebert's thesis will hereinafter 
be cited as "High Point as a Furniture Town." 


Furniture Making in High Point 331 

ville and Western Plank Road that utilized the smoother 
upland of the stream divide, and second, the north-south 
route of the old North Carolina Railroad, now part of the 
Southern Railway, which followed the central belt of the 
Piedmont. At the point where the railroad intersected the 
plank road High Point developed. 2 It its subsequent evolu- 
tion High Point went through four major phases: (1) from 
the late 1850's to the Civil War it served as a trading center 
and after the war as summer resort; (2) from the 1870's to 
about 1897 it developed a small tobacco industry; (3) from 
1889 to the present it grew into the leading furniture making 
and marketing center of the South; and (4) from the turn of 
the century to the present it became the site of a rapidly ex- 
panding textile industry. 

The activity that made High Point known nationally and 
is mostly responsible for its growth between the late 1880's 
and the present is the furniture industry. Particularly in the 
beginning stages of the industry High Point had several ad- 
vantages over the older furniture making centers of the 
North: (1) it was surrounded by then undepleted stands of 
excellent hardwoods; (2) it enjoyed a favorable, less severe 
climate than that of the North; (3) topographic features and 
abundant well-distributed precipitation offered excellent 
water power potentials all year; and (4) it had plentiful, 
cheap, and dependable labor from surrounding rural areas. 

Originally the Piedmont was covered by a dense forest of 
southern hardwoods with a slight admixture of pine. This 
forest is classified as Southern Oak-Pine Forest. 3 The original 
abundance of this fine hardwood timber was one, if not the 
most important, prerequisite for the successful rise of the 
furniture industry. Practically all of the original timber has 
been cut so that today the region offers only inferior second- 
growth hardwoods with a much greater admixture of pine 
than in the previously existing forest. 

The furniture industry of High Point depends almost en- 
tirely upon hardwoods. For example, in the year 1940 of 
all wood used in the southern furniture manufacturing in- 

2 Ebert, "High Point as a Furniture Town," 31. 

3 U. S. Department of Agriculture, Atlas of American Agriculture 
(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1922), IV, 13. 

332 The North Carolina Historical Review 

dustry, 97 per cent was hardwood and only three per cent 
softwood. 4 Since then there has been only a slight increase 
in the utilization of softwoods. Within the present oak-pine 
forest of the Piedmont are about forty important species and 
about eighty of less significance. Of the hardwoods only 
two species are still relatively abundant within the Piedmont 
proper and both are used to a large extent in the High Point 
furniture industry. Quantitatively leading is the yellow poplar 
( Liriodendron tulipifera) and the white oak (Quercus alba). 
The yellow poplar reaches its best development along streams 
and in the western Piedmont sections and in the foothills of 
the Blue Ridge. This tree is classified as "hardwood" al- 
though the wood actually is rather soft. The wood is not 
hard enough to be used as surface material but serves for 
painted furniture, for non-exposed parts, and as core material 
for plywood. The white oak is especially abundant in the 
Piedmont and on the lower slopes of the Blue Ridge. The 
wood is moderately heavy and quite resistant so that it can 
be used for the exposed parts of furniture. There is a great 
deficiency in all other hardwoods and these must be brought 
in from other forested regions of our nation. 5 

The climate of the Piedmont section in which High Point 
is located in many ways aids furniture making. The warm 
summer temperatures permit relatively quick natural drying 
of lumber in the outdoor yard. At the same time the pre- 
dominantly high humidity prevents excessive drying and 
possible cracking of stored lumber. The mild winters re- 
quire only a proportionally small amount of coal for addi- 
tional heating to supplement available wood waste from the 
furniture plant. This fuel economy lowers production costs 
somewhat in comparison with those of furniture making es- 
tablishments in the northern states. Finally, the warm south- 

4 Harold E. Klorttz, "An Economic Study of the Southern Furniture 
Manufacturing Industry" (unpublished dissertation in the Department 
of Economics, University of North Carolina, 1947), 67, hereinafter cited 
as Klontz, "Southern Furniture Industry." 

5 Local woods not suitable to furniture making are frequently utilized 
by the supplying and parasitic industries that are drawn to furniture 
making centers. These are the manufacturers of crating and packing 
materials, or makers of veneer, plywood, and general building material. 

Furniture Making in High Point 333 

ern climate with its long growing season makes for rapid tree 
growth which encourages reforestation. 6 

The natural environment thus was very favorable to the 
development of woodworking establishments in and around 
High Point. One of the earliest lumber companies was the 
E. A. Snow Lumber Company which was established in 1881 
and in 1886 became the Snow and Dalton Company. A local 
paper described their establishment as follows: 

Messrs. Snow and Dalton are the biggest wood-workers in 
North Carolina, have the largest planing mill. They employ 
seventy-five men in their shops and turn out all kinds of wood- 
work from clothes pins to warehouses. Their wagon and lumber 
yards are daily loading and unloading wood and woodwork. 7 

With a growing population there was a steadily increasing 
demand for furniture. Many of the early traveling cabinet- 
makers settled down and started local workshops. They made 
not only household furniture but also coffins, window frames, 
spokes and handles, and other wooden utensils. The fact 
that there was a great number of small furniture making 
and woodworking establishments in neighboring settlements 
was of outstanding significance to the early development of 
High Point's furniture industry. The first factory, the High 
Point Furniture Company, began manufacturing in July of 
1889. This plant produced a general line of cheap and 
medium-grade furniture. 8 

Several conditions promised a successful development of 
this first establishment: (1) in and around High Point was a 
pool of skilled woodworkers; (2) some of these men were 
actually experienced in the making of furniture; (3) after 
the completion of the High Point— Randleman— Asheboro 
and Southern Railway abundant stands of excellent hard- 
woods became available with an operational reserve for 
many years to come; (4) the new factory could benefit from 
mistakes made by early furniture plants in other communi- 

6 Ebert, "High Point as a Furniture Town," 13. 

7 High Point Enterprise, June 3, 1887. 

8 James J. Farriss, High Point, A Brief Summary of its Manufacturing 
Enterprises (High Point, The Enterprise Press, 1896), 39. 

334 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ties; (5) suitable cheap factory sites were available along the 
railroad; (6) local capital was at hand; and (7) the growth 
of population of the North Carolina Piedmont cities, as well 
as that of the entire South, created a good market potential. 

Up to 1921, furniture produced in High Point was sold 
throughout the South only. The steady growth of southern 
towns and the increase in the number of factory wage earners 
created a market for cheap furniture. The young industry 
was fortunate that such a market was available. Furniture 
makers of those days would have been unable to send their 
products to the northern markets where they had to com- 
pete with the older and more experienced manufacturers. 9 

By 1921, the total farm value of cotton had dropped by 
about 69 per cent severely affecting southern purchasing 
power. As the young furniture industry depended on this 
southern market it found itself in a serious predicament. The 
way out of this situation was to find a new market, and this 
new market could be found in the North. In order to invade 
the North, High Point's furniture makers had to produce 
higher quality goods, higher priced, and of better design than 
that made previously. This was by no means an easy task. 
For thirty years they had concentrated exclusively on the 
making or cheap household furniture. They had not attempt- 
ed to keep up with the changes in styles and did not try to 
compete with the high-grade workmanship of northern furni- 
ture makers. But the thirty years experience was not in vain. 
The people in the factories were no longer mere cabinet- 
makers or ordinary hands with some experience in wood- 
working. They had learned how to operate woodworking 
machinery and knew how to produce simple but adequate 
furniture of practical design. No attempt was made to pro- 
duce the highest type of furniture. The emphasis lay upon 
the reproduction of the best furniture line in a medium price 
range. The new products resembled good quality furniture 
of northern manufacturers but were considerably cheaper in 
price. This opened the road to broad strata of buyers and 
promised large sales once this type of furniture had pene- 

9 Ben F. Lemert, "The Furniture Industry of the Southern Appalachian 
Piedmont," Economic Geography, X (April, 1934), 183. 

Furniture Making in High Point 335 

trated the new market. The subsequent development ful- 
filled this hope. 

Up to this time most factories in High Point had developed 
small showrooms to which the buyers came to view lines of 
furniture. The showrooms were scattered over a wide terri- 
tory and too often were in quite inaccessible places. It be- 
came apparent that there was a need for a central show- 
room where the many lines of all the factories might be as- 
sembled for the buyer to look over. Soon the plan was con- 
ceived to erect a central furniture mart. 

In June, 1921, the Southern Furniture Exposition Building 
opened its doors for the first time. The location of the build- 
ing, one of the outstanding landmarks of High Point, was 
well-chosen. It is situated in the heart of the city symbolizing 
the industry that made High Point known in the furniture- 
making world. With a display space of 440,000 square feet 
this building was the third-largest furniture mart in the 
United States. 10 Twice a year furniture buyers from all over 
the United States came to the expositions. From this time 
on, the High Point furniture maker had to keep up with styles 
and special demands for certain lines on a nation-wide mar- 
ket. A local newspaper reported: 

The output of furniture has increased every year and at the 
same time the quality of the goods has improved. The best grades 
of furniture now are placed along with the finer lines of goods 
manufactured elsewhere. This gradual improvement in the 
grades of the manufactured products is now occupying the at- 
tention of the manufacturer more than any other phase of the 
business and no doubt in a few years furniture of the very high- 
est type may be secured on this market. 11 

Competition was keen and brought about an impressive 
development of the furniture industry in High Point. New 
plants began operating, more workers from other communi- 
ties in the area moved to High Point. Its population grew 
from 14,302 in 1920 to 36,745 in 1930. 12 This was an increase 

10 James T. Ryan, Executive Vice-President of the Southern Furniture 
Manufacturers Association, Special Memorandum, High Point, March 
17, 1953. 

n The High Point News, January 11, 1923. 

12 U. S. Bureau of the Census, Fifteenth Census of the United States: 
1930, Population (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1931), I, 789. 

336 The North Carolina Historical Review 

of about 156 per cent during that decade. During the year 
1923 fifteen new furniture lactones were organized. This 
brought the total number of furniture-making establishments 
in High Point up to thirty-four. It is significant that of these 
fifteen new plants only two have remained in business until 
today. They are the National Upholstery Company and the 
High Point Mattress Company. 

The number of furniture-making establishments changed 
continually. New factories opened, others closed, some trans- 
ferred their capital to other establishments or invested in 
textile mills. While the number of factories decreased at 
times, the total value of furniture produced constantly in- 
creased. This growth cannot be shown in figures dealing with 
High Point alone because no such figures are available. How- 
ever, the value of furniture produced in North Carolina in- 
creased from almost thirty million dollars in 1920 to fifty- 
six million dollars in 1929, so that North Carolina ranked 
sixth in the United States in that year. 13 

Improvement in quality and quantity alone did not ac- 
count for the successful development of High Point's furni- 
ture industry after the great structural change in 1921. Three 
factors contributed to the success. First, the High Point 
Furniture Exposition Building and its biannual expositions 
attracted many buyers and visitors from all over the United 
States. Only 772 furniture dealers registered in July, 1923. 
Sixteen years later, in July, 1939, the attendance had reached 
2,229. In the first post-war market in January, 1947, attend- 
ance had climbed to 5,147. 14 The display of furniture is of 
special importance to the High Point manufacturer and to 
the dealer. Most furniture made in High Point is wooden 
household furniture which is quite unstandardized. Because 
there is no standard line the dealers have to buy on an in- 
spection basis. Some of the dealers place orders with the 
manufacturers during the exposition, but it is estimated that 
about 75 per cent of the sales are made through salesmen 
who call on the trade. 15 

W U. S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Manufacturing : 1929 (Washing- 
ton: Government Printing Office, 1930), II, 503-512. 
14 Ebert, "High Point as a Furniture Town," 73. 
15 Klontz, "Southern Furniture Industry," 172. 

Furniture Making in High Point 337 

The second factor that contributed to the success of High 
Point's furniture making is the Southern Furniture Manufac- 
turers Association which was organized in August, 1911. 
In its early stages the organization was chiefly interested 
in freight rates, shipping conditions, and related problems. 
During subsequent years the scope was expanded to deal 
with advertising, marketing, and industrial promoting. After 
the Second World War a special committee was appointed to 
establish in the South an educational program with a two- 
fold purpose: (1) to offer young men who have a desire to 
enter the furniture industry an opportunity to prepare them- 
selves better, and (2) to furnish a reservoir of technically 
trained and educated young men to which the industry may 
look as a source of recruits in technical and managerial fields. 
The committee visited a number of educational establish- 
ments. Finally it was decided that the new training program 
should be placed at North Carolina State College. The furni- 
ture training course was announced on October 30, 1946, 
and became operative with the opening of the winter quarter 
in January, 1947. 

The third factor that had a favorable influence on the 
successful development of High Point's furniture industry 
was the creation of a new publication, The Furniture South. 
This magazine, though not officially connected, works closely 
with the Southern Retail Furniture Association and with the 
Southern Furniture Manufacturers Association. This publica- 
tion is aimed at the dealers and retailers and not at the con- 

The years following the 1930's showed a further steady 
growth of furniture making in High Point. The Second World 
War interrupted this development by causing temporary 
shortages in labor and raw materials. Both shortages were 
eliminated and immediate post-war demand for furniture led 
to an unprecedented boom in the industry. Today, although 
High Point does not have the greatest number of workers 
employed in the furniture manufacturing industry of North 
Carolina, its central geographical location as a marketing and 
display center within a great furniture-making region, as well 
as the actual value of furniture produced, make it the hub of 

338 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the southern furniture industry. Within a radius of approxi- 
mately 150 miles from High Point is concentrated the great- 
est wooden household furniture-making area of the United 
States. In this region is produced about 20 per cent—in 
value— of all wooden household furniture and about 40 per 
cent of all bedroom and dining room furniture of the nation. 16 

Labor for the industry was available from the surrounding 
rural areas where small farms and partially poor, eroded land 
created a rural population surplus that tended to drift to the 
city. It was soon absorbed by the growing furniture making 
factories and by supporting and parasitic industries. Today, 
High Point itself cannot satisfy the labor demand so that 
about 25 per cent of the presently employed workers com- 
mute from an area extending about fifteen miles around the 

Most of the labor force is made up of white male workers. 
Furniture making is man's job and is not suited to female 
labor, although some women are employed in the plywood 
and upholstery departments. There are several reasons why 
few women can be employed: (1) most phases of furniture 
making require long hours of standing and bending; (2) 
handling of lumber and core stock requires great physical 
strength; (3) relatively high accident rates discourage 
women workers. 17 Consequently High Point early developed 
a potential female labor pool that eventually became absorb- 
ed by the textile industry that developed rapidly after the 
turn of the century and particularly in the 1920's. It is a 
typical pattern that wherever a furniture factory exists sooner 
or later cotton and knitting mills are built around it. 

The first cotton mill in High Point was built by Oliver S. 
Causey who later became a prominent textile manufacturer 
in Greensboro. His factory was rather small and was located 
on the site of the High Point, Thomasville and Denton Rail- 
way Station. 18 It is interesting to note that as early as 1912 
a High Point furniture maker decided to go into some other 
line of manufacturing. G. H. Kearns, a successful furniture 
producer, saw a better future in textiles. With some local 

"Ebert, "High Point as a Furniture Town," 81. 
17 Klontz, "Southern Furniture Industry," 110. 
M High Point Enterprise, January 20, 1935. 

Furniture Making in High Point 339 

men and local capital he started the then small Crown 
Hosiery Mill. This factory has grown to one of the largest 
hosiery manufacturing plants in High Point. Today, textile 
manufacturing has by far outgrown the furniture-making 
industry in number of workers employed. However, for so 
many decades this city has been known as the leading furni- 
ture center of the South that this industry tends to obscure 

Furniture making will stay in High Point despite the 
growth of diversified industries and the competition from 
other furniture manufacturing centers in various parts of 
the nation. This writer feels that the following factors will 
justify this assumption. First of all, the natural environment 
still is favorable to the furniture-making industry. Even 
though the original forest has been depleted to a large ex- 
tent additional timber supplies will remain available through 
reforestation and natural reproduction. Secondly, High Point 
has developed a considerable pool of skilled labor that has 
a tendency to keep the industry from moving to a new loca- 
tion. This phenomenon, sometimes called industrial inertia, 
is clearly evident in other furniture-making communities, 
such as Grand Rapids, Michigan, where the industry still 
is predominant although the initial advantages have dis- 
appeared. Finally, the name High Point is linked with the 
tradition of furniture making. This fact must be exploited 
because tradition builds trust and reputation, and both are 
needed for the continued successful growth of the industry. 

In January, 1959, a new wing to the Southern Furniture 
Exposition Building was opened for the winter show, adding 
150,000 additional square feet of display space for the furni- 
ture manufacturers. The present total is 711,896 square feet 
with only a percentage being used for mid-season shows. 
High Point is today among the five leading furniture markets, 
ranking third in the number of buyers attending the shows, 
with approximately 20,000 buyers representing every State in 
the United States and several foreign countries. High Point 
has experienced a tremendous growth in this industry and 
has become an international market. 


By Fannie Memory Blackwelder* 

The General Assembly of North Carolina, realizing the 
value of the State's records and the importance of preserving 
those of historical importance, enacted a public records law 
for North Carolina in 1935. The preamble to this law stated 
that "The public records of North Carolina and of the 
counties and municipalities thereof constitute the chief monu- 
ments of North Carolina's past and are invaluable for the 
effective administration of government, for the conduct of 
public and private business, and for the writing of family, 
local and state history. . . /' The General Assembly continued 
by indicating that "the failure of the State heretofore to 
make systematic provision for the preservation and availabili- 
ty of public records has resulted in untold losses from fire, 
water, rats and other vermin, carelessness, deliberate destruc- 
tion, sale, gifts, loans, and the use of impermanent paper 
and ink, and often in the unnecessary expense of copying 
and repairing records, to the lasting detriment of effective 
governmental operation and of family, local and state his- 
tory. . . ." Following the statement of public policy and 
legislative thinking, the chapter on public records was en- 
acted into law. Sections defined public records, provided 
that records could not be disposed of without the authoriza- 
tion of the Historical Commission, 1 and gave the Commission 
the right to examine into the condition of public records and 
to give advice and assistance to public officials concerning 
their problems of preserving, filing, and making available 
records in their custody. 2 

Though the Historical Commission realized its responsi- 
bilities for handling and preserving old records, the 1935 

* Mrs. Fannie Memory Blackwelder is Supervisor of the Records Center 
of the State Department of Archives and History. 

1 The name of the agency was changed from Historical Commission to 
Department of Archives and History in 1943. 

9 Public Laws and Resolutions Passed by the General Assembly at Its 
Session of 1935 Begun and Held in the City of Raleigh on Wednesday, the 
Ninth Day of January, A.D. 1935, Chapter 265, hereinafter cited Session 
Laws. See also Chapter 132 of The General Statutes of North Carolina. 


Records Management Program 341 

law made it clear that the Commission had a duty with 
respect to records as they were created. In the agency's 
Biennial Report for 1940-1942, the need for a more com- 
prehensive program was stressed, with emphasis being placed 
on the Commission's duty of "advising them [State agencies] 
as to the care and handling of their records, receiving from 
them valuable noncurrent records, and co-operating, as pre- 
scribed by law, in the disposal of useless records." 3 

Despite the realization that action should be taken, the 
Commission had neither staff nor equipment to inaugurate 
a records management program. The first step in this direc- 
tion occurred about 1939, when the staff noticed in the 
newspaper that the Governor and Council of State had al- 
lotted money from the Contingency and Emergency Fund 
for a warehouse at the State Fairgrounds to be used for 
records of the North Carolina Emergency Relief Administra- 
tion. 4 These records, created from 1933 to 1 935, 5 dealt with 
economic conditions throughout the State. They were turned 
over to the Historical Commission to be arranged, classi- 
fied, preserved, and made available to the public. The final 
federal grant had included funds for the liquidation of the 
Emerpencv Relief Administration and for preservation of its 
records. The remaining funds were, therefore, allotted to the 
Commission with the proviso that any balance remaining 
after the records were properlv processed should revert to 
the State Board of Charities and Public Welfare. The act was 
ratified on March 15, 1941. 6 Under the provisions of this 
act, the Historical Commission took over the records, and 
the necessary work of getting them ready for use was under- 
taken. 7 

After the records were turned over to the Commission, 
custody of the warehouse itself was given to the agency in 
1941. 8 The warehouse proved to be more of a "white ele- 

8 Nineteenth Biennial Report of North Carolina Historical Commission, 
July 1, 1940, to June 30, 1942, 49. hereinafter cited Biennial Report. 

4 Christopher Crittenden, "The North Carolina Record [s] Center." The 
American Archivist, XVIII (January, 1955), 53, hereinafter cited "The 
Record [s] Center." 

'Biennial Report, 1946-1948, 19. 

# Session Laws, 1941, Chapter 252. 

T Biennial Report, 1940-1942, 26. 

'Biennial Report, 1952-1954, 7. 

342 The North Carolina Historical Review 

phant" than an asset when its defects became obvious. The 
brick shell, 150' x 30', was one floor in height. In one corner 
was a room which served as an office; the only heat came 
from a coal stove located in the office. Plastering began to 
fall from the inside; the electric wiring was so defective that 
the current soon had to be cut off; leaks developed under the 
doors and in the windows as well as in the roof; the roof 
had to be replaced. One of the chief difficulties was the fact 
that the building was located on the fairgrounds, several 
miles from the Archives. 9 

The year 1941 was a difficult time for the Department to 
take over the ERA records because of lack of personnel to 
process them. Two students were employed in the summer 
of 1941, however, to work on them; 10 and in due time the 
10,000 cubic feet of records were inventoried. 

Some of the records were disposed of, and the space 
thereby released was assigned to State agencies needing 
space for their semicurrent and noncurrent records. Within 
a few years, the space was entirely filled. 11 It seemed obvious 
that State agencies would require more space for the tre- 
mendous volume of records being created annually. In its 
publication, Forty Years of Public Service, 1903-1943, the 
Commission predicted that it would become accepted prac- 
tice for records of State agencies to be transferred to the 
custody of the Commission when they became noncurrent. 
Such a procedure would mean that badly needed space would 
be made available and that expert handling of records would 
assure preservation of valuable records while worthless ones 
would be promptly destroyed. 12 

Steps were taken in the early forties to bring about the 
realization of this prediction. On May 24, 1943, a letter went 
out from Governor J. Melville Broughton to the heads of 
the several State agencies and institutions inviting each of 
them to appoint a records administrator. Governor Brough- 
ton, quoting the law, pointed out the Department's legal 

9 Crittenden. "The Record [si Center," 53-54. 

10 Biennial Report, 1946-1948, 19. 
"Crittenden, "The Record J>] Center," 53-54. 

12 The North Carolina Historical Commission: Forty Years of Public 
Service, 1903-19^8, 48. 

Records Management Program 343 

responsibilities and functions with regard to records. He in- 
vited agencies to participate in the "program by which the 
State Department of Archives and History is undertaking 
to render a greater service to the various state departments, 
institutions and agencies." Records officers were to seek ad- 
vice and assistance from the Department in solving their 
records problems. 13 

As a follow-up to this letter, the records administrators 
who had been designated to represent their agencies met on 
June 21, 1943, to discuss their mutual problems. The Gover- 
nor attended the meeting, as did Dr. R. D. W. Connor, then 
Chairman of the Executive Board of the Department of 
Archives and History and former Archivist of the United 
States. Governor Broughton urged the State agencies to take 
advantage of the services offered by the Department. Dr. 
Christopher Crittenden, Director of the Department, indicat- 
ed that the staff was in a position to co-operate with other 
agencies in preserving important noncurrent records, to as- 
sist records administrators in disposing of old, useless records 
of no value, and to co-operate in handling current records, 
keeping in mind the disposition of records in the future. 14 

Though interest was expressed in the program, little was 
done during the next several years toward actually establish- 
ing a records management program. At the end of each bien- 
nium in the 1940's, as it reported its activities, the Depart- 
ment stressed the need for such a program as a primary 
function of an archival agency. Need for a new records build- 
ing, with adequate equipment for handling records, was 
emphasized. 15 

Though the Department continued to point out the need 
for a records building, pressure came from another source 
when the fair management insisted that the building on the 
fairgrounds be vacated so that it could be used for fair pur- 
poses. When the Governor gave a tentative commitment to 

13 Letter from Governor J. Melville Broughton to State agencies and 
institutions, dated May 24, 1943. Unless otherwise specified, the originals 
or copies of all manuscripts referred to herein are in the files of the 
North Carolina Department of Archives and History, Raleigh. 

14 Minutes of Meeting of Records Administrators, June 21, 1943. 

25 Biennial Report, 1944-1946, 10-11. See also Biennial Reports, 1942^1944, 
1946-1948, and 1948-1950. 

344 The North Carolina Historical Review 

move the records out, the Department hastened to explain 
that it had no space for the records and that they could not 
be destroyed. 16 

The basis for a records management program was clearly 
continued and expanded when the basic law governing the 
Department of Archives and History was rewritten in 1945. 
The Department's primary functions of collecting, preserv- 
ing, and administering records were outlined, and the law 
provided that records could be destroyed after the agency 
creating them certified that they had no further administra- 
tive value and the Department of Archives and History certi- 
fied that they were of no historical value. The law further 
provided that records turned over to the Department could 
be microfilmed or photographed in other ways if the De- 
partment thought such a plan to be practicable. 17 

Despite the fact that the Department had the legal authori- 
ty to operate a records management program, despite the 
fact that the fair management wanted the warehouse hous- 
ing records, and despite the fact that the Department was 
willing to help agencies solve their records problems and at 
the same time wanted to assure the preservation of historical- 
ly important records, the sad fact remained that there were 
no annropriations for the operation of such a program as was 

In 1945, however, the General Assembly authorized the 
Governor to appoint a commission of five citizens to study the 
needs of the State with regard to buildings. 18 The commis- 
sion, composed of one senator, two representatives, and two 
contractors and builders, was duly appointed and one of its 
first steps was to write a letter requesting the head of each 
State agency to furnish information concerning the needs of 
his agency. The letter, dated October 16, 1945, 19 gave the 
Department the opportunity to conduct a limited survey 
immediately to ascertain the need agencies would have for 
space in a records building. 

18 Crittenden, "The Record Tsl Center," 54. 

17 Session Laws, 1945, Chapter 55. 

18 Session Laws, 1945, Joint Resolution No. 40. 

19 Letter from Public Buildings Commission, dated October 16, 1945, to 
State agencies. 

Records Management Program 345 

Because the Public Buildings Commission had requested 
a reply by November 1, there was time to survey only five 
agencies— the Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment, the Department of Public Instruction, the Industrial 
Commission, the Department of Revenue, and the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History— but this investigation revealed 
a definite need for space for records. Records were found in 
basements, sub-basements, attics, hallways, in the State 
Textbook Commission's warehouse on Caswell Square, in 
the old State Laboratory of Hygiene Building, a mile from 
the Capitol, and in the warehouse at the fairgrounds. Most 
of these locations were definite fire hazards, and it was ob- 
vious that the records were not easily accessible. 

In its report to the Commission, dated October 31, 1943, 
the Department recommended that the state project and 
execute "a well-planned solution of the records problem." In 
the report, the agency suggested that a records building 
should be constructed as near as practicable to agencies that 
would use it and that it should have priority in the State's 
building program; the building should provide space for 
semicurrent records, should insure proper preservation and 
care of those records in a fireproof structure with modern 
equipment and an expert staff, should assure State officials 
that the records would be conveniently and easily available 
for use, and should release valuable office space. The im- 
portance of having a new building which would be a records 
center, not a mere warehouse, was stressed. The report em- 
phasized the fact that such a records center would be for the 
benefit of all State agencies, not merelv for the benefit of the 
Department of Archives and History. 20 

Because the initial survey was so limited, letters were sent 
from the Department of Archives and History, in the spring 
and summer of 1946, to the several State agency heads ex- 
plaining that the Department was investigating the needs of 
a^enHes to determine the amount of additional space which 
would be needed for records so as to present fuller informa- 

" Letter and report from Christopher Crittenden to U. B. Blalock, Chair- 
man of the North Carolina Public Buildings Commission, October 31, 

346 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tion to the Building Commission. 21 The various agencies ap- 
pointed representatives to work with the Department. The 
survey resulted in a brief description of the functions of each 
agency, the location and volume of records with a breakdown 
into current, semicurrent, and noncurrent records, and addi- 
tional data and recommendations. The feasibility of micro- 
filming was also considered. 22 

The survey revealed that of the 26 agencies studied, only 
two needed no space; 15 could partially solve their problem 
by microfilming but would still need space in the building; 
nine agencies could not solve their records difficulties by 
microfilming but would need space. Recommendations were 
made that provision be made to care for the records then in 
halls, basements, and warehouses; that a centralized micro- 
film unit be established rather than having each agency go 
into the microfilm business; and that legislation be intro- 
duced to give microcopies the force of original records when 
introduced as evidence in court. 23 

The first step to carry out these recommendations occurred 
when the money for the Records Center was appropriated in 
1947, 24 and the Budget Bureau, after the end of the 1948- 
1950 biennium, authorized the construction of a building for 
semicurrent records. 25 A contract was let during the 1950- 
1952 biennium for a building, the second floor of which was 
to be used as a records center. 26 Actual construction did not 
begin until 1952; at that time the building was erected on 
the corner of West Lane and North McDowell streets in 
Raleigh, a site three blocks from the State Capitol. 

The Records Center was opened September 2, 1953. 27 

21 See copies of letters from Christopher Crittenden to State agency 
heads in files of Division of Archives and Manuscripts, Department of 
Archives and History. 

22 Results of the surveys of the 26 agencies are to be found in the files 
of the Department of Archives and History. 

23 W. Frank Burton, State Archivist, to Henry L. Bridges, State Auditor, 
December 1, 1952. See also Biennial Report, 1948-1950, 30. 

24 W. Frank Burton to Morris L. Radoff, Archivist and Records Ad- 
ministrator, Hall of Records, Annapolis, Maryland, September 30, 1953. 

25 Biennial Report 1948-1950, 11-12. 

26 Biennial Report, 1950-1952, 30. 

27 From September, 1953, until March, 1955, the North Carolina Medical 
Care Commission occupied part of the second floor space. See Quarterly 
Report of Division of Archives and Manuscripts for January 1, 1955 — 
March 31, 1955. 

Records Management Program 347 

The brick structure and the land on which it stood cost 
$375,000. The records area was equally divided with a fire 
wall and fire doors; the ceiling had a pitch of 7 feet, 11 
inches; the lights were arranged to illuminate three-foot 
aisles; receiving ramp and freight elevator meant that rec- 
ords could be moved in and out with a minimum of effort. 28 

Before occupying the building, plans had been made for 
the use of the space. A survey had been made in 1948 to 
ascertain the amount of space which would be needed by 
each agency to house its semicurrent records. This particular 
survey, which showed the needs of 17 agencies, revealed that 
they would need a total of 19,327 cubic feet to take care of 
their noncurrent and semicurrent records. 29 

North Carolina was the first State to have a records cen- 
ter. 30 When it was opened, policies were established to gov- 
ern its use. It was decided that filing cabinets would not be 
stacked so high as to require the use of ladders in servicing 
the records, that five-drawer filing cabinets or sections of five 
steel transfiles would be permitted but no more. The policy of 
using steel transfiles or steel cabinets was established, with 
the agency creating the records providing its own filing 
equipment, and no pasteboard files were permitted except in 
cases where records were to be microfilmed rather than be 
retained in the Records Center. Because the inspection of 
some records is restricted by law, anyone using the records 
had to be duly authorized to do so by the agency creating 
the records. 31 Permission was refused when agencies wanted 
to use space in the new building for storage. 32 

Immediately upon its opening, records from eight agencies 
using the fairgrounds warehouse were transferred to the new 
Records Center. 33 Records in the Records Center were nor- 
mally serviced by the agency of origin. 34 With the small staff 
at the Records Center, the Department of Archives and His- 
tory was able to service records to a limited extent but was 

28 W. Frank Burton to Morris L. Radoff, September 30, 1953. 

29 Christopher Crittenden to George B. Cherry, Superintendent of Public 
Buildings and Grounds, November 4, 1948. 

30 Morris L. Radoff to W. Frank Burton, October 5, 1953. 
31 W. Frank Burton to Rex Beach, August 28, 1953. 

32 W. Frank Burton to Morris L. Radoff, September 30, 1953. 
83 Biennial Report, 1952-1954, 20. 
34 Biennial Report, 1954-1956, 19. 

348 The North Carolina Historical Review 

not in a position to do extensive research for material. 

Prior to the opening of the Records Center, steps had been 
taken to initiate a microfilm program. The General Assembly 
of 1951 provided that any document which had been repro- 
duced by any photostatic, microfilm, or other such process 
could be admitted in evidence as the original itself. An en- 
largement or facsimile was also admissible if the original 
reproduction was still in existence; however, the original 
records could be destroyed after they were photographed 
unless the records were held in a custodial or fiduciary capac- 
ity or unless the law required that they be preserved. 35 

This enactment meant that agencies which might have had 
some hesitation about having their records filmed were ac- 
tually enthusiastic about the space-saving microfilm. 

Though a flatbed camera had been purchased in July, 
1949, and a microfilm reader had been installed, 36 a central- 
ized microfilm project was not established until July, 1951, 
when the Council of State allotted $14,333 from the Contin- 
gency and Emergency Fund to operate the project for 1951- 
1952. A microfilm unit was rented and three staff members 
were employed. During the first 11 months the program was 
in operation, 3,092,244 images were photographed on 429 
reels. It was estimated that the saving to the State was $1,643. 

The success and advantages of the program were so ob- 
vious that the Council of State allotted to the Department an 
additional $25,204 to continue the project during the fiscal 
year of 1952-1953. 37 

On July 1, 1952, the program was expanded by the addition 
of two workers and an additional microfilm unit. 38 Microfilm 
equipment was secured on a rental basis, and the project 
functioned under the supervision of the Department's Divi- 
sion of Archives and Manuscripts. 39 An expanded microfilm 
proiect was made possible by the 1953 General Assembly. 


85 Session Laws, 1951, Chapter 262. 
"Biennial Report, 1948-1950, 32, 41. 

87 Biennial Report, 1950-1952, 30-31. 

88 W. Frank Burton to Irving Zitmore, Records Engineering, Inc., Wash- 
ington, September 8, 1952. 

89 W. Frank Burton. "A Tar He*l Archivist and His Problems," The 
American Archivist, XV (July, 1952), 217, hereinafter cited "Tar Heel 

40 Biennial Report, 1952-1954, 20. 

Records Management Program 349 

When the new Records Center building was completed, 
the microfilm staff was moved to the building so as to co- 
ordinate the microfilm project with the over-all records con- 
trol program. 41 

Even before the Department of Archives and History en- 
gaged in microfilming itself, its staff was called on for advice 
concerning filming. The State Highway and Public Works 
Commission, for example, asked for advice concerning the 
filming of approximately one million highway drawings. 
After surveying microfilm equipment in Washington, at the 
Navy Records Center, the Army Records Center, the National 
Archives, the Library of Congress, and the Walter Reed Hos- 
pital, the Department's staff was not only in a position to 
advise the Highway Department at the time, 42 but valuable 
knowledge was acquired which proved helpful when the 
Department's centralized microfilm project was initiated. 

With the Records Center a reality and with the microfilm 
project established, the Department knew that there should 
be a systematic means of determining what records would be 
kept in the Records Center and for how long, what records 
should be microfilmed, and what records were of sufficient 
historical significance to merit space in the Archives. 

The staff had long worked with State agencies in an ad- 
visory capacity concerning the disposal of obsolete records. 
The Attorney-General, interpreting the basic law governing 
the Department of Archives and History as it was rewritten 
in 1945, had indicated that the law had eliminated any re- 
quirement that the Council of State be consulted before 
records were destroyed. The legal responsibilities of the De- 
partment of Archives and History with regard to disposal of 
records were clearly stated. 43 

On January 19, 1948, the Director of the Department had 
sent a letter to State agencies indicating that the Department 
could not offer the relief to space problems that it would like, 
but the suggestion was made that prompt disposal of useless 
records would afford one solution. Dr. Crittenden offered the 

41 Crittenden, "The Record [s] Center," 55. 
a Biennial Report, 1948-1950, 31. 

"Harry McMullen, Attorney-General, to Henry E. Kendall, Chairman, 
Employment Security Commission, August 29, 1946. 

350 The North Carolina Historical Review 

co-operation of the Department of Archives and History in 
working with agencies along the lines suggested. 44 By July, 
1951, an Advisory Committee on Disposal of Noncurrent 
Records, made up of representatives of State government, 
counties and municipalities, and professors of history, had 
been formed. The group met in Raleigh on July 19, 1951, to 
discuss the magnitude of the problems concerning records. 
The Committee also went into the question of microfilming 
and archival preservation. The members went so far as to 
set up definite recommendations for schedules to govern rec- 
ords found in the offices of county registers of deeds and 
clerks of superior court. The group asked Harry McGalliard, 
Revisor of Statutes with the Department of Justice, to com- 
pile a list of all laws relating to records disposal, 45 but such 
a study was not made until some years later. 46 

Though the Advisory Committee was a step in the right 
direction, and though the Department continued to authorize 
State agencies to dispose of records from time to time, there 
was no systematic program. In the 1948-1950 biennium, for 
example, disposal of obsolete records was authorized in 13 
agencies. 47 Even after the Records Center was opened, the 
same system of authorizing disposal was continued, though 
some schedules were worked out to cover future records, and 
some records were transferred to the Archives. 48 

Of course, one of the primary purposes of the Records 
Center was to provide control in the handling of semicurrent 
records as well as to provide security and to alleviate space 
problems in office buildings. However, the more or less hap- 
hazard way in which schedules had been determined led to 
concentration on the best method of actually controlling rec- 
ords. Two developments resulted. First, a series of adminis- 
trative histories was undertaken, with a view of obtaining a 
better understanding of the records problems of the agen- 
cies; and second, a system of inventorying records was adopt- 

44 Christopher Crittenden to heads of State agencies, January 19, 1948. 

45 Minutes of Advisory Committee on Disposal of Noncurrent Records, 
July 19, 1951. 

46 Memory F. Blackwelder, "Records in North Carolina." Typed copy in 
Department of Archives and History. 

47 Burton, "Tar Heel Archivist," 216-217. 

48 Biennial Report, 1950-1952, 30. 

Records Management Program 351 

ed, which meant wiser disposal plans, more economical 
microfilming, and insurance that valuable historical mate- 
rials would be saved for the Archives. Three members of the 
staff of the Division of Archives and Manuscripts were as- 
signed to this program. 49 

With the aim of helping the Department establish definite 
policies to govern records management, still another commit- 
tee was set up late in 1954. Dr. W. T. Laprade of Durham, 
a member of the Department's Executive Board, had sug- 
gested the formation of a committee to advise the Depart- 
ment on archival problems. 50 He indicated that the committee 
would face "formidable difficulties that may require pro- 
longed study before they are willing to formulate even a 
tentative policy." Dr. Laprade felt that questions would be 
involved which only active historians could fully appreciate. 51 

Consequently, nine university and college professors, rep- 
resenting the University of North Carolina, Duke University, 
and Davidson College, were asked to serve. Dr. James W. 
Patton, of the University at Chapel Hill, became chairman. 52 
The first meeting of the Advisory Committee on Records 
Preservation was called for February 4, 1955. Dr. Laprade 
and Frank Burton, State Archivist, made statements con- 
cerning records management and the members toured the 
Archives and the Records Center. 53 

Before the second meeting, a list of articles appearing in 
The American Archivist 54 and reprints of an article by the 
Director of the Department on the North Carolina Records 
Center had been circulated so that members could inform 
themselves on records management practices. In acknowl- 
edging receipt of the North Carolina article, one Committee 
member expressed the opinion that the Department was 
"already so cognizant of the problems and so familiar with 

* 9 Biennial Report, 1952-1954, 8, 20, 22, 

50 Christopher Crittenden to W. T. Laprade, October 8, 1954. 

51 W. T. Laprade to Christopher Crittenden, November 9, 1954. 

52 Report to the Executive Board [of the Department of Archives and 
History] by the Director for the Quarter Ending March 31, 1955. 

53 See Agenda for meeting of February 4, 1955, and also Report to the 
Executive Board by the Director for the Quarter Ending March 31, 1955. 

u James W. Patton to Committee members, February 26, 1955. 

352 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the possibilities of the disposal of records that our committee 
is a superfluous one." 55 

Evidently others shared this opinion. Only the Chairman 
and two members of the Committee attended the April 1, 
1955, meeting. A report was given on procedures followed 
by other States. The Committee was furnished information 
on records transferred to the Archives, and copies of an ad- 
ministrative history and inventory of records were circulated. 

At the close of the meeting, the Chairman expressed the 
opinion that the two meetings had been worthwhile in that 
the members had gained an over-all picture of the Depart- 
ment's work in records administration. He raised a question 
concerning the future role of the Committee. The statement 
was then made that the field was being well-covered and a 
motion was passed that Committee members be available in 
the future to give advice on specific problems which might 
arise but that regular meetings be discontinued. 56 

The staff of the Department was, thereby, left by the Ad- 
visory Committee to formulate its own policies in records 
management. Efforts were continued by those working in 
the field to systematize the program. 

Progress was made when a physical consolidation occurred 
and the entire records management staff was moved to the 
Records Center Building from the Education Building in the 
summer of 1956. 57 Partitions put up after the building was 
completed provided office space apart from the stack areas. 

The records management program has continued in two 
sections— the inventory program and the microfilm project. 
Each is dependent on the other. Schedules indicate the ulti- 
mate fate of each series of records and show which records 
are to be microfilmed. 58 Three trained Archivists I, who are 
in a position to give advice and assistance to State agencies 
concerning their records problems and who can judge the 
historical and research value of records, are assigned to the 
program of inventorying and scheduling. 59 They are guided 

"Fletcher M. Green to Christopher Crittenden, March 3, 1955. 
M Minutes of Advisory Committee on Records Preservation, April 1, 1955. 
67 Biennial Report, 1954-1956, 7. 
58 Biennial Report, 1954-1956, 16, 18. 

69 Records Management in North Carolina, leaflet published by North 
Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1957. 

Records Management Program 353 

by policies, adopted by the Department, to govern records 
administration. 60 

The schedules, which are followed when an inventory is 
approved by the head of the agency creating the records and 
by the Director of the Department of Archives and History, 
make provision for each series of records. Some are trans- 
ferred to the Records Center for a definite limited period of 
time, others are microfilmed, still others are destroyed by 
agencies when they become obsolete, and the records that 
seem to have research value are preserved permanently in 
the Archives. 

The Records Center has provided needed space for the 
filing of semicurrent records, and it has also provided space 
for the microfilm project. Through a planned program of 
microfilming, through use of the space in the Records Center, 
and through careful evaluation of records, the records man- 
agement program provides proper controls over noncurrent 
records at minimum expense to the State. 

As of July 1, 1958, up-to-date inventories had been com- 
pleted for 21 State agencies, and another five were in process. 
Two of the first inventories, finished in 1953 and 1954, need 
to be revised; they are not included in the 21 considered to 
be adequate. 

From the beginning of the microfilm program through 
June 30, 1958, the Department of Archives and History mi- 
crofilmed 30,860,274 images; this work is now being done at 
the rate of ten to twelve million images each biennium. 
Records on film occupy only one to two per cent of the space 
needed to file the originals. In most instances, a security copy 
of film is retained at the Records Center, to be transferred to 
the Archives, and a copy is sent to the agency which created 
the records. Microfilming had been done for 19 State agen- 
cies and had been scheduled for four others as of July 1, 
1958. Four Clerks II are employed on the microfilm project 
full time. 

Because of microfilming and scheduling, it has been pos- 
sible to destroy 20,692 cubic feet of records at the Records 

80 Memory F. Blackwelder, "Handbook of Procedures and Policies: Rec- 
ords Management Program," mimeographed manual issued by North Caro- 
lina Department of Archives and History, 1957. 

354 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Center. With few exceptions, the original records are de- 
stroyed after they have been microfilmed. Schedules have 
provided for the destruction of 10,876 cubic feet of records 
by agencies themselves. Thus a total of 31,568 cubic feet of 
records has been destroyed. To contain these records, 4,932 
four-drawer filing cabinets would have been needed. At 
$63.75 per cabinet (the State contract price), and allowing 
six square feet of space for each four-drawer cabinet, at $2.00 
per square foot each year, a total of $462,412.50 would have 
been needed to provide adequate equipment and space for 
these records had they been saved after becoming obsolete. 
The total program, exclusive of the cost of the building, has 
cost $246,274.96, meaning a saving to the State of $216,- 
137.54. This is $28,637.54 more than enough to pay for the 
Department's share of the building in which the Records 
Center is located. 

Through June 30, 1958, 5,036 cubic feet of the most valu- 
able records had been put under schedule for protection in 
the Archives. They had, therefore, been assured permanent 
preservation. Some of these records have already been trans- 
ferred and others are under schedule to be transferred when 
the agency of origin has ceased to need them for adminis- 
trative purposes. Still other records are under schedules pro- 
viding that they be "weeded" so that routine records will be 
discarded without risking the destruction of records possess- 
ing historical significance. 

Controls are maintained so that there is constant turnover 
of records and those which become obsolete are destroyed 
promptly. A shredding machine has replaced the old method 
of burning useless records. The office areas were repainted 
in the spring of 1958; concrete seal was applied to the floors. 

A procedural handbook was written for the use of the rec- 
ords management staff. A mimeographed pamphlet and a 
printed leaflet have done much to publicize the program and 
make State agencies aware of the services available without 
cost to them. The demand for help is increasing as the word 
spreads and the results of the program become known to 
State agencies. 

Though much has been accomplished in the past decade, 
plans are being made to strengthen the records management 

Records Management Program 355 

program. Microfilm equipment, which was rented for several 
years, was purchased in 1957. Plans to keep the equipment 
up to date and requests for appropriations have been made. 
To enable the Department of Archives and History to make 
maximum use of the space, shelving is to replace filing cab- 
inets at the Records Center. The first shelving was installed 
in the fall of 1958. 61 The capacity for records will be nearly 
doubled by this move. 62 

In planning for the future, the Department has received 
assistance from the Department of Administration and from 
the Commission on the Reorganization of State Government. 
The Commission took an interest in records management as 
a result of a conflict in the law, and the members reviewed 
the program with the idea of making recommendations to 
the 1959 General Assembly. The 1957 legislative body, in 
setting up the General Services Division, provided that the 
Division be required to establish and operate records cen- 
ters. 63 The Department of Archives and History was, of 
course, already carrying out this function. Appearing before 
the Commission on January 31, 1958, H. G. Jones, State 
Archivist, explained the Department's program to the group 
and answered questions. 64 

A report on records management, prepared by the Insti- 
tute of Government for the Commission, summarized the 
program for the members. In reviewing the developments, 
the report pointed out the fact that the program's success 
depended on voluntary co-operation of various State agen- 
cies. 65 

61 After this article was written, the erection of shelving and the transfer 
of records from filing cabinets to boxes was completed in approximately 
one-half of the Records Center. The project was finished early in 1959. 
Plans for a continuation of the change in the large room still containing 
filing cabinets are expected to be carried out in the 1959-1960 fiscal year. 

82 The information on the current program and future plans is taken 
from the report prepared for the Commission on the Reorganization of 
State Government by the Department of Archives and History in April, 
1958, and from records maintained in the Records Center files. Figures 
are as of July 1, 1958. 

63 Session Laws, 1957, Chapter 215. 

64 H. G. Jones to David Clark, Chairman, Commission on the Reorganiza- 
tion of State Government, February 19, 1958. 

65 John L. Sanders, "A Report on State Public Records Control," prepared 
for the Commission on the Reorganization of State Government by the 
Institute of Government, Chapel Hill. 

356 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The Commission called for a hearing in April, 1958. In 
accepting the invitation to appear before the group, the Di- 
rector of the Department of Archives and History, asked the 
Commission members to allow time for a visit to the Records 
Center in connection with the hearing. 66 The hearing had to 
be postponed until May 19, 1958, and on that date, the Com- 
mission members met, heard presentations by representatives 
of the Department of Archives and History and the General 
Services Division, and made a visit to the Records Center. 67 

At the conclusion of the hearing, the Commission asked for 
suggestions as to changes in the laws affecting records man- 
agement. These suggestions, submitted by the Department, 
were incorporated in the Commission's tentative report. 68 The 
Commission recommended that the provisions with regard 
to the operation of records centers by the General Services 
Division be stricken from the law and that the basic law of 
the Department of Archives and History be strengthened so 
as to make a records management program one of the man- 
datory functions of the Department. Under the proposed 
changes, State agencies would be required to work with the 
Department when inventories of records were undertaken. 69 
This report, if adopted by the 1959 General Assembly, will 
permit the Department of Archives and History to conduct 
a stronger records management program than ever before. 70 

Though much remains to be done, the records manage- 
ment program in North Carolina has grown in prestige, and 
its accomplishments have been recognized and appreciated 

66 David Clark to Christopher Crittenden, March 28, 1958; and reply from 
Christopher Crittenden to David Clark, April 3, 1958. 

67 Memorandum from Christopher Crittenden to heads of divisions of the 
Department of Archives and History, May 20, 1958. 

68 The Commission's final report, issued in November, 1958, after this 
article was completed, incorporated the suggestions made in the tentative 
report. In addition to approving plans for shelving, the Commission also 
suggested that additional space be made available when needed. The report 
indicated that consideration should be given to turning over to the De- 
partment of Archives and History the first floor of the building in which 
the Records Center is located and making other provision for housing the 
textbook distribution operation now located on that floor. See Seventh Re- 
port of the Commission on Reorganization of State Government: Public 
Records Management, November, 1958. 

69 Tentative Draft of Report of the Commission on Reorganization of 
State Government: Public Records Management, [1958], 6-7. 

70 After this article was completed, House Bill 26 was enacted into law 
by the 1959 General Assembly. The new law (Session Laws, 1959, Chapter 
68), incorporating the recommendations of the Commission on Reorganiza- 

Records Management Program 357 

by personnel of State agencies who have found the program 
worthwhile. 71 Records management is saving money for the 
taxpayer; records of historical significance or research value 
are being protected; records of temporary usefulness are 
being destroyed when they have no further value; valuable 
office space is being released for more pressing needs. 72 

In the Department's twentieth Biennial Report, covering 
the period from July 1, 1942, through June 30, 1944, a section 
entitled "The Department and the Future" indicated that 

An enlarged program of handling the state archives should 
be conducted. Under the present law any state, county, or other 
public official is authorized and empowered to turn over to the 
Department any noncurrent records in his custody, and the De- 
partment is required to provide for their permanent preserva- 
tion — with a provision for the disposal of useless archives. 
Under this authority, large quantities of noncurrent state 
archives have been turned over to the Department, and a coop- 
erative program is being developed whereby the Department 
assists other state departments and agencies in taking over non- 
current records which have value and in disposing of those 
which are useless. This program should be developed and broad- 
ened so that ultimately, as soon as any state archives become 
non-current, they will come under the control of the Department 
of Archives and History. 73 

What was a look into the future in the early forties is a reality 

tion of State Government, specifically provides that public officials shall 
assist the Department of Archives and History in the preparation of in- 
ventories of records and schedules to govern the disposition of records. It 
further provides that the Department, in so far as staff and facilities are 
available, shall make space available in the Records Center and in the 
Archives and render other needed assistance, including microfilming, in 
order to help agencies carry out the provisions of the schedules. The De- 
partment is expressly authorized and required to conduct a records man- 
agement program, and the provision of the 1957 statute, concerning the 
function of the General Services Division in the field of records manage- 
ment, is deleted. 

71 Crittenden, "The Record [s] Center," 56. 

72 The News and Observer (Raleigh), February 9, 1958. 

73 Biennial Report, 1942-1944, 57-58. 


Edited by Hugh Buckner Johnston * 

Ebenezer Hazard 1 (January 15, 1744/5- June 13, 1817) 
was a son of Samuel Hazard of Philadelphia, an educated 
merchant who had himself done considerable traveling. The 
younger Hazard was graduated from the College of New 
Jersey (Princeton) with the degree of M.A. in 1765. He 
worked in a New York bookshop until October 5, 1775, when 
he was appointed the local postmaster. A little over a year 
later he was appointed Surveyor (i.e., Inspector) by Post- 
master General Richard Bache. Having orders to regulate 
the Continental postal route 2 between Philadelphia and Sa- 
vannah, Hazard made a preliminary trip to Edenton and back 

* Mr. Hugh Buckner Johnston is Assistant Professor of Modern Foreign 
Languages at Atlantic Christian College, Wilson. 

1 Dumas Malone and others (ed.), Dictionary of American Biography 
(New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 22 volumes, Index volume, and Sup- 
plement One [XXI], and Supplement Two [XXII], 1928—), VIII, 469- 

2 It is of real importance to compare the North Carolina section of 
Hazard's route with the Colonial "Route from Suffolk in Virginia to 
the Boundary House of North and South Carolina on the Sea Coast," 
which was reported from Brunswick Town on January 3, 1766, in a letter 
from Governor William Tryon to Benjamin Barons, Esq., Deputy Post 
Master General for the Southern District. 


From Suffolk to Cottons Ferry on Chowan River 40 

Appletree Ferry on the Roanoke ... 30 

Salters on Tar or Pamlico River 35 

Kemp's Ferry on Neuse do 28 

Newbern 10 

Trentbridge 13 

Mrs Warburton's 13 

Snead's on New River Ferry 26 

Sage's 13 

Collins 14 

Wilmington 15 

Brunswick 15 

The Ferry 2 

To Bells 20 

The Boundary House 23 

Total miles 297 

William L. Saunders (ed.), The Colonial Records of North Carolina (Ra- 
leigh, 10 volumes, 1890), VII, 148-149. 

[ 358 ] 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 359 

between May 15 and July 8, 1777, followed by a complete 
round trip to Savannah between October 8, 1777, to March 5, 

The fact that Hazard was both intelligent and highly edu- 
cated greatly increases the value and importance of the often 
detailed observations that he recorded in his two-volume 
manuscript entitled "The Journal of Ebenezer Hazard/' Fred 
Shelley suggests, in editing "The Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 
in Virginia, 1777," 3 that the latter may have intended the 
two volumes as source material for the "American Geog- 
raphy" that he contemplated but never wrote. The leisure- 
liness of Hazard's journey would have allowed him sufficient 
time and opportunity for collecting many of the basic docu- 
ments on early American history that appeared some years 
later in his Historical Collections. 4 

Hazard continued in the office of Postal Surveyor until his 
term as Postmaster General of The United States from Janu- 
ary 28, 1782, to September 26, 1789. He visited a son at 
Huntsville, Alabama, in 1816 but does not appear to have 
taken any notes on that trip. The "Journal" was handed down 
in the family until 1945, when Spencer Hazard gave it to 
the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 5 

The two extracts which follow were taken from a micro- 
film copy of the original manuscript secured through the 
courtesy of this organization. Although Alonzo T. Dill made 
several references in Governor Tryon and His Palace 6 to 
Hazard's visit to New Bern, the fascinating details of the 
remainder of the 1777 and 1778 journeys into North Caro- 
lina have not previously appeared in print. 

Suffolk, Virginia, to Edenton, June 12-June 20, 1777 

June 12. Intended setting out for Edenton, but being informed 
that some Swamps through which I must ride are probably- 
impassable by the late heavy Rains, I think it adviseable to stay 

3 The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, LXII (Richmond, 
October, 1954), 400-423. 

4 Ebenezer Hazard, Historical Collections (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 
2 volumes, 1792 and 1794). 

5 No. 1398 in the Guide to the Manuscript Collections of the Historical 
Society of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1950). 

e Alonza T. Dill, Governor Tryon and His Palace (Chapel Hill, 1955), 
120, 185, 188, and 240, hereinafter cited as Dill, Tryon's Palace. 

360 The North Carolina Historical Review 

till Tomorrow. — Saw M r . Lunen 7 early this Morning: he is as 
drunk as ever. — One Purcel is in Confinement in this Town, upon 
Suspicion of being concerned with Murphy in forging Drafts on 
the Treasury. — There is a great Deal of Tar & Turpentine here ; 
I am told that it is made a few Miles off, & that very large Quan- 
tities are annually made in this Part of Virginia. It sells today 
for 9/6 Pr Bbl. — Yesterday was very sultry before the Rain; 
this Day is almost intolerably hot. — Lodged, by Invitation, at 
Col. Willis Riddick's. 8 

13 th . I find that Tar & Turpentine are the Staple of the South 
Parts of Virginia. — Set out early in Company with Co. Morgan, 9 
Capt. Cha s . Biddle 10 & a Mr. Shoemaker of PhiK— After riding 
about 6 or 7 miles from Suffolk we came to one of the Swamps 
mentioned yesterday ; the Water in the Post Road was up to my 
Horse's Knees ; this Place was about 150 Yards in Length. About 
three Miles farther we came to another of these Swamps, on 
which the Water on the Post Road extended, as near as I could 
judge, a Quarter of a Mile, & for about half that Distance it was 
with Difficulty I could keep my Knees out of it; had I come to 
this Place yesterday I certainly could not have crossed it. It is a 
fortunate Circumstance for Travellers that the Bottoms of These 
Places consist of Land which being wet is very firm, & as there 
are no Stumps or Roots in the Road there is no Danger of the 
Horses Stumbling: it is, however, a scandalous Thing that the 
Legislature do not order Bridges to be built there. This last 
mentioned Swamp empties into another called the Dismal 
Swamp 11 which is about 50 Miles in Length, & 15 Miles in 
Breadth: in this is a Lake 5 Miles long & from 3 to 4 Broad, 
which was first discovered about 20 Years ago, as I am informed. 
About six Miles from the second Swamp I rode through is the 

7 The Reverend Mr. Patrick Lunan, "on Account of his 111 behaviour and 
neglect of duty in the Churches," was finally dismissed by the Upper 
Parish of Nansemond County. Wilmer L. Hall (ed.), The Vestry Book of 
the Upper Parish, Nansemond County, Virginia, 17US-1793 (Richmond, 
1949), xliii, hereinafter cited as Hall, Nansemond Vestry Book. 

8 Colonel Willis Riddick was a Churchwarden, Sheriff, Militia Officer, 
and Tobacco Collector in the Upper Parish. Hall, Nansemond Vestry Book, 
87, 92, 120, and 256. 

9 This was either Colonel George Morgan, Deputy Commissioner General 
for purchases in the Western District of Pennsylvania; or Colonel Jacob 
Morgan, Jr., of the Pennsylvania Militia, 1775-1779. 

10 There was a Captain Charles Biddle in the Continental Navy. Francis 
B. Heitman, Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army 
during the War of the Revolution (Washington, D. C, 1914), hereinafter 
cited as Heitman, Historical Register of Continental Officers. 

11 The Dismal Swamp has been reduced by drainage from 2,200 square 
miles to 750 square miles, much of which area is still virtually an un- 
broken wilderness. Blackwell P. Robinson (ed.), The North Carolina Guide 
(Chapel Hill [second edition], 1955), 287, hereinafter cited as Robinson, 
North Carolina Guide. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 361 

Line between Virginia and North Carolina. I saw great Num- 
bers of Pines which were cut to get Turpentine : a large Notch is 
cut in the Trees cross-wise, the lower Part of which is hollowed 
to receive the Turpentine ; a pretty large Slip is cut off the Tree 
on the upper Part of the Notch. — Tar is made by taking a Parcel 
of Pine Knots or other Parts of the Trees which contain a large 
Quantity of Turpentine, & piling them up, covering & burning 
them in the same Manner as Blacksmiths in the Country usually 
do their Wood which they intend for Charcoal : A Trough is dug 
all round the Pile, with Drains communicating with both, which 
all empty themselves into a large Hole, from which the Tar is 
taken out & put into Barrels. The Coals serve for the same Pur- 
poses with other Charcoal. 

In one Part of the Road [I] met with large Quantities of a 
fine, light, soft Kind of Grass which had been blown by the Wind 
out of an adjoining Field : it was the Color of Flax, & branched 
in a very singular manner. Breakfasted at a House called the 
Folly 12 in North Carolina. I forgot to mention that in crossing 
the second Swamp all Cap 1 . Biddle's Cloathes &c in his Chair 
Box 13 got wet: when I overtook him I found him drying them 
on the Bushes. Dined late at a Cap*. Sumner's, 14 21 Miles from 
Edenton, a tolerably good House where we met with civil Usage. 
At 6 oClock in the Evening my Company (among whom was a 
M r . Vashon 15 of Baltimore, whom I forgot to mention) deter- 
mined to set out for Edenton ; but as the Distance was great, & 
I was informed there were more Swamps & a very dangerous 
Bridge to be passed, & no House on the Road where it was prob- 
able we could lodge, I thought it best to stay at Sumner's, & 
they went off & left me. — The Road today excepting the Swamps 
has been exceeding good. — The Land in the Part of North Caro- 
lina I have passed through appears to be better than that in the 
lower Parts of Virginia, & produce good Oak & other Timber ; — 
the Farming looks much like that in Pennsylvania, but I meet 
with no Meadow yet. — At Sumner's is a large Cypress (white 

M "The Folly" appeared on both Henry Mouzon's Map of 1775 and John 
Collet's Map of 1777. 

13 This was a storage compartment in the bottom of a riding chair. 

"On April 4, 1776, the Provincial Congress at Halifax commissioned 
Lieutenant James Sumner of the Second Company of Light Horse Troops. 
John H. Wheeler, Historical Sketches of North Carolina (Philadelphia, 2 
volumes, 1851), I, 80, hereinafter cited as Wheeler, Historical Sketches. 
James Sumner died in Gates County in 1787. In 1790 Mrs. Mourning Sum- 
ner was listed with two males, two females, and ten slaves. Heads of 
Families at the First Census of the United States Taken in the Year 
1790: North Carolina (Washington, D. C, 1908), 24, hereinafter cited 
as Census of 1790. 

M On April 11, 1794, Charles Vashon was buried in St. Paul's Cemetery 
in the City of Baltimore. 

362 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Cedar) Swamp. Though there has been a fine Air today, the 
Heat has been so great as to give me a violent Head-Ach. 

The Virginians who are rich are in general sensible, polite, 
hospitable, & of an independent Spirit; — the poor are ignorant 
& abject; — all are of an inquisitive Turn, & in many other In- 
stances very much resemble the People of Connecticut, but differ 
widely from them in their Morals; the former being much ad- 
dicted to Gambling, drinking, swearing, horse-racing, Cock- 
fighting, & most Kinds of Dissipation. — There is a much greater 
Disparity between the Rich & Poor in Virginia than any of the 
Northern States. Lodged at Cap*. Sumner's, who keeps as good 
an House as the Times will admit of. Variety of Provision must 
not be expected in this Country at this Time of the Year ; Bacon 
is almost the only Dish to be had, & I do not recollect that I have 
dined any where since I first entered Maryland but Bacon was 
upon the Table. 

June 14 th . Set out early for Edenton where I breakfasted, 
& met with my Company again. The Road from Sumner's to 
Edenton is not as good as from Suffolk to Sumner's, (excluding 
the Swamps) being more sandy & the Land is many Places 

The Country is a Pine Barren. The Ticks, Gnats & Horse Flies 
are very troublesome; particularly the latter, which are large, 
vigorous, & endowed with no small Share of Perseverence ; if 
they once get fixed upon a Horse, it is not an easy matter to 
remove them. My Companions set out for the Southward, but 
the Heat is so intense I cannot stand it & have determined to 
return. Edenton is a small Town (the Capital of Chowan County) 
situate upon Albemarle Sound; the Houses in general are low, 
wooden Buildings & much scattered. — The Hon : Joseph Hewes 16 
& three other Gent n . are building a Rope-Walk 17 here w ch . I 
imagine will be the best on the Continent. The Sound at Edenton 
is twelve Miles wide, & in blustering Weather the Navigation is 
very dangerous ; the Water is fresh, has no Currents, & is crossed 
in open Boats badly fitted. This Ferry must be crossed by all 
who go by the lower Road, as it is called, to Charlestown ; 18 the 
other, or upper Road, goes through Hallifax; the Country upon 
it, I am told, is well settled, & all the large Ferries are avoided 
by going that Way. — Some Quakers in North Carolina have 
lately emancipated their Negroes, & the Assembly have passed 

16 Joseph Hewes (1735-1779) of Edenton, a wealthy shipbuilder and also 
one of the North Carolina Signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
was born in New Jersey and was buried in Philadelphia. Robinson, North 
Carolina Guide, 181. 

17 This was a long, low building used for the manufacture of rope. 

18 Charleston, South Carolina. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 363 

a Law for apprehending the Negroes, and selling them as Slaves ; 
the Money to be put into the public Treasury. The Reason as- 
signed for this Proceeding, I am told, is that the Quakers refuse 
to give Security that the Negroes shall not become Burthensome 
to the State. I think this Conduct cannot be vindicated; it is 
infamous & a violent breach of Faith, as well as an intrusion 
upon private Property, & directly repugnant to every principle 
upon which we contend for Liberty. It certainly would have been 
better to allow of the Emancipation & passed a Law that such 
Negroes as could not maintain themselves, & actually became 
burthensome to the State, should, when they became so, be hired 
as Servants to some Person who should maintain them. — I am 
told, that at the Meeting of the Assembly, a Dispute arose be- 
tween them & the Senate, which should be the Upper House ; it 
was determined by a Majority of Votes, & as each County send 
two Assembly Men & but one Senator, the Assembly carried it 
of Course. A Vessel is lately arrived at Edenton from Cape 
Francois 19 w tb . 117 Pigs of Lead & 100 french Hhd s . (about 60 
gall 8 , each) of Rum, belonging to Congress ; the Lead is Part of 
a large Cargo from old France, which has been distributed 
among a number of small Vessels to prevent its falling into the 
Hands of the Enemy; brass Field Pieces, I am told, formed a 
Part of it. Lodged at George Gray's, 20 a pretty good House, at 
which I met with Cap*. Fairchild 21 of New York. 

June 15 th . Last Night a Sloop arrived from St. Croix 22 — 
loaded with Rum. Dined with the Hon. Joseph Hewes Esq r . for- 
merly Member of Congress for this State, but left out now as he 
has served 3 years, & the People think that a sufficient Length 
of Time for one Man to be entrusted with so much Power. 

I learned in Virginia that Richard Henry Lee 23 was not con- 
tinued in Congress by that State, because he leased his lands 
upon Condition that the Rent should be paid in hard Money or 

19 The Port of Cape Francois, on the northern coast of Santo Domingo, 
is now called Cabo Frances Viejo. 

^George Gray of Edenton died testate in 1785. On June 13, 1785, the 
heirs of Captain George Gray were granted 3,840 acres of land for his 
84 months of military service. Roster of Soldiers from North Carolina in 
the American Revolution (Durham, 1932), 270, hereinafter cited as 
Roster of Soldiers in the Revolution. 

21 Captain Reuben Fairchild, Master of the show "Jenny," was mentioned 
in a letter from Jacob Henry Chabonel of Amsterdam to James Beekman 
of New York, October 3, 1776. Philip L. White (ed.), The Beekman Mer- 
cantile Papers, 1746-1799 (New York, 2 volumes, 1956), II, 691. 

22 This is a West Indian Island forty miles SSE of St. Thomas. 

23 Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794) of Virginia was a distinguished 
statesman of the Revolutionary War period. On June 7, 1776, he introduced 
the motion that severed political connections with England. Virginia, A 
Guide to the Old Dominion (New York, 1947), 546-547. 

364 The North Carolina Historical Review 

something which would produce it, thereby depreciating the 
Continental Currency. — 

Hot, sultry Weather, but the Heat a little alleviated by a 
Breeze from the Sound. This being Sunday, the Negroes have an 
Holy-Day, according to the Custom of the Southern States. 
There is the same Nakedness among the Negroes all along the 
Road & here which I observed at Williamsburgh ; both there & 
in the other Places I have passed through the Females have a 
coarse Kind of Cloth wrapped round their Waists unless they 
are very small. 

16 th . The Edenton People themselves acknowledge this to be 
an exceeding hot Day ; — there is no Wind at all. At Night a very 
heavy Squall of Wind from the North West drove a Brig & 
Schooner on Shore in the Sound directly opposite to Edenton; 
it was accompanied with as heavy a Rain as ever I saw; red 
Lightnings flashed almost incessantly, and Peals of dreadful 
Thunder followed each other in terrible Succession. The Oaths 
& Imprecations of some Sea Captains who were uneasy about 
their Vessels added Horror to the awful Scene. — Prophane 
Swearing is but a rascally Vice at best, but at such Times seems 
more unpardonable than at any other. M r . Buchanan 24 (Brother 
to M r . Tho s . Buchanan 25 of New York) was crossing the Sound 
at the Time. The Squall came up & [he] had got within a Mile 
of the other Shore, but was forced to return to Edenton. 

17 th . The Court sits today at Edenton. It is expected that 
some Persons supposed to be unfriendly to the American Cause 
will be called upon to take an Oath of Fidelity to the State, or to 
give Bond to depart from it in 60 Days, agreeable to a late Act 
of Assembly. 

The Court met & adjourned till tomorrow. 

In Consequence of last Night's Rain the Weather is more cool 
than it has been, but it is hot enough to satisfy any reasonable 
Man yet. — 

18 th . The suspected Persons were called upon to & refused 
to take the Oath of Fidelity; — they are to leave the State. — No 

21 George Buchanan was a member of the Saint Andrews Society of the 
State of New York. William M. MacBean, The Biographical Register of 
The Saint Andrews Society of the State of New York (New York, 1922), 
I, 97. 

25 Thomas Buchanan (1744-1815) of Thomas Buchanan & Company of 
New York. John A. Stevens, Jr., Colonial Records of The New York 
Chamber of Commerce, 1768-178U (New York, 1867), 125-126. It is likely 
that he was a brother of Messers. George and John Buchanan, Merchants, 
of Glasgow, to whom his firm gave a bill of exchange dated January 5, 
1792. Leake Papers, I, Manuscript Division of the New York Historical 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 365 

Dignity in the Court. — A hot Day. — The Court House is a decent 
two Story Brick Building. 

Edenton is a dull disagreeable Place. 

I am told the following Lines were written by a Man who was 
ill-treated here, & put up at the Church Door; — 

A broken window'd Church 
With an unfinished Steeple, 
A Herring catching Parson 
And a d — d set of People. — 

19 th . No remarkable Occurrence. Very warm Weather. 

20 th . Set out in Company with Cap*. Fairchild for Williams- 
burgh. There is a large Quantity of Moss on many of the Trees ; 
some of it is above four Feet in Length. I am told that the North 
Carolina People frequently stuff the Seats of their Chairs, & 
Mattrasses with it. Lodged at the Folly. 

21 st . Rode as far as Smithfield, where we lodged. Saw some 
Rice growing. — Howel 26 has a Daughter whose Christian Name 
is Mourning, 

22 d . Got to Williamsburgh 

wllliamsburgh to edenton, bath, new bern, and 
Wilmington, December 14, 1777— January 16, 1778 

[December] 14 th . [1777] Moderate Weather. A Methodist of 
the name of Hill 27 preached in the Capitol ; he appears to be an 
honest man, but does not shine as a Preacher. Nine f rench Sol- 
diers deserted last Night. 

15 th . Cloudy all Day & was rather sultry towards Noon. Set 
out for Edenton. Got safe over Sandy Bay (a narrow deep Gut, 
washed through the Sand near James Town, by the Tide, which 

26 Thomas Howell died intestate in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, 
shortly before January, 1778, leaving daughter Mourning and widow 
Mary. Will Book 8, 484; 9, 51. 

37 Green Hill (November 14, 1741-September 11, 1826) was from Bute 
(now Franklin) County, North Carolina. On April 20, 1785, the first North 
Carolina Methodist Conference met under his roof. Robinson, North Caro- 
lina Guide, 67 and 355. See also Worth S. Ray, Tennessee Cousins, A His- 
tory of Tennessee People (Austin, Texas: 1950), 610. 

366 The North Carolina Historical Review 

is very dangerous at high Water) & James River, & rode to 
Nelson's 28 where I lodged. — 

16 th . Rain at Night. Very foggy in the Morning but cleared 
up warm afterwards. Rode to Suffolk, where I lodged at White- 
field's, 29 who keeps the only Tavern now in the Town, which is a 
bad one. He at first denied me Admittance on Acco nt . of his 
House being full, but after enquiring for Lodgings at five private 
Houses, I was obliged to return to Whitefield's and coax him to 
take me in. Met with a young married Woman who disliked her 

17 th . Rode to Sumner's where I lodged. The old Woman at 
the Folly was so drunk that she could not cook me any Dinner, 
& I was forced to go without. — There was a very heavy Fog 
this Morning ; the Remainder of the Day was clear & moderate ; 
some Parts of it rather warm. Suffolk is crowded at present by 
People who have come there to purchase Salt &c lately arrived 
at South Quay. 30 Met with Cap*. Fairchild. The Chevalier de la 
Roche 31 lodged with us at Sumner's. He described the heat of 
Charlestown by saying "between Sharles-Town & Hell is no more 
as one Sheet Papier, & dat is very tin too." 

18 th . Very foggy all the Morning & cloudy the rest of the 
Day. Dined at Edenton. In my Way saw vast Numbers of Rob- 
bins: as they are the very same Thing we have among us, & I 
saw none here last Summer, I conclude that they are a Bird of 
Passage, & that these have come from the Northward. — This is 
the Day appointed by Congress for a general Thanksgiving on 
acco*. of the Victory obtained over Gen 1 . Burgoyne. 32 — Guns were 
fired at Noon from the Fort & Ships in the Harbour. 

19 th . At Edenton. Clear, cold Weather. I understand that 
M r . William Lowther 33 who left Edenton because he would not 

28 William Nelson (died in 1785) married Ann Baker, daughter of Law- 
rence and Ann Baker of Isle of Wight County. She was born on September 
21, 1735. John B. Boddie, Seventeenth Century Isle of Wight County, 
Virginia (Chicago, 1938), 180. In 1782 Nelson was listed in Surry County 
with nine whites and twenty-six blacks. Heads of Families at The First 
Census of The United States Taken in The Year 1790: Virginia (Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1908), 43. 

29 This was William Whitfield, Sexton of the Upper Parish Church in 
Suffolk Hall, Nansemond Vestry Book, 218, 222, passim. 

30 South Quay is on the Blackwater River four or five miles south of 
Franklin and about sixteen miles WSW of Suffolk. 

31 Heitman, Historical Register of Continental Officers. 

32 General John Burgoyne surrendered to General Horatio Gates at 
Saratoga, New York, on October 17, 1777. 

33 The Collet Map of 1777 shows the Lowther plantation just north of the 
entrance of Roanoke River into Albemarle Sound. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 367 

take the Test ordered by the Ass y . is gone to New York. — The 
Assembly have passed a Law directing a Tax of a Halfpenny in 
the Pound to be raised upon all Property in North Carolina : one 
of the Collectors told me it would amount to £60,000. 

20 th . Fine, clear Weather. An Aurora Borealis at Night. 

21 st . Exceeding fine moderate Weather. Dined with M r . 
Hewes. Am informed the halfpenny Tax will amount to £120,000. 

22 d . Intended setting out for Bath, but the Ferryman has run 
away, which prevented me. Tried to get over in the Boat from 
the other Side of the Sound, but as the Wind was ahead, & we 
should not get over till some Time after Night, I concluded to 
stay for another Opportunity. 

23 d . Rain all Day. Supped at Capt. Collins's. 34 Had arrack 
Punch 35 Oranges & Almonds. 

24 th . Cloudy Weather. 

25 th . Xmass. Heard M r . Earl 36 preach in the Church. The 
Clarke, previous to singing an Hymn to the Tune of "God save 
the King" said "Let us sing upon this solemn & rejoicing Occa- 
sion, a few Lines composed by D r . Whitefield." 37 The Parson's 
Notes were very yellow & the last Leaf loose, from which I 
conjecture they were rather ancient & had been much used. Our 
Landlord, Geo. Gray, entertained his Lodgers today gratis & 
genteely. We had, inter Dia, Arrack Punch and Venison. — Spent 

34 Captain Josiah Collins belonged to the Edenton firm of Collins, 
(Nathaniel) Allen, and (Samuel) Dickinson. Collins owned thirty slaves 
in 1790, and the company one hundred and thirteen. Census of 1790, 19. 

35 It is suggested that the thirsty modern reader try the following recipe : 
Strain the juice of two large oranges and pour over three-fourths of a 
pound of loaf sugar. Add several very thin slices of the outside peeling. 
Pour upon this one quart of boiling water, one pint of West Indian arrack 
(rum), and one pint of hot red wine. Stir thoroughly and serve cold. The 
punch can be bottled and will improve with age. For alternate recipes, see 
Mrs. Helen Bullock, The Williamsburg Art of Cookery, . . . (Richmond, 
Virginia: 1949), 217. 

36 In 1759 the Reverend Daniel Earl succeeded the Reverend Clement 
Hall as Rector of St. Paul's Parish in Edenton. He served until 1778 and 
died testate in 1785. Robinson, North Carolina Guide, 185 and 187. 

37 Dr. George Whitefield (1714-1770), founder of the Calvinistic Metho- 
dists, was an immensely popular preacher in both England and America. 
Abel Stevens, The Centenary of American Methodism (New York, 1866), 

368 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the Evening with Cha s . Bondfield Esq 1 *. 38 — Had a Frolic after- 
wards. Guns were fired at noon by Way of rejoicing, & all the 
Negroes had a Holiday. In the Morning I attempted crossing the 
Sound but the Wind blew up right ahead, & I was forced to stay 
at Edenton. 

26 th . Appointed Cha s . Bondfield Esq r . Post Master. Put my 
Horse on board the Ferry Boat, but as the Wind was ahead, & 
the Passage would be tedious I preferred going in what they call 
a Canoe but it is more like one of our New York small Pettiau- 
gers 39 without Masts. For this Purpose I hired a Negro to assist 
one of the Ferrymen in rowing me over, but when I got down to 
the Boat I found the Fellow had given me the Slip, & I was forced 
to return. A M r . Ryan 40 who lives on the South Side of the Sound 
was kind enough to lend me one of his Negroes, & I was rowed 
over to M rs . Pierson's, 41 which is seven Miles from Edenton. Peo- 
ple going to Cha s . Town 42 usually cross over to Mackay's 43 (12 
Miles) which is the best Way, as several Ferries are avoided by 
it, but a Kind of Fatality seemed to attend me, which prevented 
my going there. In my Way to M rs . Pierson's I passed the Mouth 
of Chowan River, which appears to be about 3 Miles wide. The 
Water in the Sound near Edenton is very shoal & brackish. As 
there was no Wind my Horse did not get over till after Night. 
I lodged very comfortably at M rs . Pierson's, who keeps an ex- 
ceeding good House, & is sensible. She is from Lancashire in 
England. — The Weather has been very fine today, & moderate. 

27 th . Set out on my Journey; the Weather warm & cloudy. 

38 In 1775 Rebecca Bondfield was one of the fifty celebrated women of 
Edenton who refused to use British tea. In 1779 Charles Bondfield was 
Clerk of the Superior Court of Edenton District. Worth S. Ray, The 
Lost Tribes of North Carolina (Austin, Texas: 1947), 12, hereinafter cited 
as Ray, The Lost Tribes. The Bondfield family was not listed in North 
Carolina in 1790. 

39 This is a variation of the Spanish "piragua," a large dugout or a 
flat-bottomed boat with two masts. 

40 Cornelius Ryan of Bertie County had a large family and thirty-eight 
slaves in 1790. Census of 1790, 14. 

41 Margaret Pearson was the widow of a lawyer named John Pearson 
who had died in 1777. She died in 1785. Ray, The Lost Tribes, 125. Her 
first husband had been Nathaniel Duckinfield of Cheshire, England, who 
died in Bertie County in the latter part of 1756. J. Bryan Grimes, Abstract 
of North Carolina Wills (Raleigh, 1910), 102-103, hereinafter cited as 
Grimes, Abstract of Wills. 

42 Charleston, South Carolina. 

43 In 1735 William Mackey of Edenton petitioned the General Assembly 
for permission to operate a ferry. Ray, The Lost Tribes, 100. By 1751 
Captain Mackey was living on the Tyrrell County side of Albemarle Sound. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 369 

I was directed to go to Kooshoak, 44 but understanding afterwards 
that it was out of my Way, I Rode to Spruel's Ferry 45 upon 
Kooshy River. 46 I was caught in several Showers in my Way, 
but before I could leave M rs . Spruel's it began to rain very fast, 
& continued so till Night. A very heavy Fog came rolling up the 
River and soon disappeared : it looked much like a white Cloud. 
M rs . Spruel informed me that they sometimes have dreadful 
Storms of Wind in this Country which do a vast Deal of Dam- 
age. There was one about six, & another about two Years ago. 
In the last she left her Dwelling House & went to a Negro Cabbin 
for Shelter. M rs . Pearson told me she did so too, & that she had 
two framed Houses blown down by that Storm. It happened in 
September. M rs . Spruel observed that she had been told that 
Philadelphia was the "Metropolisest City of this America/' 
Lodged at her House, which has not a Pane of Glass belonging 
to it. — 

28 th . Cloudy Weather, & a heavy mist in the Morning. Crossed 
Cooshy River, which is not half a Mile wide in the broadest Part. 
It empties into Albemarle Sound, & runs into the Country a little 
above Windsor, where there is a Bridge across it. After I had 
crossed it I found that one Stewart 47 (to whose Ferry I was to 
go) no longer kept a Ferry, & I went to the Widow Ryan's, 48 from 
whence I was rowed by two Negroes a little Way down Cooshy 
River, then through a Thoroughfare (as they call it) of two 
Miles in Length, into Roanoke, & down that River about 4 Miles 
to a Place called the Wharf. I was caught in several Showers in 
my Way down. The Lands on both Sides of the Thoroughfare & 
Roanoke are Swamps, which the People of this County call 
Pocosin. Another Thoroughfare runs from Roanoke to Cooshy 
called the Middle River. Between the first & the Warf in Roa- 
noke is an Island 49 about a Mile long which ends within half a 
Mile of the Wharf. Roanoke always runs toward the Sound 

44 On December 22, 1745, the will of Mary Jones of Bertie County men- 
tioned a niece Elizabeth Spruell and left a nephew named John Sutton 
one hundred acres "in Cishooke." On December 7, 1753, James Lockhart 
of the same county bequeathed two plantations "at Cashoak" to his son 
George Lockhart. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 195 and 219. 

45 Elizabeth Spruill died testate in Bertie County in 1788. Ray, The Lost 
Tribes, 159. 

48 Cashie River. 

47 John Stewart died testate in Bertie County in the last of 1774. Ray, 
The Lost Tribes, 161. 

48 She was probably the widow of James Ryan who died in Bertie County 
in 1771. Ray, The Lost Tribes, 145. 

49 This was Batts Island, or Batts Grave, named for Nathaniel Batts, an 
early settler who formerly lived in Nansemond County, Virginia. Nell M. 
Nugent, Cavaliers and Pioneers (Richmond, 1934), 543. Do not be mislead 
by the romantic but purely fictional account of Jesse Batts in Robinson, 
North Carolina Guide, 186-187. 

370 The North Carolina Historical Review 

(into which it empties). It appears to me to be about % of a 
Mile wide. When I landed at the Wharf I went to a M r . Webb's 50 
who treated me with great Civility but could not lodge me. I 
met there with a M r . Hough 51 (Cousin to Tommy Hough of 
PhiK) who invited me to his House. I ate nothing there, & drank 
nothing but Water, & Milk & Water; Slept very comfortably. 
Pine Knots (according to the Custom of the Country) served 
for Candles. 

29 th . Set out for Bath, but before I got away from M r . 
Hough's my Horse ran away, but I was fortunate enough to 
catch him again. — Weather very clear & intensely cold. — Made a 
late Breakfast at Hardeson's, 52 upon cold Boiled Pork, Pone 
Toast, 53 & Yopon 54 Tea sweetened with Honey. The Tea was 
made in a Coffee Pot, & had no Milk with it. It has not the same 
Taste with Bohea, 55 but I think is not inferior to it : the Bush is 
an Evergreen, & has a Leaf much like the Prim of which Hedges 
are made. The Country between Hough's & Bath is very poor, 
& mostly low, sunken Land. Lodged at Major Brown 56 at Bath, 
who is Post Master, Tavern Keeper, & Member of Ass y . 

Dec r . 30 th . Water froze in my Bed Chamber last Night: very 
cold this Morning : grew something warmer towards Noon. Bath 
is a small Town in Beaufort County, situate upon a Creek called 
Bath Town Creek, which is about a Quarter of a Mile wide & 
empties itself two Miles below the Town, into Pamtico River. 
The Town contains about 20 framed Houses, & I am informed 
is the oldest in North Carolina. 

31 st . Met with Rich d . Nassau Stephens 57 who formerly lived 
at New York : He invited me to his House. I lodged there. Clear, 

60 Harmon Webb, Sr., of Tyrrell County owned seventeen slaves in 1790. 
Census of 1790, 34. 

61 The Tyrrell County Census of 1790 lists Richard Hoff with a family of 
five and three slaves. Census of 1790, 33. 

62 Benjamin Hardison of Tyrrell County had four in his family and two 
slaves in 1790. Census of 1790, 33. 

68 This was toast made from corn bread. 

^Yaupon is a southern holly of the class Ilex vomitoria. There are both 
shrub and tree varieties. 

65 Bohea is the name of an inferior kind of black tea, also applied to 
Souchong, Pekoe, and Congou. 

56 William Brown sat in the Provincial Congress at New Bern on August 
25, 1774, and was on the Committee of Safety in 1775. On April 22, 1776, 
he was commissioned First Major of the Militia Regiment in Beaufort 
County. Wheeler, Historical Sketches, I, 66, 73, 78, 81, and 86. 

57 Stephens had been a ''freeman'' of New York City before coming to 
North Carolina. Collections of The New York Historical Society (New 
York, 1886), 234. He was the Commissary for Beaufort in 1782, but had 
died or left the State before 1790. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 371 

moderate Weather. In North Carolina they have Deer, Bears, 
Wild Cats, Opossums, Panthers, Alligators, Snakes in Abundance, 
& a very great Variety of other Animals. — The female Opossum 
has a false Belly in which she breeds & protects her Young : they 
appear at first (or in Embryo) like a Kidney Bean upon the 
Teat, & hang or stick to it till they are big enough to venture 
abroad. When they want to suck, or are in Danger they go into 
the false Belly of their Dam, & remain there as long as they find 
it convenient. Among the Snakes is one called the Glass Snake, 
of which I heard also in Virginia : I have been told by those who 
have seen it, that this Snake, when struck, breaks into Pieces 
(from whence it gets its Name) & it is commonly reported that 
these Pieces will again unite, & the Snake be as lively & vigorous 
as ever. Among their Plants in this State is the Myrtle, an odor- 
iferous Bush, which bears a small Berry, of which the Inhabi- 
tants frequently make a Wax: mixed with Tallow this Wax 
makes excellent Candles. It is of a dusky green Color, & they 
commonly add a little Verdigrease to brighten it.— N°. Carolina 
abounds with wild Fowl of almost all Kinds. Went to Town with 
M r . Stephens & did not return home till 2 OClock in the Morning. 


Jan. 1 st . Fine, clear, moderate Weather in the Day, but cold 
at Night. Went to Town again, & returned between 1 & 2 in the 
Morning. Appointed M r . Stephens Surveyor of the Post Office in 
the Southern District of the United States; — to begin to act 
after 5 th . April, 1778. Supped at Cap 1 . Reyes's. 58 

Jan. 2 d . Exceeding pleasant Weather. — Went to Town again. 
Saw some Negroes hired out for a Year ; it was done by Way of 
Vendue. For several of them £28.15. each was bid. 

3 d . Set out in Company with M r . Stephens for Newbern. 
Bath Town Creek (see Dec r . 30 th ) empties itself but 2 Miles be- 
low the Town into Pamlico River, which is here 3 Miles wide: 
this River runs about 16 Miles up & then forks ; the right Hand 
Fork is called Tar River: Pamtico empties into Pamtico Sound. 
From M rs . Bond's 59 (on the South Side of the Ferry) we rode to 

58 Captain Nathaniel Keias entered service in the Second North Carolina 
Regiment on September 1, 1775, and retired on June 1, 1778. Roster of 
Soldiers in the Revolution, 39. In the Beaufort County Census of 1790 
Nathaniel Kies (sic) had seven whites, six blacks, and two other free 
persons in his listing. Census of 1790, 126. 

59 Bond's Ferry is shown on Mouzon's Map of 1775. Mrs. Bond was un- 
doubtedly the widow of John Bond who died testate in Beaufort County in 
1749. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 37. Their sons John and Robert Bond were 
well-to-do planters of Beaufort County in 1790. Census of 1790, 125. 

372 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Moore's Tavern, 60 where we Lodged. The Road from M rs . Bond's 
all the Way to Newbern (which is 28 Miles) runs through a 
barren Neck of Land, which is formed by Pamtico & Neuse 

To make Myrtle Wax the Berries are put into warm Water, 
which makes the Wax separate from them; it is then skimmed 
off & melted into a Cake. 

The Generality of the Farmers in N°. Carolina take no Care of 
their Horses, Cattle, Sheep & Hogs during the Winter but let 
them shift for themselves in the Woods as well as they can : the 
Woods produce a small Reed, an Evergreen, of which the Cattle 
&c are very fond, & on which they feed. 

Instead of Mile Stones, Posts are usually fixed by the Road 
Side, with the Number of Miles marked on them in Roman 
Numerals, & as many Notches cut in the Side of it as you have 
Miles to travel; these Notches I suppose are for the Benefit of 
the unlearned. — Saw a Tar Kill. 

Jan. 4. Rode to Newbern. In my Way crossed Neuse River, 
which is 2% Miles wide: it empties into Pamtico Sound. There 
is an Island in the ferrying Place, which produces nothing but 
Sedge. Between Bath & Newbern are large Quantities of Land 
which have never yet been patented. The Reason is that they are 
so poor that they would not produce enough to pay the Quit 
Rent; they serve at present at Ranges for Cattle. There is in 
North Carolina a Briar called the Bamboo Briar ; it grows exactly 
like a Grape Vine, runs up to the Top of the highest Trees & 
bears a pretty Flour: it is very tough. Last Night there was a 
severe Frost; this Morning the air was very keen, but the 
Weather grew warm at Noon & continued so the rest of the Day. 
The Weather is amazingly fine for the Season; in many Places 
the Grass is quite green. Lodged at Wrensford's 61 at Newbern. — 
Saw a Kind of Grass called Fox Grass from the Seed Part (or 
Head) of it curling like a Fox's Tail: when it is green it smells 
exactly like Lime, & has a sourish Taste. The natural Grapes 
of N°. Carolina are the red & white Muscadine, the former very 
plenty, the latter scarce ; male & female of both ; red ripe Middle 
Sept r white latter End d°. The red & white Fox Grape, the latter 
scarce, ripe about latter end September. The Bunch Grape, a 

60 In 1790 John Moore had a family of seven persons in Beaufort County. 
Census of 1790, 127. 

61 On August 17, 1774, Edmund Wrenford was executor and his wife 
Susannah was a legatee in the will of Mary Conway of New Bern. Grimes, 
Abstract of Wills, 80. Because of his Loyalist leanings, Wrenford was 
ordered to leave New Bern by June 12, 1777, but he decided to take the 
Test Oath on June 14. Dill, Tryon's Palace, 180. He died or moved out of 
the State by 1790. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 373 

blackish red, & very sweet, plenty; ripe 1 st . Week Sept r . Small 
black Winter Grape; ripe 1 st . Frost. 

M r . Stephens informs me that a M r . Barrow 62 (whom I saw at 
his House) made an Experiment upon Persimons by distilling 
them agreeable to the Directions published in the Memoirs of 
the American philosophical Society; 63 — he expressed the Juice 
& distilled it immediately, but as it did not yield as much Spirit 
as he thought he had a Right to expect from the Quantity of 
Juice, he fermented the next he was to distil, & then distilled 
it: in Consequence of the Fermentation he got upwards of a 
Gallon more Spirit from a Barrel of Juice than he had in the 
former Way (& could have got more) & of a vastly superior 
Quality. He fermented the Liquor with the Yeast of small Beer : 
he filled the Cask with the Liquor, & stopped the Fermentation 
(as soon as the Froth began to lower at the Bung Hole) by 
putting in the Bung, but opened a Vent Hole now & then, to 
prevent the Cask's bursting, until he could distil the Liquor. — 

The Produce of the Lands along the Coast of North Carolina is 

in large Quantities 

Indian Corn 






■o i" "/•" Vil "•""•" \ T i n small Quantities 

Barley (just beginning) J 

They are famous for great Numbers of small horned Cattle, 
and Hogs — few Sheep. The Banks (so called) abound with wild 
Horses; they were formerly so plenty that any Horse in the 
Going might be bought for 40/. (5 Dollars) The Timber (along 
the Coast) is Pitch Pine (of which they make Pitch, Tar & Tur- 
pentine) Cypress, Juniper, red & white Oak, Spanish Oak, Post 
Oak (which lasts many Years in the Ground) & live Oak. There 
is also Hickory & a, Variety of other Wood, but in small Quan- 

The principal Exports are Tobacco (which comes from the 
back Country) Naval Stores, Raw Hides, Deer Skins, Raccoon 
Skins, Myrtle & Bees Wax, & Tallow ; Pork, Beef in small Quan- 

62 On November 12, 1776, John Barrow represented Beaufort County in 
the Halifax Congress. Wheeler, Historical Sketches, I, 85. 

63 The distinguished American Philosophical Society was organized at 
Philadelphia in 1744 and has published over twenty volumes of trans- 
actions and over one hundred parts of proceedings. 

374 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tities, Boards, Scantling & Staves, Snake Root both Seneca & 
Virginia. The Country produces Ipecacuanha in Abundance. 
Both Indigo & Rice are raised here, but in small Quantities; 
however some Gent n . have raised so much (by Way of Experi- 
ment) as to encourage them to go on ; one of them sold so much 
of one Year's Produce as amounted to £1000. The wild Indigo 
grows here in great Abundance; it need be sown but once for- 
ever; it makes a tolerable Dye. — Laurel is plenty. 

5 th . At Newbern. Dined with Col. Cogdell 64 on Comp y . with 
his Son in Law M r . Ja s . Green. 65 The Weather is so warm that 
we sat without Fire. 

6 th . Very fine, clear, warm Weather. I have lately met with 
a Number of Negro Children of both sexes, entirely naked: I 
suppose they have never had Clothes on them. 

7 th . Intended setting out for Wilmington, but was prevented 
by my Washerwoman's not bringing my Cloaths home season- 
ably. Exceeding fine Weather. Dined with Tho s . 66 & Titus 
Ogden. 67 People begin to talk of Gardening. Wrensford keeps an 
exceeding good House, but his Charges are extravagant. New- 
bern covers more Ground than any Town I have met with since 
I left Annapolis, but the Houses are scattered, & each of them 
has a Garden Spot belonging to it. The Buildings are mostly 
framed. The Town is situated on the Side of a Bay between 
Neuse River on the North, & Trent River on the South. The 
Governor's Residence, called the Palace, 68 is an elegant, two 
Story, Brick Building with proper Offices. Upon opening the 
Street Door you enter a Hall in which are four Niches for 
Statues : directly opposite the Street Door is another Door which 
opens into an Entry leading to the back Part of the Palace : over 

64 On March 14, 1758, Richard Cogdell witnessed the will of Robert 
Carruthers of New Bern. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 63-64. He represented 
New Bern at the Provincial Congress of August 25, 1774, the Hillsboro 
Assembly of August 21, 1775, and the Smithfield Assembly of May 3, 1779. 
He served on the Committee of Safety, and also on the Committee for 
Superintending the Printing of Bills of Credit. Wheeler, Historical Sketches, 
I, 64, 73, and 74. 

65 James Green sold his local property and bought a vessel and a cargo 
of corn, all of which was lost at Antigua when the British confiscated it. 
Dill, Tryon's Palace, 181-182. He was not in Craven County in 1790. 

66 He was a merchant of New Bern at that time. Dill, Tryon's Palace, 197. 

67 On August 19, 1781, he was one of those who went into hiding at New 
Bern when Major James H. Craig and the British troops arrived. Dill, 
Tryon's Palace, 207. Neither of the Ogdens was listed in the North Caro- 
lina Census of 1790. (There had been a family of Ogden living at Newton 
on the Cape Fear River in 1738.) 

68 Refer to Dill, Tryon's Palace, 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 375 

it is this Inscription, painted in white Capital Letters upon a 
black Ground; viz. 

"Guli mo . Try on Armig . &c &c &c: 
Regnante Provinciam An: Dom: 1771 
Augusto huic Aedifico ea Carmina vovit Gul s . Draper 
Balnei Eques, Manilla Victor'' (in one line) 


"Rege pio felix, diris inimica Tyrannis 
Virtuti Has Aedes libera Terra dedit 
Sint Domus & Dominus Saeclis Exempla futuris 
Hinc Artes, Mores, Justitiamq: colant. D: D: D:" 

(Manilla Victor reminded me of a Piece of Sir William Draper's 
Vanity exhibited on a Cenotaph at his Seat at Clifton Down near 
Bristol in England, on which is this Inscription "Here lies the 
Mother of S r . W m . Draper"). 69 

Immediately on getting into the Entry you see an elegant 
Stair Case with Mahogany Banisters, which reaches to the Top 
of the House, & is there covered by a glazed Cupola, which serves 
to illuminate it. The Rooms are spacious, elegant, & neatly fin- 
ished: one of them is appropriated to the use of the Senate 
(Council) which I think is an Imposition upon the Gov r . In this 
are the Pictures of the King & Queen at full Length. — I am told 
that some of the back Country Members moved for Leave to 
bring in a Bill for selling the Palace ; & that some of them when 
they come to attend the Assembly bring their Pork in their 
Wallets with them by Way of saving Expences. — I met with a 
Tree in Seed, called the Pride of China: the Seed hung in Clus- 
ters, & looked like Cherries, only that they were yellow: the 
Tree grows very quick & bears (as I am informed) a very beau- 
tiful Flower. Sent M. C. some of the Seed. 

8 tb . M r . Stephens set out for home & I for Wilmington. 
Crossed Trent River 13 Miles from Newbern; the River is not 
above 20 Yards wide here, but very deep; the Boat is pulled 
across by a Rope. Dull, cloudy Weather, high Winds, & small 
drizzling Rains all Day. It is very dangerous riding in N°. Caro- 
lina when the Winds blow hard, for you ride all the Way through 

69 Sir William Draper (1721- January 8, 1787) received his M.A. from 
Cambridge University in 1749. On October 6, 1762, he and Admiral Cornish 
captured Manila from the Spaniards by assault. In 1770 he traveled through 
North Carolina. Sir Leslie Stephens and Sir Sidney Lee (ed.), The Diction- 
ary of National Biography (London, 1938), VI, 4-7. 

376 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Pines, many of which have been "boxed" to get the Turpentine 
out & others have been so much burned by burning the Woods 
that a high Wind is very apt to overset them. There is an ex- 
ceeding good Causeway of near 8 Miles long on the Road between 
Trent River & M rs . Warburton's 70 where I lodged to Night. It 
extends from Trent to White Oak River, which is rather a Swamp 
covered with Water than a River. Mr s . W. told me it was made 
out of Spite. The Overseer of the Road's Daughter was delivered 
of a Mulatto Child. The Women of the Neighborhood talked 
freely of it: one swore she had slept with her one Night & in 
the Morning she observed her Shift had been much wet with 
Milk from her Breasts; another swore that the young Woman 
had gone to a Midwife, and enquired of her whether it was pos- 
sible for a Woman to be got with Child when she was asleep 
without knowing it, &c : the Overseer of the Road, Believing the 
Fact to be as it was, & finding it would go hard with his Daugh- 
ter, compromised the Matter as well as he could, & in Order to 
have Satisfaction of his Neighbours, altered the Road & made 
them come & make this Causeway through a Swamp. The Road 
all the Way from Newbern to M rs . Warburton's is very good. Nut- 
mpg:, scraped, & put into a hollow Tooth, gave immediate Relief. 

The Assembly of North Carolina have passed an Act for con- 
fiscating the Estates of the King & Lord Granville 71 in that 
State. I understand that Lord Granville is both a Minor & an 
Idiot. I a minformed that Trent River, though so narrow where 
I crossed it, runs 40 Miles up the Country by Land, but to that 
Place by Water is 150 Miles, the River being extremely serpen- 

The Rattan grows in some of the low Grounds of N°. Car a . in 
the Form of a Vine. 

Brick Dust & Vinegar rubbed on Mahogany will take out all 
Staines, & then a little Oil or Cream will give it a fine Gloss. 
Newbern is the Capitol of North Carolina, & is in Craven Coun- 
ty—While there I went into the Church Yard where I met with 
the following Inscriptions 

70 Mrs. Warburton's place appears on the Mouzon Map of 1775. It was 
about halfway between Trent River and Snead's Ferry. She was not 
listed in the Census of 1790. 

71 John Carteret, Earl Granville, (1690-1763) had a daughter Louisa 
who married Thomas Thynne, second Viscount Weymouth. Their younger 
son, Henry Frederick Thynne (d. s. p. in 1826), "succeeded to the Carteret 
estates on the death of his uncle Robert" Carteret, second Earl Granville, 
who died without children in 1776. Encyclopaedia Britannica (Chicago, 
1950), X, 641-642. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 377 

To the Memory of 

Charles Elliot 72 late attorney General 

For this Province who died anno 1756. 
An honest Lawyer indeed. 

Here Lyes Buryed the Body of 
M r . Josiah Howard 
Son of John Howard Esq r . 73 

A Young man of Surprising Ingenuity 
who departed this Life Octob r . 10 th . 
1759 aged 22 Years. 

Ingenious Youth thou art Laid in Dust 

Thy Friends for thee in Tears did burst 

But as thy Youthful Piety was Great 

We all Submit with thee to follow CHRIST the great 
Altho in Youth thou art Laid in Dust 
Thy GOD will Raise thee up we Trust. 

I rode through Part of Craven, Carteret & Onslow Counties 

M rs . Warburton says she has had Pease in the Ground a Week : 
it is a common Practice to plant them by Twelfth Day. 

Saw a Number of negro Children of both Sexes, stark naked 
today; they have never been cloathed yet: saw also a Negro 
Woman with nothing on her but a very ragged Petticoat. 

9 th . A clear, severe Sky. Air rather cool. Towards noon the 
Wind rose, & blew flawy all the rest of the Day. The Country 
hitherto has been remarkably level, but I have met with a Num- 
ber of Hills today though they are small. The Road from M rs . 
Simmons's 74 (where I dined) to M r . Snead's 75 on New River, 
where I lodge, is, for the most Part very sandy; in some Places 
the Sand is very deep: — the Roots of the Pine Trees run across 

72 Charles Elliott was appointed Attorney General by Governor Arthur 
Dobbs. Wheeler, Historical Sketches, I, 47. He made his will in Edgecombe 
County on October 15, 1753, and it was probated in Northampton County 
in May term, 1757. The Honorable John Rutherford was the executor and 
sole legatee. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 112. 

73 John Howard, Esq., was a Justice in Onslow County as early as March 
11, 1741-1742. On May 3, 1756, he was a legatee in the will of James Denson 
of the same county. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 56 and 96. 

74 A widow named Nancy Simons was listed in Onslow County in 1790, 
with two females and three slaves. Census of 1790, 196. 

75 Robert W. Snead, Esq., represented Onslow County in the House of 
Commons in 1789 and in the Senate in 1790, 1791, and 1793. Wheeler, 
Historical Sketches, II, 299. He owned twenty-four slaves in 1790. Census 
of 1790, 194. 

378 The North Carolina Historical Review 

the Road, & are so buried in the Sand that a Horse can not see 
them, & they are very apt to trip him. New River, at the Ferry, 
is about three Eighths of a Mile wide, but a little lower down is 
three Miles broad: it empties into the Sea. 

There is an upper Road from Newbern to Wilmington by 
which New River Ferry 76 may be avoided ; but the Stages on it 
are not as good as on the lower Road. New River is about 40 
Miles long; it is but 6 Miles from Snead's to the Sea. Saw a 
Handmill for grinding Corn with a Pair of Stones. The Stones 
were about the Size of middling large Grind Stones. 

10 th . Crossed New River Ferry. The Road from hence to Col- 
lier's, 77 (where I lodge to-night) is a very fine, deep, loose, white 
Sand, in some Places four, & in some even six Inches deep : the 
Depth of the Sand & blundering over the Roots of the Pines 
fatigued my Horse very much. From Snead's to Sage's 78 (which 
is 13 Miles) there is but one House on the Board, the Country is 
totally uncultivated. I have frequently rode 5 & 6 Miles in this 
Journey without seeing any Sign of Cultivation. — Weather clear 
& moderate today. Had Excellent Oysters for Supper last Night 
at Snead's. Notwithstanding M rs . Collier's Character for Singu- 
larity, she treated me with great Civility & I fared very well 
there — so did my Horse. — 

11 th . Set out for Wilmington. It rained & blew very hard in 
the Night, and there was some Rain this Morning. This was 
much in my Favor, for it settled the Land in the Road: it was 
deep notwithstanding. When I was between 7 & 8 Miles from 
Wilmington, at a Mile's Distance from any House, there came 
up a violent Storm of Wind & Rain; — my Horse could not face 
it but turned his Head in order to avoid it : — I rode fast, but was 
wet to the Skin before I could get to a House : a little hospitable 
Hut afforded me Shelter for myself & my Horse. I set out again 
after the Rain, but it began to rain again when I was within 
two Miles of Wilmington ; I stopped at one McCulloch's (a Tav- 
ern) where I dined, & when the Rain was over I went to Wil- 

76 Mouzon's Map of 1775 shows the Ferry on the east side of New River, 
but the modern town of Snead's Ferry is on the west side. 

77 The Collet Map of 1777 shows the Collier place about three-fifths of 
the way from Snead's Ferry to Wilmington. In 1790 John Collear (sic) 
of Onslow County was listed with three whites and three blacks. Census of 
1790, 195. 

78 The Collet Map shows Sege's (sic) about two-fifths of the distance 
between Snead's Ferry and Wilmington. Private Edward Sage received 
640 acres for eighty-four months of Revolutionary War service. Roster of 
Soldiers in the Revolution, 282. This surname was not represented in 
Onslow County in the 1790 Census. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 379 

mington. Lodged at M r . DuBois's. 79 — There are vast Quantities 
of Moss (very long) & Mistletoe all along the Sea Coast of North 
Carolina; they are not confined to the Oak, but each of them 
grows on a Variety of Trees. From Snead's at New River, all the 
Way to Wilmington the Road is remarkably sandy, but the deep- 
est Land is from Sage's to Wilmington. — 

12 th . Wilmington is a small Town situated in a sandy Hollow 
surrounded with Sand Hills; it lies upon the North Branch of 
Cape Fear River which is here about 300 Yards wide : it is the 
Capitol of New Hanover County. The River is defended by a 
Battery of 9 nine Pounders, & another of 8 Guns from 5 to 
12 P rs . — Here are also two Iron Field Pieces on traveling Car- 
riages. The Houses in Wilmington are mostly framed, & but 
indifferent Buildings. When M rs . Tryon 80 was in North Carolina 
she desired the Ladies to address her, when they spoke or wrote 
to her, by the Title of her Excellency; and intimated that they 
ought to stand when in her Presence, alledging that as the Gov- 
ernor & his Lady were the Representatives of their Majesties, 
they ought to be treated with equal Ceremony. — People in North 
Carolina differ much respecting Gov r . Tryon's Conduct in the 
affair of the Regulators ; some blame him & some them, & some 
both of them ; but all agree that Col. Fanning 81 was at the Bot- 
tom of it: they say that he insisted upon & took larger Fees 
than the Law allowed ; & that when he was in the Back Country 
he took Money from them for Lands of which he promised to 
procure Grants for them, but neither did it nor returned the 
Money; & when they complained to the Gov r . for Redress, he 
told them he would believe Col. Fanning's Word sooner than 
their Oath. — 

The following Instance of Gov r . Tryon's Cruelty has been men- 
tioned by every Person with whom I have conversed about the 

There was one Merol 82 (see March 27 th .), a Rifle-Maker by 
Trade, from whom some of the Regulators purchased their 
Rifles ; upon their saying they bought them to him, the Man was 

79 There was a Captain Dubos (sic) from Wilmington District in the Revo- 
lutionary War. Nicholas Dubois enlisted for the war in Captain Bradley's 
Company on June 18, 1779, but deserted on October 26 following. Roster of 
Soldiers in the Revolution, 119, 377, and 519. 

80 Margaret Wake of London married Captain William Tryon in 1757. 
She possessed a tidy dowry of £30,000. Dill, Tryon's Palace, 6. 

81 The career of Colonel Edmund Fanning received considerable attention 
in Marshall DeLancey Haywood, Governor William Tryon, . . . (Raleigh, 
1903), hereinafter cited as Haywood, Governor Tryon. 

^Hazard's informant offered a confused account of Captain Benjamin 
Merrill who was hanged by Governor Tryon and was survived by a wife 
and only eight children. Haywood, Governor Tryon, 147-148. 

380 The North Carolina Historical Review 

apprehended as belonging to their Body, & tho' no further Proof 
of it appeared against him he was hanged. He left behind him 
a Wife & eleven Children. Staid in Wilmington till the 16 th . when 
I crossed the Ferry, rode over a dismal, swampy Island, (which 
seems to be a Haunt for Herons & Turkey Buzzards) of about a 
Mile & a Quarter wide, crossed a Ferry over Northwest River 
(about 150 Yards wide) & lodged, not far from the Bank of it, 
at M rs . Eagan's. 83 — 

The Weather has been rather cool, & there have been two 
pretty smart Frosts since the 11 th . 

Saw Cap*. Will m . Robeson. 84 — There is a Causeway across the 
Island, but it is in very bad order. 

17 th . Agreeable Weather early in the Morning, but rather 
cool ; rode over a Causeway 3 Miles long : — it is in bad Order. — 
Took a "short Cut" to save 12 Miles Riding — Memorandum. Take 
no more short Cuts in North Carolina. — Had to cross two Mill 
Dams & met with great Difficulty. Rode through a very gloomy 
Cypress Swamp: — lost my Way. — Saw Palmettos growing; they 
look like Fans. — Crossed Town Creek at Davis's Ferry; 85 — very 
narrow. — Met with a Man at Davis's of the Name of Leonard ; 86 
— a Relation of the Leonards at Princeton ; — fortunately, for me, 
he was going to Lockwood's Folly: 87 — we rode in Company. 
After riding 2 Miles reached one Potter's : 88 did not see him : he 
is said to be very sensible but married to a Mulatto Woman. The 
Corn there was mouldy. My Horse would not eat it. Got a Draught 
of Yellow Water at this rascally House : it afforded nothing bet- 
ter. Was caught in the Rain here, & had to stay till 2 OClock 
P.M. — Very cloudy all the rest of the Day. 

From Potter's to the Widow Mills's is 12 Miles, & not a House 
all the Way. The Road is nothing more than a Foot Path, & runs 
through Swamps & wet Savannahs (or Heaths) for the most 
Part. In one of the Swamps the Water came up to my Saddle 

83 James Eagan died in Bladen County early in 1738, leaving a wife and 
daughter. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 106. The surname was not listed in 
that county in the 1790 Census. 

84 William Robeson represented Pitt County at the Halifax Provincial 
Congress on April 4, 1776. Wheeler, Historical Sketches, I, 78 and 86. 

85 Mouzon's Map of 1775 shows Davis's Ferry on Old Town Creek. In 
1790 Thomas Davis of Brunswick County was listed with seven whites and 
thirty-five blacks. Census of 1790, 189. 

86 The Brunswick County Census of 1790 listed Henry Leonard with five 
whites, Eleanor Leonard with nine whites and ten slaves, and Samuel 
Leonard with five whites and two slaves. Census of 1790, 189. 

87 Lockwood's Folly Inlet and Creek lie between Southport and Shalotte. 
As early as December 18, 1743, William Rigby bequeathed land on Lock- 
wood's Folly. Grimes, Abstract of Wills, 314-315. 

88 James Potter had a family of seven persons in Brunswick County in 
1790. Census of 1790, 189. 

Journal of Ebenezer Hazard 381 

Skirts. If M r . Leonard had not been with me I certainly should 
have returned to M rs . Eagen's, for the Swamps had so terrible 
an appearance that I should not have ventured through them. 
M rs . Mills's 89 House looked so badly that I would not stop there, 
especially as I was but 5 Miles from Lockwood's Folly, & the 
Sun began to appear in such a Manner as to induce me to think 
I might get to the Folly before it rained. In my Way saw 5 or 6 
wild Deer run across the Road. The Wind has been very high the 
most of the Day. — A vicious Mare which M r . Leonard led, kicked 
at my Horse as she passed him; she was very near hitting my 
Leg : had she done it, I think she must have broke it. — Could get 
no Fodder for my Horse last Night; — instead of it he had 
Marsh Hay, which is a Composition of Weeds & the wildest Kind 
of Grass imaginable ; — he would not eat it. — He would have been 
a Fool if he had. — Lodged at Bell's at Lockwood's Folly, a mean 
looking House where both I & my Horse had plenty with Civil- 
ity. — M rs . Bell 90 is from near Montock at the East End of Long 
Island: her maiden name was Parsons. — Lockwood's Folly is a 
Creek which empties into the Sea: it gets its Name from one 
Lockwood who mistook it for Cape Fear Inlet, & lost his Vessel. 
Crossed it by a Bridge near Bell's. — But little Rain before Bed 
Time, but the Wind excessively high. M rs . Eagen's House (where 
I lodged last Night) had many Panes in the Windows broke ; each 
of these was stopped up with a Bunch of Moss. Sultry the most 
of the Day. 

18 th . Rained, & blew excessively hard in the Night. Fine clear 
Weather this Morning. As I understood I could get no Corn on 
the Road I took some with me, & fed my Horse in the Woods. No 
House for 9 Miles, & after that none within 13. — No Tavern at 
present in 26 Miles. Sandy Road. Crossed Little River in South 
Carolina by a Bridge. Lodged at M r . Verreen's, 91 a private Public 
House in Craven District. Neither ate nor drank from the Time 
I first set out this Morning till I reached Verreen's. 

89 In 1790 Jane Mills of Brunswick County had herself, one male under 
sixteen, and three slaves. Census of 1790, 189. 

90 She must have been the wife of James Bell, Sr., who was listed in 
Brunswick County in 1790 with himself, two females, and nine slaves. 
Census of 1790, 189. 

91 Mouzon's Map of 1775 shows the Vareen (sic) place about a mile below 
the present Little River and two or three miles north of Conway, South 
Carolina. "Old William" Vereen owned one plantation on Little River and 
another further inland. 


Short Stories from the Old North State. Edited by Richard 
Walser. (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. 
1959. Pp. 288. $5.00.) 

The purpose of this collection, like that of Mr. Walser's 
earlier anthology, North Carolina in the Short Story, was to 
bring together stories that reflect "those characteristics and 
features of life in North Carolina which had received sig- 
nificant artistic interpretation." The book includes fifteen 
stories: eleven by North Carolinians; four by writers who 
made the State their home. Pieces by James Boyd, William 
T. Polk, and Thomas Wolfe are the same that appeared in 
the 1948 collection. O. Henry, Paul Green, Frances Gray 
Patton, Charles Chesnutt, Olive Dargan, Wilbur Daniel 
Steele, and Bernice Kelly Harris are again represented, but 
by different stories. Five new contributors are John Ehle, 
Tom Wicker, Noel Houston, Doris Betts, and Lucy Daniels. 

Though the stories range, geographically, from the moun- 
tains to the Piedmont to the coast, only four are reflective, 
in any special sense, of the life of North Carolina: Olive Til- 
ford Dargan's study of "Evvie: Somewhat Married"; Noel 
Houston's war-time tale of the Outer Banks; James Boyd's 
excellent "Old Pines;" and Charles Chesnutt's melodramatic 
romance of Reconstruction days. Others have settings in North 
Carolina; but, as Mr. Walser points out in his Preface, this 
is a fact of secondary importance. 

The tender and probing "How Beautiful with Shoes" has 
become an American classic. Profoundly moving, also, is 
Paul Green's depiction of how a broken wagon-wheel and 
sharp words change the joyful self-respect of a Negro boy 
and his father into a shamed despair. Of the stories by 
younger writers, "The Sword," by Doris Betts, is perhaps the 
best. It is a deeply felt portrayal of the chasm between father 
and son which cannot quite be bridged, however much each 
may wish that it might be. Mrs. Harris, in "The Lace Cloth," 
belabors her point more than she needs to; Miss Daniels, in 
"Half a Lavendar Ribbon," shows great sensitivity and social 

[ 382 ] 

Book Reviews 383 

concern but somewhat over-contrives her plot. The story by 
O. Henry seems an unfortunate choice, for it displays some 
of his worst faults: strained humor, wordiness, and a certain 
artistic crudity. Mrs. Patton s "Grade 5B and the Well-Fed 
Rat" is a masterpiece of satiric humor which should be re- 
quired reading for every tight-minded person who finds 
regimentation easier to understand than feeling and imagina- 

Biographical sketches and brief critical comment preface 
the stories in a helpful way, though readers may not always 
agree with appraisals made: for example, the statement that 
O. Henry is "one of the most significant figures in the history 
of the American short story," or the claim that Thomas 
Wolfe's "literary reputation has steadily increased." 

If there is inequality among the selections in this volume, 
that will no doubt be a natural consequence of any such 
attempt to group writers in a classification determined by 
State boundaries. The level of merit, in any case, is high; and 
the collection surely will be widely enjoyed. 

Mildred E. Hartsock. 

Atlantic Christian College, 


Nag's Head and Bertie : Two Novels. By George Higby Throop. 
Introduction by Richard Walser (Charlotte: Heritage House. 
1958. Pp. xxi; Nag's Head, 180 pp.; Bertie, 242 pp. $4.95.) 

A plethora of books on the Outer Banks of North Carolina 
has come from the presses of the State in recent years. 
Richard Walser has added two more in his facsimile reprints 
of George Higby Throop's Nags Head (1850) and Bertie 
(1851). Throop, a Yankee schoolmaster, came down into 
North Carolina in 1849 to be the tutor of the twelve-year old 
son of George Washington Capehart of Scotch Hall, near 
Merry Hill, Bertie County. Throop's Nags Head (then 
spelled with the apostrophe ) —no doubt in conscious imita- 
tion of the Sketch Book of Washington Irving, a letter from 
whom Throop published in the "Introduction" to Bertie— re- 
counts the manners and diversions of the wealthy planters 

384 The North Carolina Historical Review 

at their favorite summer seaside retreat. Nags Head— pub- 
lished under Throop's pen name, Gregory Seaworthy— is not 
a novel in any accepted sense of the term; it is rather a series 
of sketches, in a familiar style, of the ill effect of bilious 
fever, a storm on the banks, the antics of the sand fiddlers, 
and vignettes of the Negro servants, to mention but a few. 
Interspersed with the sketches are tales of the banks. 

Bertie, on the original title page, is called a humorous 
novel. In any modern sense of the term, however, Bertie 
falls far short of being a novel. It lacks the essentials of a 
well developed plot. Humorous episodes were constructed 
around the colorful Professor Funnyford (Fatty) Matters, 
practical hydrologist and a native of Maine, who came to sell 
the Carolinians on the virtues of hydraulic cisterns. Professor 
Matters was befriended by Colonel John Smallwood of 
Cypress Shore, Bertie County. Cypress Shore was located 
"not two hundred yards from the head of the sound, between 
the mouths of the Roanoke and Chowan." Here Professor 
Matters was introduced to life on a southern plantation. The 
main narrative interest centers in the love affairs of Professor 
Matters and the Widow Julia Blossom and of Captain Sea- 
worthy and Helen Jeffreys. The novel gave the Yankee 
Throop an opportunity, through the eyes of the Maine hy- 
drologist, to size up or to poke good-natured fun at southern 
slavery, life on a southern plantation, traditional southern 
slowness ( "Everybody a' most goes jest so; white and black. 
Creepin' along as if they was jest goin' tew die." ) , court days, 
the militia, and the "John Kooner" custom of the Negroes 
at Christmas. 

Nags Head and Bertie are not great American novels. In 
fact, as I've pointed out, they are not, strictly speaking, nov- 
els. The reader seeking a good, rollicking yarn will come 
away disappointed. They are, however, valuable social docu- 
ments; and the devotee of the Outer Banks, interested in the 
life and manners of a bygone day, or the student of ante- 
bellum life in eastern North Carolina will find in Throop's 
books much interesting fare and valuable information. 

Francis B. Dedmond. 

Gardner-Webb College, 

Boiling Springs. 

Book Reviews 385 

Carolina Power and Light Company, 1908-1958. By Jack Riley. 
(Raleigh: Privately Printed. 1958. Pp. xiv, 338. $5.00.) 

As part of the observance of its fiftieth anniversary, the 
Carolina Power and Light Company has published its own 
history. Half of the book is devoted to the work of men who 
introduced electricity to North and South Carolina. The 
Raleigh Electric, Cape Fear Power, Consumers Light and 
Power, Asheville Power and Light, Pigeon River Power, 
Yadkin River, and Rockingham Power companies, all of 
which became part of Carolina Power and Light, are given 
separate chapters. The remaining chapters are devoted to 
the growth of the concern from 1908 to 1958. 

Jack Riley, who is Carolina Power and Light's public rela- 
tions man, has written an attractive and useful volume. Illus- 
trations are numerous and supplement the text. The prose 
style is informal and readable. The study itself represents 
the first effort to tell the story of Carolina Power and Light. 
Furthermore, it is a pioneer history of the power business in 
North Carolina. 

The volume, however, is scarcely definitive. Riley clearly 
enjoyed telling about the early years. The history of fledgling 
companies provided occasions for relating oddities and telling 
human interest stories. This is amusing, but repetitious. The 
development of the new companies ran along similar lines. 
Material in several chapters might well have been com- 
pressed into a single one. The story of Carolina Power and 
Light's corporate development, on the other hand, suffers 
from inadequate discussion. The operations of the Electric 
Holding Company, which held a controlling interest in the 
Carolina firm until 1946, are barely outlined. A study of the 
relationships of the two firms would provide useful informa- 
tion about the place of northern capital in southern industry. 
Again, only passing references are made to the development 
of public regulation of the power industry. Carolina Power 
and Light and other firms were attacked, especially during 
the 1930's and 1940's, for failing to expand service and lower 
rates. The company felt the impact of TV A. Yet, the longest 
passage devoted to these things is given over to a speech by 
Mr. Louis Sutton praising free enterprise. This is poor his- 

386 The North Carolina Historical Review 

tory. It is not even a good presentation of the company's case. 

Riley is to be commended for contributing to the slim lit- 
erature on business development in North Carolina. His 
volume, however, should not be used as a model for subse- 
quent studies. 

Burton F. Beers. 

North Carolina State College, 


Southeastern Indians, Life Portraits, A Catalogue of Pictures, 
1564-1860. Edited by Emma Lila Fundaburk. (Luverne, Ala- 
bama: Privately printed. Illustrations, notes, bibliography 
and index. Pp. 136. $7.50.) 

This is a companion book to Sun Circles and Human 
Hands, The Southeastern Indians, Art and Industries by Miss 
Fundaburk published in 1957. Southeastern Indians, Life 
Portraits is a collection of paintings, drawings, sketches, and 
photographs of Indian subjects as observed by various artists 
during historic times. The pictures are arranged according to 
artists including the works of John White, Jacques le Moyne, 
Du Pratz, De Batz, Joshua Reynolds, George Catlin, and 
many others. Each plate is numbered and corresponds to 
the Notes section which gives references to the drawings. 

This excellent comparative pictorial record of many of the 
Southeastern Indian groups brings together over 354 pictures 
of interest to students of the area. This book represents the 
first collection to bring together so much information from 
a wide variety of sources on Southeastern Indians. Previous 
to the publication of this book, students interested in his- 
torical drawings of various Indian groups were forced to do 
a considerable amount of research in order to have access to 
only a small percentage of the drawings illustrated in this 
book. This publication is a welcomed addition to the litera- 
ture on Southeastern Indians, and constitutes a valuable ref- 
erence source for students of anthropology, ethnology, and 
the general reader interested in the American Indian. 

Stanley South. 

Old Brunswick Town State Historic Site, 


Book Reviews 387 

Colonial Records of South Carolina. [Series 2]. Documents Re- 
lating to Indian Affairs, May 21, 1750-August 7, 1754. Edited 
by William L. McDowell, Jr. (Columbia: South Carolina 
Archives Department, 1958. Pp. xxii, 592. $12.50.) 

The South Carolina Archives Department is publishing 
the Colonial Records of South Carolina in several series. This 
is the second of three projected volumes of "Indian Books." 
The first, issued in 1955, contained the Journals of the Com- 
missioners of the Indian Trade, September 20, 1710-August 
29, 1718. In the present volume there are letters, affidavits, 
depositions, memorials, petitions, "talks," treaties, and agents' 
journals for the years 1750-1754. For the most part the 
letters passed between Governor James Glen and other 
colonial governors and the Indians. The documents generally 
concern the Indians occupying the territory west of the South 
Carolina boundary to the Mississippi and deal with Indian 
fighting and the relations between the Indians and settlers 
and traders. 

A calendar of the manuscripts and a detailed index serve 
as guides to the rich contents of this volume. No attempt has 
been made throughout the text to identify people, places, or 
events mentioned in the documents. Since the original spell- 
ing has been retained this may lead to some confusion; in 
some cases, however, the index will help. A reference to 
"Neborn" on page 213, for example, is not explained, but the 
index entry under "New Bern" refers to "Neborn." The reader 
will be well advised to study the editor's "Note on the Index" 
which precedes that section of the book and then to use his 
imagination in checking for possible variations of index en- 
tries on subjects for which he is searching. 

There are many references here to North Carolina, its 
colonial officials, and Indians which will be studied with 
interest by those concerned with this period in our history. 

William S. Powell. 

University of North Carolina Library, 

Chapel Hill. 

388 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763-1789. By Kenneth 
Coleman. (Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 1958. 
Pp. viii, 352. $5.50.) 

Georgia, the smallest and poorest of the thirteen British 
North American colonies to undergo revolution in the period 
1763-1789, has all too often been neglected by general his- 
torians—or mentioned only in connection with her strategic 
importance or peculiarities. It is pleasing to note that three 
able Georgia historians are rapidly filling this void in their 
state's record: to the well-established name of Alexander A. 
Lawrence, author of Storm over Savannah and James John- 
son: Georgia's First Printer, must be added W. W. Abbot for 
his The Royal Governors of Georgia and Kenneth Coleman 
for his The American Revolution in Georgia, 1763-1789. 

Mr Coleman's book, under consideration here, is based on 
a thorough investigation of numerous original sources, espe- 
cially the published and unpublished colonial and state rec- 
ords. Written simply, without flourish or wasted motion, it 
is sober, scholarly, and judicious. In it emerges the story of 
Georgia in transition, from colonial dependence in 1763 to 
equality in a union of states in 1789. In the decade or so 
before Lexington and Concord, Georgia grew and prospered 
as never before, her coastal merchants and planters content 
with the mercantilistic regulations of the empire, her inland 
farmers thankful for the work of the British Indian Depart- 
ment in keeping peace along her far-flung frontiers. Why 
then the revolution in Georgia? Certainly the principles be- 
hind the Stamp, Townshend, and Coercive acts were repug- 
nant to Georgians; but equally if not more important, as Mr. 
Coleman points out, were the geographical weaknesses of 
Georgia which inevitably drew the colony nearer to her 
powerful Carolina neighbors when the center of power in 
America shifted from the royal government in London to 
the patriot bodies on this side of the Atlantic. As would be 
expected of a small, poorly defended state close to the Brit- 
ish forces in Florida and to the hostile Creeks on her borders, 
Georgia contributed relatively little to the Continental war 
effort; moreover, the eastern part of the state was held by the 
enemy after 1778. Even so, state government functioned— 

Book Reviews 389 

with some interruption— throughout the war; and the con- 
stitution of 1777 remained in effect in the postwar Confeder- 
ation years, during which time the economy was successfully 
reoriented to a peacetime basis. 

In a survey work such as this, there is always a problem of 
emphasis. This reviewer, for example, would have placed 
more stress on partisan warfare and on political developments 
during the 1780's; and he notes that W. W. Abbot's excellent 
article, "The Structure of Politics in Georgia, 1782-1789," 
William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, XIV (January, 
1957), 47-65, was not cited. 

Don Higginbotham. 

College of William and Mary, 

Williamsburg, Virginia. 

The Territorial Papers of the United States, Volume XXIII: 
The Territory of Florida, 1824-1828. Compiled and edited by 
Clarence Edwin Carter. (Washington: United States Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1958. Pp. v, 1,189. $6.50.) 

This second volume of the Territorial Papers of Florida 
begins with a recommendation for a lighthouse keeper on 
July 1, 1824, and closes with a letter of April 16, 1828, which 
protests the removal of Federal troops from central Florida. 
Between these dates more than 1,060 pages of letters, re- 
ports, petitions, appointments, tables, lists of jurors, and 
other source materials are recorded. In part four of this vol- 
ume the records of Governor DuVal's first administration are 
concluded. He was reappointed on March 8, 1825, for a 
second term of three years and part five comprises the papers 
for his entire second administration. 

The problems confronting the territory are reflected in 
numerous references to land, transportation, communication, 
Indians, education, agriculture, and government. Settlement 
of lands claimed by whites and Indians together with the 
work of Surveyor General Robert Butler enabled Federal 
agents to sell land to prospective colonists. The needs for 
transportation facilities were met in part by building a road 

390 The North Carolina Historical Review 

which ran from St. Augustine to Pensacola, and by the sum- 
mer of 1826 two mails per week were scheduled between 
these settlements. Treaties and trade, raids and the harboring 
of fugitive slaves, and problems arising from the use of liquor 
kept civilians and soldiers busy in the attempt to control the 
Indians. Federal largess included land grants for the capital 
and for education; aid in projecting canals, improving har- 
bors, and clearing rivers; construction of roads; and comple- 
tion of local and territorial governmental organizations. The 
increasing number of references in this volume to the towns 
of St. Augustine, Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville, and 
Key West reflect the growth of the territory. 

Dr. Carter's editing continues the high standards of the 
Territorial Papers of the United States. Cross references are 
used to advantage, locations of original documents are clearly 
indicated, all letters and documents referred to in the text 
but not extant are noted, individuals are identified in foot- 
notes, and the index is complete. This important volume of 
source material deserves praise, for it will be of great value to 

Rembert W. Patrick. 

University of Florida, 


Civil War in the Making, 1815-1860. By Avery 0. Craven. 
(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. 1959. Pp. 
xiv, 115. $3.00.) 

In 1938 Professor Craven spoke on the "Repressible Con- 
flict, 1830-1861" for the second series of Fleming Lectures 
at Louisiana State University. After twenty years of addi- 
tional study and in the maturity of his scholarship he re- 
turned to analyze again the causes of the Civil War. These 
published lectures contain no bibliography, for the author 
has undoubtedly drawn his conclusions from almost a life- 
time of research in so many books and manuscripts that a 
listing of them would dwarf the text of this volume. 

Book Reviews 391 

The decades following the War of 1812 brought profound 
economic and cultural changes in the United States. North 
of the Mason and Dixon line factories and towns, capitalists 
and laborers changed the face of society, but south of that 
line the Industrial Revolution did little more than to widen 
old furrows of agriculture. Although the revolution created 
interdependent men inhabiting interdependent sections, in- 
dustrial and agricultural cultures developed distinct ways of 
life which fought for regional supremacy. In that struggle 
the advantages lay with those who owned factories, con- 
trolled finances, and dominated markets. Thus the South was 
forced steadily toward a colonial status. The puritanical urge 
to eradicate sin, particularly sin in distant places, and the 
belief that ownership of Negroes degraded and shackled all 
labor made northerners denounce southerners. Yet the demo- 
cratic process continued to function where concrete issues 
were involved for most Americans were conservative and 
anxious to settle differences by legislative compromise. That 
process floundered on abstractions, on rigid but conflicting 
interpretations of right and wrong. By 1861 moderates were 
silenced and radical minorities in the North and in the South 
used fear, anger, and hate to make war inevitable. 

These lectures are stimulating and provocative. Many stu- 
dents will disagree with some of the author's conclusions, 
but even they will not deny the importance of his essays or 
the clarity of his expression. Even rabid southerners should 
be pleased with the sympathetic treatment given the South. 

Rembert W. Patrick. 

University of Florida, 


This Infernal War: The Confederate Letters of Sgt. Edwin H. 
Fay. Edited by Bell Irvin Wiley, with the assistance of Lucy 
E. Fay. (Austin: The University of Texas Press. 1958. Pp. 
viii, 474. $6.00.) 

Edwin H. Fay enlisted in a Confederate cavalry company, 
the Minden (Louisiana) Rangers, in April, 1862. He served 

392 The North Carolina Historical Review 

as private, later orderly sergeant, in Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi until March, 1864, when he was transferred to the 
Engineer Bureau of the Trans-Mississippi Department. Late 
in 1864 he became a captain and assistant quartermaster, 
supervising the collection of the tax-in-kind in the Fourth 
Louisiana District, with headquarters at Opelousas, until the 
end of the war. 

One hundred and fifteen of the letters Fay wrote to his 
wife during these three years have been preserved and are 
now published in This Infernal War. They are good letters. 
Few enlisted men and not many officers were so literate and 
articulate as Fay. His long easy letters are filled with vivid, 
intimate detail. 

Fay's parents were of northern birth and education; he 
himself was a Harvard graduate who grew up in Alabama 
and taught in Louisiana. A slaveholder, he was an ardent 
secessionist in 1861, but a reluctant soldier in 1862. In time, 
his dislike of Confederate civil and military authority was 
exceeded only by his hatred of Yankees. His concern for his 
family and his preoccupation with home affairs render his 
letters almost as revealing for civilian as for military life. 
While he participated in few major engagements, the value 
of his letters is enhanced by his location in the less well- 
documented areas of the Confederacy. 

The letters are presented without alteration or deletion. An 
occasional awkward sentence sounds as though it may have 
resulted from a mistake in transcription; the letter of April 10, 
1864, is clearly misdated and belongs with those of 1865; 
but on the whole the editorial work appears to be careful 
and thorough. The informative Introduction and Appendix 
are aids to the understanding of Fay and his letters. As read- 
ing matter, the book is uneven, often fresh and graphic but 
at times quite repetitious; as source material, it should prove 
useful in a variety of Civil War studies. 

Carolyn Andrews Wallace. 

The University of North Carolina, 

Chapel Hill. 

Book Reviews 393 

Cleburne and his Command. By Capt. Irving A. Buck. Pat Cle- 
burne, Stonewall Jackson of the West. By Thomas Robson 
Hay. (Jackson, Tennessee: McCowat-Mercer Press, Inc. 1959. 
Pp. 378. $6.00.) 

The title page and the dust jacket of this volume are some- 
what misleading. Instead of a two-books-in-one package, we 
have a 54-page introduction by Mr. Hay, followed by Cap- 
tain Buck's study of the Arkansas general, on whose staff he 
served for nearly two years. 

Captain Buck's volume was first published in 1908, and 
appears to have been written during a rather lengthy period 
preceding that date, although internal evidence suggests 
that much of the composition occurred after 1905. The book 
tells the story of Cleburne's years in Helena, Arkansas, fol- 
lowing his emigration from Ireland in 1849, and then pre- 
sents a narrative account of his Civil War career, beginning 
with his enlistment as a private in the "Yell Bifles" and end- 
ing with his death as a major-general shot through the heart 
while leading his division at the battle of Franklin. From his 
own memory, the author gives an occasional insight into Pat 
Cleburne's character and personality, but the bulk of the 
work appears to have been drawn from the narratives and 
reports of Battles and Leaders and the Official Records. Un- 
der these circumstances, the reader plods through the cam- 
paigns in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Georgia, enjoying only 
infrequent glimpses of the man Cleburne and finding, at 
times, that the story of his hard-hitting division is pushed 
aside and the center of the stage is filled with the follies and 
misfortunes of Bragg and Hood. 

From an old soldier writing about a beloved commander, 
one expects a laudatory account. It should be noted, how- 
ever, that Mr. Hay, as editor, does little to reappraise Cle- 
burne in the light of recent research. 

Richard E. Yates. 

Hendrix College, 

Conway, Arkansas. 

394 The North Carolina Historical Review 

In Support of Clio: Essays in Memory of Herbert A. Kellar. 
Edited by William B. Hesseltine and Donald R. McNeil. (Mad- 
ison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 1958. Pp. x, 214. 

This is a collection of essays on activities that support, 
rather than directly produce, historical study and writing, 
except for one bibliographical summary. Each one notes Dr. 
Kellar's work in the field, and the record is impressive. The 
book should be "must" reading for graduate students, indi- 
cating the ancillary fields of which the historian should be 

In his welcome review of the Historical Records Survey, 
David Smiley recognizes the main contribution of that project 
in the devising of workable instructions for thousands of un- 
trained workers. He laments the slight use of Survey prod- 
ucts today, due largely to regulations that prevented their 
being printed. 

The essays on manuscript collecting, public archives, the 
foundations, and historical organizations are essentially nar- 
ratives of major developments. Lucile Kane inveighs against 
dispersal of manuscripts and urges co-operation among col- 
lecting agencies. Philip Bauer stresses the gradual recogni- 
tion of public ownership of archives and responsibility for 
their care. Richard Younger warns that most foundation 
grants are for "team projects," threatening loss of the imag- 
ination and insight of the individual scholar. David Van 
Tassel and James Tinsley, speaking of historical organiza- 
tions, see a hazard to the close liaison between historian and 
historical agency in the increasing professionalization of his- 
torical agency workers. 

George Andersons incisive review of mechanical aids sug- 
gests several fields in which these devices may profitably be 
used. He warns, however, that the machine cannot capture 
the quality of uniqueness in historical circumstances, as can 
the scholar himself. 

Lester Cappon's thoughtful essay discusses historical edit- 
ing as concerned with human relationships, among the orig- 
inal authors of documents or articles, the editors, the pub- 
lishers, and the readers, "keyed of course to the indispensable 

Book Reviews 395 

requirements of scholarly production." His statement of qual- 
ifications and responsibilities should steel the resolution of 
all historical editors. Edward Alexander's appealing treat- 
ment of historical restorations emphasizes the growth of 
standards of authenticity. He gives many enticing examples, 
including Dr. Kellar's work on the McCormick gristmill. 

Philip C. Brooks. 

Harry S. Truman Library, 

Independence, Missouri. 

Out of Our Past, The Forces That Shaped Modern America. By 
Carl N. Degler. (New York: Harper and Brothers, Publish- 
ers. 1959. Pp. xvi, 484. $6.00.) 

This broad survey seeks with some success to explain the 
influence of great ideas— Christianity, puritanism, freedom, 
democracy, and social justice— upon American history. Its 
purpose is to answer the question, "How did Americans get 
to be the way they are in the middle of the twentieth cen- 
tury?" However, where we now are, the author does not 
quite reveal. Written for the general public and student, it 
lacks originality in design and treatment. More descriptive 
and interpretive, than narrative and chronological in ap- 
proach, it is really a long essay upon certain themes of Amer- 
ican history. 

Too much space is given to a discussion of the words "rad- 
ical," "liberal," and "conservative." The author seems to 
think Americans have been almost invariably conservative, 
seldom radical; liberals and conservatives are scarcely dis- 
tinguishable; and Hamilton and Jefferson, for example, 
agreed more than they differed in outlook. Although very 
readable, ably written and often stimulating, it is regrettably 
anti-southern on the Civil War, Negro, and civil rights issues. 
Even his lengthy and critical bibliographical essay, full of 
stinging judgments, refers to the "southern-born callousness" 
on the racial issue of U. B. Phillips and other students of 
southern history. Important as the race question is, to devote 
three out of thirteen chapters to the Negro seems excessive. 

396 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The author implies that ideas are more powerful and im- 
portant forces than economic factors, but then devotes much 
of his space to industry, agriculture, and urbanization. He 
does not clearly show how ideas affected and related to these 
developments. The volume nowhere hints at foreign or mili- 
tary problems. Apart from a fine section on the immigrant, 
it is purely domestic history. 

In spite of its many brilliant sections on social justice, the 
Negro, civil rights, Jacksonian democracy, and the Third 
Revolution or New Deal, it is a sketchy and inadequate 
study. Snap judgments and loose generalizations mar the 
work. This reviewer does not agree with the author that: the 
Jamestown Assembly of 1619 was a casual affair; all the 
towns of Massachusetts obeyed the early requirement to 
establish public schools; the social consequences of the Amer- 
ican Revolution were meager; the mold of the American 
character was hardened by 1700; the main business of Amer- 
ica has been business; the Radical Republicans were not 
vindictive; the southern yeomanry had little impact upon 
southern history before 1865; only the marketable surplus of 
slave labor afforded the basis for southern culture before the 
Civil War; and the average slave was rebellious and restless. 

Beyond an occasional comment, no footnotes are included. 
The reader can only imagine the source of endless quotations. 
The index is adequate. 

Weldon A. Brown. 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 
Blacksburg, Virginia 

Fifty Years of Collecting Americana for the Library of The 
American Antiquarian Society, 1908-1958. By Clarence S. 
Brigham. (Worcester, Massachusetts: 1958. Pp. 185. 1,000 
copies printed for presentation only to the friends of The 
American Antiquarian Society.) 

Thirty-six of the outstanding collections of Americana in 
the library of the American Antiquarian Society are described 
in this volume. 

Book Reviews 397 

Founded in 1812, with collection and preservation among 
its primary purposes, the Society has assembled an excellent 
reservoir of source material for the student of American his- 
tory. Scholars think immediately of its strong collections of 
early newspapers, early American imprints, and its well- 
selected collections of manuscripts. The collecting activities 
of the Society have broadened in the last half century and 
now include every phase of the history of this hemisphere. 
Selected at random from the descriptions in this volume are 
the following dozen collections which illustrate the range of 
interest and collecting activity: almanacs, theater posters, 
annuals, menus, directories, amateur journals, caricatures, 
children's books, western narratives, Spanish Americana, 
Hawaiiana, and watch papers. 

Anticipating that some readers might question the value 
of menus, and that others might be unfamiliar with watch 
papers, the author, as he describes each collection, explains 
how and why it was formed, estimates its strength and its 
significance to scholarship and tells where other similar col- 
lections may be found. In the last chapter he writes briefly 
about the Society's buildings and grounds, its early meetings, 
and its publications. 

Mr. Brigham's qualifications for the authorship of this book 
derive in part from his having served from 1908 to 1930 as 
librarian and, since 1930, as director of the Society, during 
which period the library grew from 100,000 to 600,000 vol- 
umes. In sharing the wealth of his knowledge, this great 
bookman has placed a valuable guide in the hands of book 
dealers, librarians, and collectors of Americana. 

Benjamin E. Powell. 

Duke University Library, 


The Army Air Forces in World War II, Volume VII : Services 
Around The World. Edited by W. F. Craven and J. L. Gate. 
(Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1958. Pp. Hi, 668. 

"Whatever the deficiencies of this history may be, none of 
them can be attributed to censorship, either over or by indi- 

398 The North Carolina Historical Review 

rection. It is a point the editors make with some pride, as 
citizens of the country and former officers in it's Air Force." 
Upon this note the editors preface the final volume of over 
ten year's work— describing the development of the Army 
Air Force in World War II. 

This final volume documents the efforts of the supporting 
services of the Army Air Forces. The Air Transport Com- 
mand, The Aviation Engineers, The Weather and Communi- 
cations Services, The Medical Corps, Air Sea Rescue, Women 
in the AAF, and the manifold problems of Redeployment 
and Demobilization. How each of these services met the day- 
to-day problems with inadequate equipment, shortage of 
time, and long hours of stress is told with more human inter- 
est than the editors have done in the previous volumes. 
Those who did not serve during the war in support roles will 
appreciate what was done by these branches of the Army Air 
Force to help maintain the continuity of the actual combat 

Few actually realize how badly women were needed by the 
military forces, nor do they realize how well these women 
performed their duty while subjected to minor irritations and 
denied many of the privileges and benefits authorized for 
the men. This story is extremely interesting and will be most 
beneficial to those who might need to understand these prob- 
lems in future periods of national Demobilization. The same 
applies to the problems of morale. When men did not receive 
mail; promotions were frozen in one area and were liberally 
granted in another; where food was inadequate and poorly 
prepared; and entertainment was scarce, commanders faced 
some of the most serious and violent results of poor morale. 
Future commanders and students of global warfare will learn 
some rather valuable lessons from the episodes described by 
the editors in these areas. 

This volume is well-written in a style that will appeal to 
those who are frightened by the usual pedantic history book. 
The footnotes are copious but are arranged so that instant 
reference is possible without becoming lost at the bottom 
of every page. 

Book Reviews 399 

The editors' research has been thorough, with much of the 
source material provided by some of the finest staff officers of 
the Air Force who assisted the editors on this project. Stu- 
dents of air power and military history will forever be in- 
debted to the Air Force and to editors Craven and Cate for 
the massive store of detailed information compiled in the 
seven volumes of The Army Air Force in World War II. 

R. S. Milner, Colonel. 

Strategic Air Command, 
Los Angeles, 

Department of Archives and History 


On May 7, 1959, Herschell V. Rose, member of the Execu- 
tive Board of the Department of Archives and History, died 
at the age of 72 in his home town of Smithfield, Johnston 
County. Born and reared on Bentonville Battleground, for 
many years he worked to secure proper recognition and main- 
tenance of that historic site, and it was largely due to his in- 
fluence that funds were raised and a State appropriation was 
made to purchase part of the area and to make that part a 
State Historic Site in 1957. The same year the Governor ap- 
pointed him a member of the Department's Executive Board. 
He was the first Superintendent of Public Welfare of John- 
ston County, 1919, and from 1926 until his death he served 
as Clerk of the County Superior Court. So popular was he 
that he never had opposition in the Democratic primaries, 
and only twice did he have opposition, which he easily over- 
came, in the general elections. 

Dr. Daniel J. Whitener, Dean of Appalachian State Teach- 
ers College, Boone, has been appointed by Governor Luther 
H. Hodges to the Executive Board of the Department of Arch- 
ives and History for a six-year term. Dr. Whitener, a native of 
Catawba County, received his Ph.D. degree from the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina and was formerly Head of the De- 
partment of History at Lenoir Rhyne College. He was later 
Head of the Department of History, and in 1955 was made 
Dean of Appalachian State Teachers College. He served as 
President of the North Carolina Literary and Historical As- 
sociation in 1958 and is the author of a number of articles and 
books— his most recent book, North Carolina History, was 
published in 1958. 

At the same time Governor Hodges reappointed Mr. Mc- 
Daniel Lewis of Greensboro and Miss Gertrude S. Carraway 
of New Bern. Mr. Lewis has served as a member of the Board 
since May 30, 1947, and as Chairman since August 20, 1954. 

[ 400 ] 

Historical News 401 

Miss Carraway is Restoration Director of Tryon Palace and 
has been a member of the Board since February 6, 1942. The 
terms of these three appointees will expire on March 31, 

On April 8 Tryon Palace was opened to the General As- 
sembly of North Carolina with Governor Luther H. Hodges 
cutting the ribbons at the entrance gates to the grounds. The 
Assembly met in the Palace as a part of ceremonies which 
lasted for several days. The Palace, which was reconstructed 
on the site of the original structure, is now open daily (ex- 
cept Monday) from 9:30 to 4:00; Sunday, from 1:30 to 4:00. 
Costumed guides will direct visitors through the buildings 
and grounds. 

On April 14 the Sir Walter Cabinet held their business 
meeting in the Assembly Room of the Department of 
Archives and History after which Dr. Christopher Critten- 
den, Director, welcomed the group and introduced the heads 
of the various divisions of the Department. Mrs. Joye E. 
Jordan, Museum Administrator, introduced Mr. Morgan 
Bissette, Public Relations Manager of the Allstate Insurance 
Company, Charlotte, and Mr. Norman C. Larson, Education 
Curator of the Hall of History. Mr. Bissette and Mr. Larson 
had collaborated in preparing a program of recorded inter- 
views with North Carolinians of more than ninety years of 
age. Mr. Nevin Rice, Regional District Manager of Allstate 
Insurance Company, made a brief talk setting forth his com- 
pany's ideas for public service. A program followed with the 
State's oldest citizens telling of their early years by tape 
recording. Mrs. Robert Shultz, Jr., of the staff of the Hall of 
History, moderated four scenes with 25 children and a num- 
ber of adults dramatizing life in the past. A social hour 
followed the program. 

The North Carolina Literary and Historical Association 
held its spring regional meeting in Hertford County on May 1- 
2. Among those on the program, which included a tour of 
historic sites in the county, were Mr. Richard Walser, Presi- 
dent; Mr. Richard Vann, Mayor of Murfreesboro; Mr. Russell 

402 The North Carolina Historical Review 

P. Martin; Dr. Bruce E. Whitaker; and Mr. Roy Parker, Jr., 
President of the Hertford County Historical Society. 

The General Assembly and History 

The General Assembly at its regular 1959 session, which 
adjourned sine die on June 20, enacted a number of measures 
relating to the Department of Archives and History and to 
historical interests and activities throughout the State. The 
Department's annual operating appropriation for 1959-1960 
and for 1960-1961 is some $400,000, an increase of more 
that twenty per cent over 1958-1959. In addition to expansion 
in various phases of the Department's program, the two big 
additions (covered in detail below) will be a newspaper 
microfilming project and a county records microfilming pro- 
ject. A bond issue was voted, subject to approval by the 
voters, that includes $250,000 for capital improvements at 
historic sites (also covered below). 

The Department was given specific authorization to con- 
duct the State's Records Management Program (Session 
Laws, 1959, Chapter 68 ) ,* and authorization for the General 
Services Division of the Department of Administration to 
conduct such a program was deleted. 

Chapter 1162 provides funds for the Department to conduct 
a program of microfilming for security purposes county rec- 
ords of permanent value. The proposal, first suggested by the 
State Archivist in a letter to county officials in January, 1958, 
was the outgrowth of consultations with county officials since 
that time. The program is endorsed by the North Carolina 
Associations of County Commissioners, Registers of Deeds, 
and Clerks of Superior Court, the State Director of Civil De- 
fense, and many other organizations and individuals interest- 
ed in the preservation of essential records. The act provides 
for appropriations of $75,730 for the fiscal year 1959-1960 
and $71,680 for 1960-1961 for "inventory, repairing and 
microfilming official county records and providing safe stor- 
age for such films. . . ." These amounts will make it possible, 
under the County Records Program of the Division of 
Archives and Manuscripts, to put two cameras, each with an 

a All references to acts given below are to the Session Laws, 1959. 

Historical News 403 

operator, in county courthouses to begin a concerted 
program of microfilming and repairing permanently valuable 
county records. The initial program should be completed in 
about seven years. Thereafter, it will be the intention of the 
Department to film permanently valuable county records 
each year in each county. 

The General Assembly appropriated $27,832 to the Divi- 
sion of Archives and Manuscripts for the 1959-1961 biennium 
for the inauguration of a program of microfilming North Caro- 
lina newspapers. Plans are being made to obtain a copy of 
every known newspaper published in North Carolina before 
the end of the Civil War, after which the papers will be 
filmed. It is hoped that this task can be completed within 
the next two years. Upon completion of this phase of the 
long-range program, it is anticipated that attention will be 
given to filming papers of the post-Civil War or "pulp paper" 
period. The latter project, if consummated, will make possible 
both the conservation of the papers in the form of film copies 
and major space-savings in libraries desiring to substitute 
film copies. The Department of Archives and History pro- 
poses to keep only the master negative film copy, and posi- 
tive film copies will be for sale to institutions and individuals. 

Legislation affecting specific historic sites maintained by 
the Department includes an appropriation of $10,804 to be 
used the second year of the biennium (1960-1961) for the 
operation and development of the Fort Fisher State Historic 
Site (Chapter 1249). 

Bentonville Battleground received an appropriation of 
$7,500 for the restoration of the Harper House (Chapter 

Other special legislation authorizes a North Carolina Corn- 
federate Centennial Commission ( Chapter 323 ) , an act spon- 
sored by the North Carolina Literary and Historical Associa- 
tion. The funds for the Commission are authorized to be 
made available from the Contingency and Emergency Fund 
(with the approval of the Governor and the Council of State), 
and the following membership will make up the Commis- 
sion: the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Directors of 
the Departments of Conservation and Development and 
Archives and History, and twenty-five members appointed 

404 The North Carolina Historical Review 

by the Governor who are to serve two-year terms without 
pay but who will be allowed travel and subsistence allow- 
ances provided for State Boards and Commissions generally. 

An appropriation in the amount of $500 each year of the 
biennium was made to the Moores Creek Battleground As- 
sociation for the celebration of the anniversary oi the Battle 
of Moores Creek Bridge (Chapter 1266). 

The Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission was es- 
tablished (Chapter 1238) to plan for and conduct the 300th 
anniversary celebration of the granting of the Carolina 
Charter ot 1663. The Commission will consist of the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, the Directors of the Depart- 
ments of Conservation and Development and Archives and 
History, and twenty-two members appointed by the Gover- 
nor for two-year terms. Expenses are to be allotted to the 
Commission from the Contingency and Emergency Fund. 

Old Salem, Inc., one of the most outstanding private re- 
storation projects in North Carolina, was the beneficiary of 
an appropriation of $50,000 for the year 1959-1960 (Chapter 

The following acts do not carry appropriations: Resolution 
7 provides for "commemorating the 200th anniversary of the 
establishment of Hertford County." The act invites citizens 
and residents of the State and absent sons and daughters of 
the county to attend at a date to be fixed later the celebration 
of the establishment of the county. 

The New Bern 250th Anniversary Commission was estab- 
lished (Chapter 1321) with the following membership: the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Directors of the De- 
partments of Conservation and Development and Archives 
and History, Chairman of the Board of Commissioners of 
Craven County, the Mayor of New Bern, and twenty members 
to be appointed by the Governor. 

The Historic Bath Commission was established (Chapter 
1005) "for the purpose of the acquisition, repair and main- 
tenance of historic sites in the Town of Bath in Beaufort 
County." The Mayor of Bath, Chairman of the Board of 
Beaufort County Commissioners, and Director of the De- 
partment of Archives and History are members ex officio 

Historical News 405 

and there will be fifteen members appointed by the Governor. 

The John Motley Morehead Memorial Commission was 
established (Chapter 1308) and authorized "to acquire prop- 
erty and gifts and to do all things necessary to establish a 
perpetual memorial at the Blandwood Homeplace of John 
Motley Morehead, Greensboro, North Carolina." Membership 
of the Commission will be composed of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, Directors of the Departments of Con- 
servation and Development and Archives and History, the 
Secretary of State, and nine appointees by the Governor, 
three of the Guilford County Commissioners, and three mem- 
bers of the Greensboro City Council. Later, when the neces- 
sary property has been acquired and fully restored, it is to 
revert to the Department of Archives and History (if the 
State is willing to accept it), and the Commission is to be 

The one hundred-fiftieth anniversary celebration of the es- 
tablishment of Columbus County was authorized (Resolu- 
tion 29) at a date to be announced later. 

The people of the State will have an opportunity later this 
year to vote on a bond issue for capital improvements totaling 
$34,400,000 (Chapter 1038). Included is the sum of $250,000 
for capital improvements in the Historic Sites Program. These 
funds will provide three reception center-museum buildings 
and two dwelling houses, and will make possible ( or aid in ) 
the acquisition and restoration of historic site properties in 
the program. An enumeration of the sites and improvements 
by county follows: 

Alamance County 

Alamance Battleground, supplement $15,000 

Montgomery County 

Town Creek Indian Mound, museum and general 

purpose building 42,500 

Wayne County 

Charles B. Aycock Birthplace, museum and general 

purpose building 35,800 

406 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Buncombe County 

Zebulon B. Vance Birthplace, museum and general 

purpose building 49,200 

Brunswick County 

Old Brunswick Town, museum and general purpose 

building 20,000 

Beaufort County 

Marsh House, restoration 15,000 

New Hanover County 
Fort Fisher, restoration, supplement to local funds 30,000 

Rowan County 
Old Stone House, restoration, supplement to local funds 7,500 

Scotland County 

Temperance Hall and Literary Society, restoration 

of building and improvements to grounds 10,000 

Mecklenburg County 

James K. Polk Birthplace, restoration, supplement 

to local funds 15,000 

Davidson County 

Daniel Boone Homeplace, restoration 10,000 

Total $250,000 

The Tryon Palace budget for 1959-1960 is $107,887 (es- 
timated receipts $35,000, appropriation, $72,887), and for 
1960-1961, $104,055 (estimated receipts $35,000, appropria- 
tion $69,055). 

Directors Office 

On April 7 Dr. Christopher Crittenden, Director of the De- 
partment of Archives and History, met with the Governor 
Richard Caswell Memorial Commission in Kinston for the 

Historical News 407 

purpose of employing Mr. Morley J. Williams, Landscape 
Architect of New Bern, to make plans for landscaping the 
site of Caswell's grave near Kinston. Another meeting of the 
same group was held on April 27 in the Assembly Room of 
the Department of Archives and History, Education Build- 
ing, Raleigh. Members of the Commission voted to approve 
a model prepared by Mr. Williams for the development of 
the Caswell grave site. The group also voted to authorize 
the chairman, Mr. John G. Dawson, to seek additional appro- 
priations from the General Assembly in order to continue the 
Commission's program. From April 8 to 10 Dr. Crittenden 
attended the various meetings connected with the formal 
opening of Tryon Palace in New Bern. The one hundred and 
eighty-third anniversary of the adoption of the Halifax Re- 
solves was celebrated on April 12 in Halifax. Dr. Crittenden 
introduced the speaker, Major General Hamilton H. Howze, 
Commander of the 82nd Airborne Division, Fort Bragg. Mr. 
C. S. Bartholomew pronounced the invocation and Mrs. 
Quentin Gregory led the pledge of allegiance to the Flag of 
the United States. Guests were introduced by Mr. Ray S. 
Wilkinson, Chairman of the Historical Halifax Restoration 
Association. Dr. Crittenden met with the United States Civil 
War Centennial Commission in Richmond, Virginia, on 
April 16 in a series of sessions that were harmonious and 
informative. Those attending obtained good ideas on how to 
observe the approaching series of centennials of the Civil 
War. Others present from the Civil War Centennial Com- 
mittee of the North Carolina Literary and Historical Asso- 
ciation were Col. Hugh Dortch of Goldsboro, Chairman; 
Mayor Hector McLean, Lumberton; Dr. James W. Patton, 
Chapel Hill; and Mrs. Wilma Dykeman Stokely, Asheville. 
On April 23 Dr. Crittenden attended the unveiling of the 
portrait of the late Governor J. Melville Broughton in the 
State Capitol. The portrait, painted by Mr. Joe King of 
Winston-Salem, was given by the Broughton family. A sim- 
ilar ceremony in the Capitol was held on May 7 when the 
family of the late Governor W. Kerr Scott presented his por- 
trait to the State. It was painted by the late Howard Chandler 
Christy while Scott was Governor. The authority for select- 

408 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ing a suitable portrait of each of the governors of the State 
is delegated to the Director of the Department of Archives 
and History (Session Laws, 1955, Chapter 1248). Recently 
a committee was formed to assist in the fulfillment of this 
responsibility. On May 10 Dr. Crittenden made a brief talk 
at the unveiling and dedication of a marker honoring Lt. Col. 
Charles de Choisel, C.S.A., at St. John in the Wilderness 
Episcopal Church in Flat Rock. Others on the program spon- 
sored by the Margaret Davis Hayes Chapter, United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, were Mr. Francis Craighill, Mrs. 
A. L. Beck, Mrs. E. A. Anderson, Mrs. T. C. Jowitt, Gen. 
John E. Sloan (U.S.A., Ret.), Mr. John M. Barr, Mrs. Roy H. 
Cagle, Mrs. Ralph Ramsey, Mrs. J. P. Quarles, Mrs. Asbury 
Barnett, Mrs. William J. Reilly, Mr. Robert Collier, Mrs. 
Sadie S. Patton, Mr. Henry Laurens, and Mr. Mark Jenkins. 
On May 12 Dr. Crittenden and Mrs. Joye E. Jordan spoke 
to the Garden Club in Winston-Salem on the Tryon Palace 
Restoration. He made a memorial address at special exer- 
cises sponsored by the Vance County Chapter, United 
Daughters of the Confederacy, at the Confederate Ceme- 
tery, Kittrell, on May 17. Others participating were the Kit- 
trell Boy Scouts, the Kittrell Girl Scouts, Mr. R. C. Young, 
Dr. W. Leathers, Mrs. A. H. Moore, Mrs. R. M. Ray, Mr. 
H. A. Dennis, and Mr. W. T. Hearne. On May 25 Dr. Critten- 
den attended the meeting in Decatur House, Washington, 
D. C, of the Board of Trustees, National Trust for Historic 

In the spring (1959) issue of Historic Preservation, quar- 
terly publication of the National Trust for Historic Preserva- 
tion, appeared an article bv Dr. Crittenden, "Historic Sites: 
A Few Problems and Pitfalls." The article was presented 
originally as an address on October 31, 1958, at a meeting 
of the Association of Historic Sites Administrators in New 
Orleans, Louisiana. It had also been previously published in 
The Wi-Tyohi (December 1, 1958), monthly bulletin of The 
South Dakota Historical Society. 

Historical News 409 

Division of Archives and Manuscripts 

Mr. H. G. Jones, State Archivist, addressed the Scholarship 
Recognition Convocation at Appalachian State Teachers Col- 
lege in Boone on April 29 on the subject, "The Historian 
and the Scholar." He and Mrs. Memory F. Blackwelder, 
Records Center Supervisor, attended the annual meeting of 
the National Microfilm Association in Washington, D. C, 
April 1-4. On June 9 Mr. Jones spoke at the annual conven- 
tion of the North Carolina Association of Registers of Deeds 
in Asheville on the Department's county records program. 

Mrs. Blackwelder spoke to two classes at St. Mary's Junior 
College in Raleigh on April 12 on "What Women Should 
Know About the Law." On May 8 she talked to the Peace 
College International Relations Club on "Women Who Have 
Served in the North Carolina General Assembly." She spoke 
to the Raleigh Civitan Club, May 14, on the records man- 
agement program as a function of the Department of 
Archives and History. Mrs. Blackwelder has recently been 
appointed to serve on the Records Management Committee 
of the Society of American Archivists. 

Rear Admiral Alex M. Patterson (Ret.), Public Records 
Examiner, visited the Georgia Department of Archives and 
History in Atlanta, April 5-10, and observed that State's 
county records program. On June 15-17 he attended the 
annual convention of the North Carolina Association of Coun- 
ty Commissioners in Asheville and discussed the public rec- 
ords work of the Department. 

Mrs. Lodosca R. Penny and Mrs. Betty M. London re- 
signed in May as Steno-Clerk II and Archivist I, respectively. 
New employees reporting: to work June 1 were Miss Mary 
Deane Stevenson as Archivist I and Miss Nan G. Bailey as 
Steno-Clerk II; and at the Records Center, Mrs. Elizabeth 
C. Levings as Archivist I. Mrs. Ernestine H. Harrell was a 
temnorarv Steno-Clerk II in the Archives Division during 
April and May. 

The officers and legislative committee of the North Caro- 
lina Association of Registers of Deeds met in the State 
Archivist's office on April 16. Mr. Jones and Admiral Patter- 

410 The North Carolina Historical Review 

son accompanied the group to lunch and discussed the 
progress of legislation of mutual interest. 

A total of 657 registered for research materials in the 
Search Room during the quarter ending March 31. In addi- 
tion, 736 mail inquiries were answered, not counting letters 
handled directly by the State Archivist. The following photo- 
copies were supplied: 738 photostats, 65 paper enlargements 
from microfilm, 42 typed certified copies, and 224 feet of 
microfilm. Pages totaling 3,512 of manuscript records were 
laminated for the Department. Increased emphasis on county 
records in recent months has resulted in the arrangement of 
significant groups of records from the counties of Chatham, 
Cumberland, Lincoln, Orange, and Wake. Attention has now 
been turned to the arrangement of a valuable collection from 
Rowan County. 

In the Records Center, 1,001,183 images were microfilmed 
on 141 reels during the quarter ending March 31. This film- 
ing was done for eight State agencies. A total of 2,115 cubic 
feet of records were brought into the Center and 715 cubic 
feet were removed. 

Boxes of records have been placed on the metal shelving 
recently installed in the Records Center, and an index to the 
location of records has been completed. The 272 units of 
shelving are now in use and approximately half of the storage 
area has been converted to the shelf -corrugated box system. 
Construction of shelving in the remaining records area is con- 
templated in the coming fiscal year. The receipts from sur- 
plus filing equipment amounted to more than $4,000. 

Inventories and schedules have been completed recently 
for the Budget Division and the Merit System, bringing to 
30 the number of agencies whose records have been sched- 
uled. Rough drafts of inventories for the Utilities Commis- 
sion and the State Hospital at Raleigh have been prepared 
and submitted to the officials of those agencies. 

In the first three months of the year, representatives of 11 
agencies used their records in the Records Center a total of 
180 times. Records were serviced by the Records Center 
staff 259 times during the quarter. 

Historical News 411 

Division of Historic Sites 

Mr. W. S. Tarlton, Historic Sites Superintendent, and Mrs. 
Joye E. Jordan, Museum Administrator, attended a meeting 
of the Governor Richard Caswell Memorial Commission in 
Raleigh on March 16 (and also the meetings of the Com- 
mission on April 7 and 27 1 ) . The Commission accepted the 
resignation of Justice R. Hunt Parker, North Carolina Su- 
preme Court, who was Chairman of the Commission, and 
elected Mr. John G. Dawson of Kinston. Plans for developing 
the Caswell grave property were discussed. On April 14 Mr. 
Tarlton spoke to the Newton Grove Men's Club on Benton- 
ville Battleground. On May 1 Mr. Tarlton, Dr. Christopher 
Crittenden, and Mr. J. C. Harrington, Chief of Interpreta- 
tion, Region One, National Park Service, Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, visited Fort Fisher and Old Brunswick Town State 
Historic Site to discuss interpretive problems and plans for 
development. Mr. Stanley A. South, Historic Site Specialist 
at Old Brunswick Town, guided them on the tour of the 
Brunswick site. On May 2 the first three attended the dedi- 
cation ceremonies of the new Visitors Center at Moores 
Creek National Military Park. Dr. Crittenden extended 
greetings from the Department of Archives and History. The 
following persons (in the order of their participation) took 
part in the ceremonies: Mr. J. V. Whitfield, Maj. F. H. Muret, 
Mr. Fitzhugh Clark, Mr. John G. Britt, Jr., Mr. J. M. Ford 
(Park Superintendent), Mr. Hugh Walker, Mrs. C. S. Morse, 
Mr. Ashley M. Murphy, Mrs. Clifton L. Moore, Mrs. William 
D. Holmes, Mr. A. H. Page, Mr. Cicero Yow, Mrs. Norman 
Cordon, Mrs. Henry L. Stevens, Jr., Mrs. W. G. James, Mr. 
Elbert Cox, Mr. Addison Hewlett, Jr., Mr. E. T. Scoyen, 
Mrs. Robert Grady Johnson, Mr. E. L. White, and Tudge 
Clifton L. Moore. On May 8 Dr. Crittenden and Mr. Tarlton 
attended a conference in Richmond, Virginia, with a number 
of national and regional officials of the National Park Serv- 
ice to discuss mutual problems relating to historic sites in 
North Carolina. Among the subjects discussed was that of 
interpreting historic sites along and near to the Blue Ridge 
Parkway in western North Carolina. Meetings of the Advis- 

1 See above, pages 406-407. 

412 The North Carolina Historical Review 

ory Committee on Historical Highway Markers were held in 
Chapel Hill on April 24 and May 15 to consider proposed 
markers. A total of 66 inscriptions was approved at the two 
meetings. The Committee studied a great number of requests 
which have accumulated during the past two years— a period 
in which the marker program has been relatively inactive 
for lack of a Researcher. The Historical Highway Marker 
Program was begun in 1935 and since that time more than 
800 markers have been erected. 

The Harper House-Bentonville Chapter, United Daugh- 
ters of the Confederacy, sponsored a special memorial serv- 
ice at the Harper House on May 10 with Mr. Billy Britt of 
Smithfield as principal speaker. Mr. Britt spoke on the Battle 
of Bentonville and the restoration in progress, and paid 
tribute to the late Herschell V. Rose, who was president of 
the Bentonville Battleground Association. Approximately 30 
people attended the service. Twenty-nine cast aluminium 
markers have been erected recently on the Bentonville 
Battleground, denoting the principal sites and actions of the 
battle, March 19-21, 1865. Mr. R. Judson Mitchell is Historic 
Site Specialist for this project. 

Restoration of the Charles B. Aycock Birthplace— the 
dwelling house, kitchen, corn barn, and two smokehouses- 
was completed on June 1. A new access road and parking lot 
have been graded, and plans are being made for the develop- 
ment of the yard areas around the historic buildings and for 
refurnishing the dwelling house as of the time of Aycock's 
birth in 1859. Plans are in progress to dedicate the restora- 
tion on November 1, 1959, exactly the one-hundredth anni- 
versary of Aycock's birth. Mr. Richard W. Sawyer, Jr., who is 
Historic Site Specialist for this project, has completed a 
brochure, Charles B. Aycock Birthplace State Historic Site, 
which is available free upon application to the State Depart- 
ment of Archives and History, Box 1881, Raleigh. 

Mr. Stanley A. South, Historic Site Specialist for Old 
Brunswick Town State Historic Site, reports that a new access 
road and parking area have been built at this site recently. 
Several exhibits and signs have also been placed to illustrate 
the history of the site. 

Historical News 413 

Division of Museums 

Mrs. Joye E. Jordan, Museum Administrator, made a talk 
on Tryon Palace to the Lanier Book Club in Raleigh on 
March 24. On May 14 she and Mr. W. S. Tarlton went to 
Littleton where she spoke to the Woman's Club on tavern 
furnishings. The club is sponsoring restoration of Person's 
Ordinary, one of the few remaining examples of an 
eighteenth-century tavern, having been built prior to the 
American Revolution. On May 20 Mrs. Jordan went to Faison 
to view a collection of twenty-eight oil portraits by Mary 
Lyde Hicks Williams. The paintings were done on the farm 
of Isham R. Faison and depict scenes of plantation life during 
the post-Civil War days and the early twentieth century. 
From June 2 to 6 Mrs. Jordan attended the annual convention 
of the American Association of Museums in Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania. While there she attended a meeting of the 
Association's Committee on Placement, Service, and Job In- 
formation to which she has recently been appointed for a 
term of three years, and a meeting of the Council of the 
Southeastern Museums Conference. 

Division of Publications 

Mr. D. L. Corbitt, Head of the Division of Publications, 
attended the luncheon meeting of the North Carolina Society 
of County and Local Historians in Chapel Hill on March 22; 
the meeting of the Pitt County Historical Association in 
Greenville on April 26; and the tri-county meeting of the 
Johnston, Sampson, and Wayne historical groups on May 31. 

North Carolina in the American Revolution, by Mr. Hugh 
F. Rankin of the Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 
is available for distribution by the Division of Publications, 
Box 1881, Raleigh, for $.50. The booklet has 75 pages and 21 
illustrations and was written primarily as supplementary 
material for the school children of the State. It is one of a 
series of pamphlets being prepared by the Department for 
this purpose. 

414 The North Carolina Historical Review 

Colleges and Universities 

Dr. Fletcher M. Green, Chairman of the Department of 
History at the University of North Carolina, read a paper, 
"On Tour with President Andrew Jackson," at the annual 
meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, 
Denver, Colorado, April 24, at which meeting he was elected 
Vice-President of the Association for 1959-1960. He will 
teach at the Blue Ridge Assembly in the second term of the 
summer session. Dr. William M. Geer of the Social Science 
Staff has been on leave for the spring semester, under a grant 
from the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, to 
complete his study of the late Governor O. Max Gardner. 
Dr. Robin D. S. Higham has recently published "The British 
Government and Overseas Airlines, 1918-1939" in the Jour- 
nal of Air Law and Commerce and "The Royal Navy's Freak 
Submarine Designs" in the Journal of the American Society 
of Naval Engineers. He will spend the summer in England 
on grants from the University Research Council and the 
Royal Aeronautical Society doing research for a book on 
"The British Rigid Airship Programme." Dr. Stephen B. Bax- 
ter is the recipient of a Guggenheim Fellowship for 1959- 
1960. He will spend the year in research for a biography of 
William III (1650-1702) and will reside at The Hague. His 
studies will take him also to Paris, London, and Dublin. Dr. 
James E. King had an article, "The Baroque Spirit and the 
Decline of France," in Modem Age, III ( spring, 1959 ) . Dr. 
Loren C. Mackinney had an article, "Medical Miniatures in 
Medieval Manuscripts of the Vatican Library," in Manu- 
scripta, III ( February- July, 1959). He will spend the summer 
in libraries in the eastern United States and Canada in com- 
pleting his studies of medical manuscripts in American li- 
braries. He recently lectured on medieval medicine at the 
University of Kentucky and to the North Carolina Chapter of 
the American College of Surgeons. Dr. George Brown Tindall 
is the recipient of a fellowship from the Social Science Re- 
search Council. He will spend 1959-1960 completing the re- 
search and in writing "The Recent South, 1913-1950," which 
is to be volume ten of A History of the South being published 
by the Louisiana State University Press. 

Historical News 415 

Dr. George Pasti, Jr., of East Carolina College, has been 
awarded a fellowship to study the history of the Far East at 
Harvard University for the academic year 1959-1960. Dr. 
Richard C. Todd had an article, "C. G. Memminger and the 
Confederate Treasury Department," in the Georgia Review 
(winter, 1958). Mr. Herbert Paschal, Jr., read a paper, 
"North Carolina under the Heath Charter," at a meeting of 
the Pitt County Historical Society. During the 1958-1959 
college year the Danforth Foundation sponsored a program 
at East Carolina College, "Creativity and Productivity in 
an Age of Tension and Stereotypes." Specific topics and 
speakers were: Dr. John Gillin, Anthropologist, University 
of North Carolina, who spoke in October on "Understanding 
Cultural Values"; Dr. Thomas F. Pettigrew, Social Psycholo- 
gist, Harvard University, who spoke in October on "The 
Nature of Southern Prejudice"; Mr. Gerald Johnson, jour- 
nalist of Baltimore, who spoke in November on "Tensions, 
Stereotypes, Creativity, and Productivity in 1958"; Dr. Har- 
old C. Hunt, Harvard University, who spoke in January on 
"Looking Ahead in Education"; Dr. Peter Viereck of Mount 
Holyoke College who spoke in February on "The American 
Dilemma: Preserving Inner Liberty in a Machine Age"; Dr. 
T. Z. Koo, world student leader of Wilmington, Delaware, 
who spoke in March on "Nationalism, Communism, and Re- 
ligions in the Far East"; and Dr. M. J. Herkovits, Anthropolo- 
gist at Northwestern University, who spoke in April on "A 
Cross-Cultural View of Bias and Values." Dr. George A. 
Douglas of the Social Science Department was the director 
of the lecture series. In September a new series, "Risks and 
Responsibilities in a World of Revolutionary Changes," will 
begin with speakers to be announced later. 

Mr. Frank Harvin of Brevard College will serve as Visiting 
Professor in the Department of Social Sciences at Western 
Carolina College during the summer of 1959. Dr. D. C. 
Sossaman of the department will teach in the summer session 
of the George Peabody College, Nashville, Tennessee. 

Dr. Malcolm Lester has been appointed Professor of His- 
tory at Davidson College beginning in September. Dr. Lester 

416 The North Carolina Historical Review 

has been Professor of History and Dean of the Faculty at 
Mercer University for the last five years. 

Dr. Marvin L. Skaggs, Chairman of the Department of 
History at Greensboro College, spoke on May 9 at the annual 
State Convention of the Colonial Dames of the Seventeenth 
Century on "The Birth of North Carolina." 

Effective July 1 Dr. David Smiley became an Associ- 
ate Professor of History at Wake Forest College. Dr. Robert 
G. Gregory has received a grant to participate in the Duke 
Commonwealth-Studies Program during the summer of 1959, 
and Dr. Lowell R. Tillett has received a fellowship to par- 
ticipate in the summer program on the Soviet Union at Ohio 
State University for 1959. Dr. W. B. Yearns will be Visiting 
Professor of History at Mercer University this summer, and 
Mr. Keith A. Hitchins, Instructor in History, will spend the 
summer studying in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 

Dr. Sarah M. Lemmon of Meredith College read a paper, 
"Raleigh in 1890," on April 24 at a meeting of the Social 
Studies Section of the Baptist Colleges of North Carolina 
held at Chowan College. Dr. Lillian Parker Wallace made 
the dinner address at the same meeting on "Protestant Eng- 
land and Rome in the Nineteenth Century." On May 18 Dr. 
Wallace made two talks from the Chapel Hill studio of 
WUNC-TV for the In-School Program. The first talk on the 
"Far East" was made to the American history class; the sec- 
ond, "Europe and the Middle East," was made to the world 
history class. 

County and Local Groups 

Mrs. W. E. White read a paper, "History of Fishing at 
Colerain," at the meeting of the Bertie County Historical 
Association on October 23, 1958. Dr. W. P. Jacocks was 
elected President to succeed the late E. S. Askew. Dr. J. B. 
Nicholls, Mrs. Moses B. Gillam, and Mrs. Ruth Lyon were 
elected Vice-Presidents and Mr. T. S. Norfleet, Secretary- 

Historical News 417 

Treasurer. Mr. John E. Tyler, who is Historian, holds office 
for an indefinite period. 

The Chronicle, published by the association, has the fol- 
lowing articles in the April issue: a copy of the paper read by 
Mrs. White, a report of the meeting of the association with 
a listing of the award-winning essays by the school children 
of Bertie County, and an article on two battles fought in 
Bertie— one during the Colonial period and the other in 1864. 
Mrs. Laura F. Harrell of Windsor is serving as Editor of 
The Chronicle at the present time. 

The Burke County Historical Society elected officers at a 
meeting on March 10 and adopted a constitution and by- 
laws for the society. Charter memberships were extended 
through June 30. Dr. E. W. Phifer was installed as President, 
and the following other officers were elected: Mr. C. K. 
Avery, Vice-President; Mr. Harry L. Hallyburton, Secretary; 
Mrs. Alma Stamey, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary; Mr. 
John Guigou, Second Vice-President; Mrs. Elizabeth Finger, 
Third Vice-President; and Mr. Charles Gordon Tate, Jr., 
Curator. Dr. D. J. Whitener of Appalachian State Teachers 
College spoke to the society in Morganton on April 21 on the 
subject of collecting materials for and the writing of a county 

The Historical Society of North Carolina met at Duke Uni- 
versity on April 17 with Mr. D. L. Corbitt, President, pre- 
siding. Following the afternoon business session Mr. Winston 
Broadfoot, Director of the George Washington Flowers 
Collection, Duke University, read a paper, "Some Problems 
of Historical Judgement," and Dr. Henry S. Stroupe, Head 
of the Department of History, Wake Forest College, read a 
paper, "Clerical Morale Builders: The Religious Press of the 
Confederacy and the Civil War." At the evening session 
Mrs. Wilma Dykeman Stokely of Asheville presented a paper, 
"The Union Underground in the Mountain Region," and Mr. 
Burke Davis, author of Greensboro, talked on fan mail he had 
received and read excerpts from some of the letters. 

New members are Dr. Burton Floyd Beers of North Caro- 
lina State College; Mr. Jonathan Daniels, Editor of The News 

418 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and Observer of Raleigh; Dr. George Brown Tindall of the 
University of North Carolina; and Mr. H. G. Jones, State 
Archivist of Raleigh. 

The Carteret County Historical Society met in the Meth- 
odist church at Smyrna on April 25 with Mr. F. C. Salisbury, 
President, presiding. Miss Amy Muse read a paper, "Fort 
Macon, April 25, 1862," in recognition of the ninety-seventh 
anniversary of the Battle of Fort Macon. Mrs. Hilda Gillikin 
prepared a paper on the early history of Smyrna which was 
read by Mr. Tucker R. Littleton. Miss Emma Lawrence and 
Mr. William Davis, Smyrna High School students, presented 
papers on the history of the high school and the old Hancock 
House respectively. The house built about 1820 has been 
occupied by six generations of Hancocks of the same family 
as John Hancock, signer of the Declaration of Independence. 
Forty-five members and guests were present and visited the 
Hancock House following the meeting. 

The North Carolina Society of County and Local Histo- 
rians and the Bentonville Battleground Association jointly 
sponsored a tour of Bentonville Battleground on April 19. 
More than 200 people met at the William and Mary Restau- 
rant in Newton Grove and participated in the tour. Mrs. Taft 
Bass of Clinton, President of the society, led the tour and 
Father Frederick Koch led the invocation. Mr. D. P. Herring 
and Mr. Hubert Tart, Sr., extended greetings to the group. 
Places visited included House's Mill which has been oper- 
ated by descendants of the original owner for the past 137 
years; the Holy Redeemer Catholic Church; and the Black- 
man Lee store. A memorial service at the Confederate ceme- 
tery and monument was one of the highlights of the tour. 
The service was conducted by Col. Hugh Dortch of Golds- 
boro, Chairman of the Civil War Centennial Committee of 
the North Carolina Literary and Historical Association. Mr. 
R. Geddie Herring of Roseboro, one of the six North Caro- 
linians awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in World 
War II, laid a wreath on the monument. A color guard from 
Ft. Bragg fired a salute to the Confederate dead. The tour 

Historical News 419 

also included a stop at the Harper House where Dr. Chris- 
topher Crittenden, Director of the Department of Archives 
and History, greeted guests and spoke briefly on plans for 
restoring the Harper House and developing the Battleground. 
Lunch was spread in the Bentonville Community House 
where the late Herschell V. Rose, President of the Benton- 
ville Battleground Association and member of the Executive 
Board of the Department of Archives and History, welcomed 
participants to Johnston County. Mrs. Bass presided and Dr. 
Crittenden and Dr. James W. Patton, Director of the South- 
ern Historical Collection at Chapel Hill, made brief talks. 

The Pitt County Historical Society and the Pitt County 
Bicentennial Commission met in the Pitt County Courthouse 
on April 26 and discussed plans for the celebration of the 
bicentennial in 1960 of the erection of the county. Persons 
participating in the discussions were Miss Jessie R. Moye, 
Dr. J. D. Messick, Dr. Robert Lee Humber, and Mr. D. L. 

The first issue of the Harnett County Historical Society 
News Letter has been received by the Department of Ar- 
chives and History. Mrs. J. W. Thornton, Sr., of Dunn is the 
editor of the paper which lists the names and addresses of 
the more than 500 members of the society. Other items 
include a message from the President, Dr. Leslie H. Camp- 
bell; a tribute to the late Leon McDonald; and a brief sum- 
mary of points of historical interest in Harnett County by 
Malcolm Fowler. 

The May, 1959, issue of the Lower Cape Fear Historical 
Society, Inc., Bulletin carries a message from the President, 
Mr. Henry Jay MacMillan, in which he gives a summary of 
the activities of the society for the past year and an outline 
of proposed projects for the future. A full-page article on the 
Tryon Palace Restoration, which was visited by the group in 
a body on May 17; amendments to the bylaws of the society; 
a feature on the building of Jacobs Run Tunnel; and a listing 
of the names and addresses of the twenty-seven new mem- 
bers are also included in the issue. 

420 The North Carolina Historical Review 

The society held its annual meeting at the Sorosis Club in 
Wilmington on May 15 with Dr. Hugh T. Lefler, Kenan Pro- 
fessor of History at the University of North Carolina, as 
principal speaker. Dr. Lefler spoke on "Some Problems in 
Writing State and Local History." The following officers 
were chosen for the coming year: Mr. MacMillan, President; 
Mr. Leslie N. Boney, Jr., Vice-President; Mrs. C. Wayne 
Spencer, Secretary; Mr. Ludlow P. Strong, Treasurer; Mrs. 
Ida B. Kellam, Archivist; and Miss Carolyn Flanner, Mr. 
Randolph B. Gregory, Dr. B. Frank Hall, Mr. Glenn M. Tuck- 
er, Mrs. A. T. St. Amand, and Mr. Joshua S. James, directors. 
The society has 362 members at present. 

The Dolley Madison Memorial Association, Inc., held its 
first meeting on May 16 in the College Union at Guilford 
College. Charter memberships are open throughout 1959 
with dues as follows: $3.00, contributing member; $10.00, 
sustaining member; and $100.00, patron member. Applica- 
tion may be sent to the association, Guilford College. The 
association is planning to build a suitable shrine or memorial 
to Dolley Madison which will be the first such shrine in the 
United States. Mrs. Eleanor Fox Pearson is President; Mr. 
Nick Robinson, Vice-President; Mrs. Ethel Stephens Arnett, 
Secretary; and Mrs. Alice M. Bray, Treasurer. 

Mr. George L. Ross of Jackson Springs, former Moore 
County legislator and State Department of Agriculture offi- 
cial, who retired following service as Director of the State 
Department of Conservation and Development under Gov- 
ernor W. Kerr Scott, has been elected President of the Moore 
County Historical Association. Mrs. Ernest Ives has been act- 
ing president since the death of C. J. McDonald. Other offi- 
cers elected were Mrs. Katherine S. McCall of Southern 
Pines, First Vice-President; Dr. Colin G. Spencer of Car- 
thage, Second Vice-President; Mrs. Albert S. Tufts of Pine- 
hurst, Third Vice-President; Mrs. L. T. Avery of Southern 
Pines, Secretary; and Mr. Norris L. Hodgkins, Jr., of Southern 
Pines, Treasurer. 

Historical News 421 

The April 23 issue of the Rockingham Post-Dispatch fea- 
tured a lengthy article on John London, Secretary to the 
Governor for several years, and his descendants in the United 
States. John London served from October 21, 1769, into the 
1770's. He signed many of the land grants issued by Gov- 
ernor Tryon in 1770. Interest in collecting the genealogical 
information in the article was prompted by the opening of 
Tryon Palace in New Bern. The descendants of London al- 
ternate annual reunions between Pittsboro and Rock Hill, 
South Carolina. 

The May issue of The Gaston County Historical Bulletin, 
official organ of the Gaston County Historical Society, an- 
nounces the election of Mrs. Wilma Ratchford Craig (Wil- 
liam N. ) of the Union section of Gaston County as editor of 
The Bulletin. Items in the issue include a continuation of the 
article on the Moore family by Mr. Robert F. Cope; reports 
on the two recent meetings of the society; a brief sketch of 
Mr. W. Marsh Cavin, new President; an article on the deci- 
sion of the society to publish Mr. Cope's "History of Gaston 
County," which appeared serially in a newspaper; and an 
article on how Gaston County received its name, by Mrs. 

The annual tri-county meeting of the Johnston, Sampson, 
and Wayne historical societies was held on May 24 in Smith- 
field. Mrs. Doc R. Oliver welcomed the group and Mr. Ivan 
Adams gave the invocation. Mrs. T. J. Lassiter gave a me- 
morial tribute to the late H. V. Rose of Smithfield, and Mrs. 
W. B. Beasley introduced the speaker, Mr. Ray Armstrong, 
who spoke on "The Value of Preserving County History." Dr. 
Luby Roy all, Jr., recognized special guests and gave a slide 
program on old homes in Johnston County with a commen- 
tary by Mrs. Tilden Honeycutt. A social hour followed the 

The News Bulletin of the Moravian Music Foundation 
(winter, 1959) carried an article on the festival and seminar in 
June; notice of two reprints by the Foundation; a sketch of 
John Antes, Moravian composer; a report on the program of 

422 The North Carolina Historical Review 

research and publication by the Northern and Southern 
Provinces of the Moravian Church in America; and notice of 
four professional concerts of Moravian music in the United 
States. Dr. Donald M. McCorkle, Director of the Moravian 
Music Foundation, Inc., has announced the appointment of 
Miss Erwin M. Robbins as Administrative Assistant to the 
Director beginning June 1. Miss Robbins, a June graduate of 
Salem College, was a music major. She has completed one 
year as a student assistant with the Foundation and will as- 
sist in research, publication, and education. Miss Robbins is 
the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Marvin R. Robbins of Rocky 
Mount. In the spring-summer, 1959, issue of the Bulletin the 
Foundation announces that negotiations have been com- 
pleted between Mr. David J. Oppenheim, Director of Master- 
works Artists and Repertoire of Columbia Records, and Dr. 
McCorkle for a new project in recording early American mu- 
sic exclusively for the Foundation. The arrangements mark 
a milestone in the history of the recording industry, and will 
provide a series of long-plaving records, both monophonic 
and stereophonic, which will include the finest of sacred 
choral and vocal compositions of the Moravians. The series, 
moreover, will be the first strictly commercial recordings of 
early American music to be made by a major company and 
distributed internationally. Columbia Records will assume 
all costs of engineering, manufacturing, and marketing. The 
first two recordings will be made at the summer seminar with 
Mr. Oppenheim supervising and Mr. Thor Johnson directing. 

"The Roanoke-Chowan Story," Chapter Three, has been 
published in the Daily Roanoke-Chowan News. This chapter 
deals with the explorations and early settlement of this sec- 
tion and is illustrated with the Nicholas Comberford Map of 
1657, the Theodore de Bry Map of 1590, and a composite of 
the two. The chapter ends with John Lawson's version of 
the legend of Raleigh's phantom ship. 

Chapter Four, "Two Ways to the Roanoke-Chowan," dis- 
cusses the inland water route from Virginia to Carolina; the 
John Drummond trip into Carolina in 1657; the abundance 

Historical News 423 

of natural food and game in the region; and the hanging of 
William Drummond in 1677 following Bacon's Rebellion. 

The North Carolina Society of County and Local Histo- 
rians held a luncheon meeting at Lenoir Hall in Chapel Hill 
on March 22 with Mrs. Taft Bass, President, presiding. The 
meeting was held to discuss various problems connected 
with the tours of historic sites in the State and to arrange 
proposed tours for the season. Mr. Manly Wade Wellman of 
Chapel Hill and Mr. Glenn R. Tucker of Carolina Beach 
spoke briefly. Col. Jeffrey Stanback of Mt. Gilead has been 
appointed as a Vice-President to complete the unexpired 
term of the late Leon McDonald. District Vice-Presidents 
accepting appointment are Mr. Herbert Paschal of East 
Carolina College; Mr. Herbert O'Keef of Raleigh; Mr. F. C. 
Salisbury of Morehead City; Mr. John McPhaul, Jr., of Fay- 
etteville; Mr. Phillip N. Alexander of Charlotte; and Mr. 
Malcolm Fowler, Lillington. 

On May 31 the Society of County and Local Historians co- 
sponsored a tour of New Bern. Places of interest visited by 
the group participating were the Attmore-Oliver House, the 
Firemen's Museum, Tryon Palace (at the regular fee of 
$2.00), and a number of other sites of historical importance. 
The group shared a picnic lunch at the New Bern Recreation 

The Western North Carolina Historical Association met in 
Tryon on April 25 at which time Mr. Glenn Tucker of Flat 
Rock was presented the Thomas Wolfe Memorial Literary 
Cup for his recent book, Hieh Tide at Gettysburg. Mr. Tucker 
won the same award in 1956 for Tecumseh: Vision of Glory. 
Mrs. Sadie Smathers Patton of Hendersonville read a paper 
on the history of Polk County, and the following officers were 
elected for the coming year: Dr. Edwin S. Dougherty of 
Appalachian State Teachers College, President; Col. Paul 
Rockwell of Asheville, Vice-President; and Miss Cordelia 
Camp of Asheville, Secretary-Treasurer. 

424 The North Carolina Historical Review 


Mill Creek Story by Charles Crossfield Ware, Curator of 
the Carolina Discipliana Library in Wilson, has been received 
by the Department of Archives and History. The monograph 
includes a concise historical sketch of the fifteen churches 
which make up the Mill Creek Union of the Disciples of 
Christ Church. The stories are based chiefly on documentary 
sources housed in the Library and tell of the establishment 
of the churches, ministers who served them and their tenure, 
prominent laymen, the church buildings, and present mem- 
bership. The churches discussed, which are located in seven 
east-central counties of the State, are Beulah Hill, Carr Me- 
morial, Dudley, Dunn, Eureka, Fayetteville, Goldsboro, Lum- 
berton, Mill Creek, Mount Olive, Pleasant Union, Rocky 
Fork, Selah, Smithfield, and Wilson's Mill. There is also a 
brief history of the Mill Creek Union. The booklet may be 
obtained for $1.00 by writing Dr. C. C. Ware, Box 1164, 

Joseph of Kernersville, being the Stories of the Families 
Korner-Kerner, Kastner, Spach, Gardner, Tike, and Wiesner, 
and their Descendants in the Town of Kernersville by J. Gil- 
mer Korner, Jr., has been received by the Department of 
Archives and History. The book is principally about Joseph 
Korner-Kerner, great-grandfather of the author, who came to 
America in 1785. The story also tells of the family in Europe 
and of the life in Salem and Friedland. Joseph purchased 
the "Cross-Roads" which grew into the Town of Kerners- 
ville. Much of the book is a genealogical study of the families 
mentioned in the title and other families, such as the Coffyns 
(Coffins), Starbucks, and Boncoeurs, with forty pages of 
charts and a number of pictures. The book sells for $10 and 
may be ordered from the Seeman Printery, Box 930, Durham. 

A companion volume to the above is I Remember by Polly 
Alice Masten Korner (Mrs. J. Gilmer Korner). This 69-page 
book, published in 1956, carries an introduction with a bio- 
graphical sketch of the author who lived at "Korner's Folly" 
until her death in 1934. The book is written as a series of 
reminiscences and covers the years from 1858 until 1934. 

Historical News 425 

Published by her son, Mr. J. Gilmer Korner, Jr., and her 
daughter, Mrs. Dore Korner Donnell, it was privately print- 
ed and has an appendix with explanations and notes on the 

A significant portion of the Truman Presidential Papers 
was opened to researchers at the Harry S. Truman Library in 
Independence, Missouri, on May 11. Persons wishing to use 
papers and other related materials are requested to make 
application to Dr. Philip C. Brooks, Director of the Library, 
at Independence. Students will normally be expected to in- 
clude a letter of introduction from their professors with their 
application. At the same time the Harry S. Truman Institute 
for National and International Affairs initiated a program of 
grants-in-aid. These will generally be grants of less than $500 
to provide travel and living expenses for short periods of 
work at the Library. For the present grants will be concen- 
trated on persons working on the period of former President 
Truman's public career and those who will be using the re- 
sources of the Library. All correspondence relative to the use 
of the papers available should be made to Dr. Brooks. 

Dr. Richard L. Morton, retiring Professor and Chairman 
of the Department of History of William and Mary College, 
was honored at a dinner by the Institute of Early American 
History and Culture at the Williamsburg Inn on April 16. 
Highlight of the evening was the presentation to Dr. Morton 
of a specially-prepared, calf -bound copy of The William and 
Mary Quarterly. Dr. Morton has served as editor, contributor, 
and member of the board of editors since the beginning of 
the Third Series of the Journal in 1944. He had been on the 
faculty of the college since 1919. In addition, he is the author 
of several books and has contributed to a number of histori- 
cal periodicals including The North Carolina Historical Re- 

The Institute of Early American History and Culture and 
the Jamestown Foundation announce the establishment of a 
special prize competition for the best unpublished book- 
length manuscript about seventeenth-century America. The 

426 The North Carolina Historical Review 

annual prize will consist of $1,000 and publication by the 
Institute. All manuscripts submitted, whether winning an 
award or not, will be considered for publication by the In- 
stitute. The competition will be judged by the publications 
committee of the Institute Council, in association with the 
editorial staff of the Institute. Manuscripts should be submit- 
ted not later than December 1, 1959, to Dr. James M. Smith, 
Editor of Publications, Institute of Early American History 
and Culture, Box 1298, Williamsburg, Virginia. 

The Society of American Historians, Inc., announces that 
Dr. Ernest Samuels, Professor of English at Northwestern 
University, has been awarded the Francis Parkman Prize for 
1958 for his book, Henry Adams: The Middle Years, 1877- 
1891. The Francis Parkman Prize is given annually for that 
book on American history or biography published during the 
year which has the highest literary distinction in the opinion 
of the Committee of Award, of which Dr. John A. Garraty, 
Department of History, Columbia University, is Chairman 
for 1959. The prize, $500 in cash and an inscribed scroll, will 
be awarded at a dinner held in the late fall or early winter in 
New York. Dr. Rudolph A. Clemen, Executive Vice-President 
of the Society, has announced the 1959 competition. For de- 
tails write Dr. Clemen at the Princeton University Library, 
Princeton, New Jersey. 

Books received during the quarter for review are : Jay Tay- 
lor, Reluctant Rebel: The Secret Diary of Robert Patrick, 
1861-1865 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 
1959); W. W. Abbott, The Royal Governors of Georgia, 1754- 
1775 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press 
for The Institute of Early American History and Culture at 
Williamsburg [Virginia], 1959); Clair A. Brown, Vegetation 
of the Outer Banks of North Carolina (Baton Rouge: Louis- 
iana State University Press, 1959, Louisiana State University 
Studies, Coastal Studies Series, Number Two); James W. 
Silver, editor, A Life for the Confederacy, as Recorded in the 

Historical News 427 

Pocket Diaries of Pvt. Robert A. Moore, Co. G. 17th Missis- 
sippi Regiment, Confederate Guards, Holly Springs, Missis- 
sippi (Jackson, Tennessee: McCowat-Mercer Press, 1959); 
Eugen Weber, The Nationalist Revival in France, 1905-1914 
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 
1959); Frank Cunningham, General Stand Waties Confed- 
erate Indians (San Antonio, Texas: The Naylor Company, 
1959); John Anthony Caruso, The Appalachian Frontier: 
America's First Surge Westward (Indianapolis, Indiana: The 
Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc., 1959); Nicholas B. Wain- 
wright, George Croghan: Wilderness Diplomat (Chapel Hill: 
The University of North Carolina Press for The Institute of 
Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, 1959); 
Mary U. Rothrock, editor, The Natural and Aboriginal His- 
tory of Tennessee up to the First Settlements therein by the 
White People in the Year 1768. By John Haywood, including 
Archaeological, Geological, and Historical Annotations bring- 
ing the Ancient Account into Focus with the Present Day 
Knowledge and an Introductory Sketch of the Author, John 
Haywood, Historian of the Western Country ( Jackson, Ten- 
nessee: McCowat-Mercer Press, 1959); Hugh T. Lefler, 
North Carolina: History, Geography, Government (Yonkers- 
on-Hudson, New York: World Book Company, 1959); James 
Morton Smith, Seventeenth-Century America: Essays in Co- 
lonial History (Chapel Hill: The University of North Caro- 
lina Press, 1959); Herbert J. Doherty, Jr., The Whigs of Flor- 
ida, 1845-1854 (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 
University of Florida Monographs, Social Sciences, Number 
One, Winter, 1959 ) ; and Jack Geddie, The Families Geddie 
and McPhail (Fort Worth, Texas: Henry L. Geddie Com- 
pany, 1959). 


Norm Caro/ma State Library, 



Volume XXXVI 

Number 4 

Published Quarterly By 

State Department of Archives and History 

Corner of Edenton and Salisbury Streets 

Raleigh, N. C. 


Published by the State Department of Archives and History 
Raleigh, N. C. 

Christopher Crittenden, Editor 
David Leroy Corbitt, Managing Editor 


Frontis Withers Johnston Hugh Talmage Lefler 

George Myers Stephens 



McDaniel Lewis, Chairman 

James W. Atkins Ralph Philip Hanes 

Gertrude S. Carraway Josh L. Horne 

Fletcher M. Green Daniel J. Whitener 

Christopher Crittenden, Director 

This review was established in January, 1924, as a medium of publication 
and discussion of history in North Carolina. It is issued to other institu- 
tions by exchange, but to the general public by subscription only. The 
regular price is $3.00 per year. Members of the North Carolina Literary 
and Historical Association, Inc., for which the annual dues are $5.00, 
receive this publication without further payment. Back numbers may be 
procured at the regular price of $3.00 per volume, or $.75 per number. 

COVER— The 0. Max Gardner Memorial Student Center on the 
Gardner-Webb College Campus at Boiling Springs was erected 
in memory of the North Carolina Governor (1929-1933) who was 
principal benefactor of the college. The Baptist institution opened 
as a high school in 1907, became a junior college in 1928, and has 
550 students at present. For an article on the writing of a college 
history, see pages 466-472. 

The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI October, 1959 Number 4 



FROM 1879 TO 1931 429 

Donald J. Rulps 



Vincent P. De Santis 


Francis B. Dedmond 


Charles W. Dunn 



Edited by Haskell Monroe 


Haywood's Governor William Try on, and His Administra- 
tion in the Province of North Carolina, 1765-1771 — By 
Hugh T. Lefler ; Brown's Vegetation of the Outer Banks 
of North Carolina — By F. H. Claridge; Hoffmann's 
Andrew Jackson and North Carolina Politics — By 
Henry T. Shanks; Rothrock's The Natural and Ab- 
original History of Tennessee up to the First Settle- 
ments therein by the White People in the Year 1768 
[By John Haywood] — By James W. Patton; Abbot's 
The Royal Governors of Georgia, 175U-1775 — By Sarah 
McCulloh Lemmon; Doherty's The Whigs of Florida, 

Entered as second class matter September 29, 1928, at the Post Office at 
Raleigh, North Carolina, under the act of March 3, 1879. 


1845-1854— By William S. Hoffmann; Green's The 
Confederacy: A Symphonic Outdoor Drama Based on 
the Life of General Robert E. Lee — By Mary Lynch 
Johnson; Silver's A Life for the Confederacy as Re- 
corded in the Pocket Diaries of Pvt. Robert A. Moore, 
Co. G., 17th Mississippi Regiment, Confederate Guards, 
Holly Springs, Mississippi — By Nathaniel C. Hughes, 
Jr. ; Cunningham's General Stand Watie's Confederate 
Indians — By Glenn Tucker; Trefousse's Ben Butler: 
The South Called Him Beast — By Edwin Adams Davis ; 
and Smith's Seventeenth-Century America: Essays in 
Colonial History — By William S. Powell. 



The North Carolina 
Historical Review 

Volume XXXVI October, 1959 Number 4 

By Donald J. Rulfs* 

In the late 1870's most amateur and professional enter- 
tainment in Asheville was offered in a hall on the third floor 
of the Courthouse on Pack Square. For example, the Ashe- 
ville North Carolina Citizen for July 25, 1878, announced 
that on July 26 there would be a "concerte musicale" at the 
Courthouse by the ladies and gentlemen of the Baptist 
Church, and the August 22 issue of the paper for the same 
year stated that Professor Denck, a professional pianist and 
improvisator, would give a concert at the Courthouse on 
August 22. 

The earliest reference in the press to the first opera house 
in Asheville appeared in the "Local" column of the North 
Carolina Citizen for April 17, 1879: 

We are pleased to know that the proper steps have been taken 
to have a first-class theatre in our midst. The third floor of the 
Court-House building has been leased for four years by Messrs. 
T. L. Clayton, A. B. Chase, A. Rankin, William C. Carmichael, 
J. H. Lee and N. W. Girdwood, who will at once proceed to fit 
it up in a handsome style, thorough attention being paid to all 
the requirements of both audience and performers. Work is 
already progressing in the fitting up of the rooms, and the same 
will be ready some time next month. 

Although the Opera House was not formally opened until 
June, the well known Thorne Comedy Company performed 
in the theater on April 21, 1879, with Kathleen Mavourneen 

* Dr. Donald J. Rulfs is an Associate Professor of English at North 
Carolina State College, Raleigh. 


430 The North Carolina Historical Review 

and on April 23 with Rip Van Winkle. 1 The editor of the 
Nortn Caiolina Citizen commented on April 24, 1879, as 
follows in connection with tnese productions: "It is probable 
Mr. Thome will remain in Ashevine during the summer, with 
a view ol organizing here tor the next winter, giving occa- 
sional entertainments during the summer season. On May 6 
and 7 the Thorne Company again presented two pre-openmg 
performances with Ten N ignis in a Bar Room and Rip Van 
Winkle. 2 Then the new Opera House was formally opened 
on Tuesday, June 3, 1879, with Fanchon the Cricket. before 
the pertoimance Miss Bonnie Meyers of the Thorne Com- 
pany made a dedicatory speech. 3 The reporter for the North 
Carolina Citizen oi June 5 tound the scenery, painted by the 
members of the company, to be "decidedly handsome" and 
"... together with tne handsome and well arranged stage, 
the beautitul chandelier, the substantial seats and the general 
appearance of the hail, not only reflects credit upon the man-